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Ffestiniog Railway

The Ffestiniog Railway is a 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in narrow-gauge heritage railway, located in Gwynedd, Wales. It is a major tourist attraction located within the Snowdonia National Park; the railway is 13 1⁄2 miles long and runs from the harbour at Porthmadog to the slate mining town of Blaenau Ffestiniog, travelling through forested and mountainous scenery. The line is single track throughout with four intermediate passing places; the first mile of the line out of Porthmadog runs atop an embankment called the Cob, the dyke of the Traeth Mawr polder. The Festiniog Railway Company, which owns the railway, is the oldest surviving railway company in the world, it owns the Welsh Highland Railway, re-opened in 2011. The two railways share the same track gauge and meet at Porthmadog station, with occasional trains working the entire 40-mile route from Blaenau Ffestiniog to Caernarfon; the railway company is properly known as the "Festiniog Railway Company". The single F spelling is in the official title of the company in the Act.

It is the oldest surviving railway company in the world, having been founded by the Act of Parliament on 23 May 1832 with capital raised in Dublin by Henry Archer, the company's first secretary and managing director. Most British railways were amalgamated into four large groups in 1921 and into British Railways in 1948 but the Festiniog Railway Company, like most narrow-gauge railways, remained independent. In 1921, this was due to political influence, whereas in 1947 it was left out of British Railways because it was closed for traffic, despite vigorous local lobbying for it to be included. Various important developments in the Railway's early history were celebrated by the firing of rock cannon at various points along the line. Cannon were fired, for instance, to mark the laying of the first stone at Creuau in 1833, the railway's opening in 1836, the opening of the Moelwyn Tunnel in 1842; the passing of a Act for the railway saw cannon celebrations, but on this occasion a fitter at Boston Lodge, assisting with firing, lost the fingers of one hand in an accident.

The line was constructed between 1833 and 1836 to transport slate from the quarries around the inland town of Blaenau Ffestiniog to the coastal town of Porthmadog where it was loaded onto ships. The railway was graded so that loaded wagons could be run by gravity downhill all the way from Blaenau Ffestiniog to the port; the empty wagons were hauled back up by horses. To achieve this continuous grade, the line followed natural contours and employed cuttings and embankments built of stone and slate blocks without mortar. Prior to the completion in 1842 of a long tunnel through a spur in the Moelwyn Mountain, the slate trains were worked over the top via inclines, the site of which can still be seen although there are few visible remnants. Up to six trains daily were operated in each direction and a printed timetable was published on 16 September 1856 by Charles Easton Spooner who, following his father, served as Manager and Clerk for 30 years, it shows departures from the Quarry Terminus at 7:30, 9:28, 11:16, 1:14, 3:12 and 5:10.

Trains waited ten minutes at the intermediate stations called Tunnel Halt, Hafod y Llyn and Rhiw Goch. The fastest journey time from Quarry Terminus to Boston Lodge was 1 hour 32 minutes, including three stops. From Boston Lodge, the slate wagons were hauled to and from Porthmadog harbour by horses. Up trains took nearly six hours from Boston Lodge to the Quarry Terminus and each train ran in up to four sections, each hauled by a horse and comprising eight empty slate wagons plus a horse dandy; this timetable gave a maximum annual capacity of 70,000 tons of dressed slate. Two brakesmen travelled on each down train, controlling the speed by the application of brakes as needed. At passing loops, trains passed on the right and this continues to be a feature of Ffestiniog Railway operation. There is evidence for tourist passengers being carried as early as 1850 without the blessing of the Board of Trade, but these journeys would observe the timetable. Hafod y Llyn was replaced by Tan y Bwlch around 1872.

Dinas Station and much of that branch is now all but buried under slate waste. Occasional confusion arises because places named Hafod y Llyn Isaf and Dinas exist on the Welsh Highland Railway, albeit 10 miles or more to the northwest of those on the FR; the railway employed just one police officer. Board of Trade returns for 1884 show. In more recent times the British Transport Police made friendly overtures and were politely informed that the FR had powers to swear its own constables. During the late 1850s it became clear that the line was reaching its operational capacity, while the output of the Blaenau Ffestiniog slate quarries continued to rise. In 1860, the board of the company began to investigate the possibility of introducing steam locomotives to increase the carrying capacity of the railway. Although narrow-gauge steam locomotives had been tried before this few had been built to so narrow a gauge. In 1862 the company advertised for manufacturers to tender to build the line's first locomotives.

In February 1863, the bid of George England and Co. was accepted and production of the first locomotives was begun. The first of these locomotives, Mountaineer' was delivered to Porthmado

Flag of the President of the Philippines

For other presidents' standards, see Presidential Standard. The Flag of the President of the Philippines consists of the Presidential Coat-of-Arms on a blue background. While having the same design as the Presidential Seal since 1947, the Flag has a separate history, the designs on the Flag and Seal have at different times influenced each other; the Flag is displayed beside the President in official portraits, flown next to the coffin of a deceased President in state funerals, flown on the President's motorcade. The current Flag is defined in Executive Order 310 signed by former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo: The Flag and Seal designs are similar to that of the Flag of the President of the United States. President of the Philippines Seal of the President of the Philippines Flag of the Philippines The Presidential Seal Official website of the Office of President of the Republic of the Philippines

Bacchus (train)

The Bacchus was an express train in Germany linking Dortmund and Munich. The train was named after the Roman God of wine, although for most of its existence it linked two cities famous for producing beer. In 1971 the Deutsche Bundesbahn started an inner German network of first-class only InterCity services modeled after the Trans Europ Express criteria, but more frequent than the TEE, one train per hour instead of one train a day. During the 1970s the introduction of second-class coaches in the Intercities was proposed and tested on some routes, resulting in the IC79 project; the IC79 project was implemented at 28 May 1979, but seven inner German services, including a new train, the Bacchus, stayed first-class-only and were classed as TEE to distinguish them from the two-class InterCity. The TEE Bacchus was withdrawn only one year after the introduction; as it had run only on weekdays, Bacchus earned itself a record as the shortest-lived TEE, with 254 days of service. The Bacchus was revived as two class InterCity on 2 June 1985 on the same route until 1 June 1991.

A third Bacchus ran between Stuttgart and Münster from 29 May 1994 until 23 May 1998. History of rail transport in Germany List of named passenger trains of Europe

Robert Renwick

Robert Peter Renwick is a Scottish former competitive swimmer who represented Great Britain at the Olympics and FINA world championships, as well as Scotland in the Commonwealth Games. Renwick is a Commonwealth Games gold medallist, he first rose to prominence by swimming the anchor leg in the Scottish men's 4×200-metre freestyle relay team at the 2006 Commonwealth Games as a 17-year-old. The team won silver. Renwick featured in every major Olympic or world championship for Britain from 2007 to 2016. Robert qualified for Team GB at the 2008 Beijing Olympics in two events, the 200-metre freestyle and the 4×200-metre freestyle relay, he achieved this by finishing second, behind Ross Davenport, in the 2008 Long Course British Championships. His time in the final was 1:48.29. Renwick won the gold medal in the 200 m freestyle at the 2010 Commonwealth Games in India, he touched out Kendrick Monk of Australia in a close race. His greatest success came in the 2015 World Championships in Kazan, Russia where Renwick, along with Dan Wallace, Callum Jarvis and James Guy beat the United States in the men's 4×200 m freestyle.

Renwick's 2nd leg split of 1:45.98 was the fastest of his career at the age of 27. Renwick held the British record for the 200 m freestyle in a time of 1:45.99 for six years, was a member of the 4×200 m freestyle relay team that holds the record at 7:04.43. Renwick was inducted into the Scottish Swimming Hall of Fame in 2018. List of Commonwealth Games medallists in swimming British Records

Jean Gale

Jean Gale was an American vaudeville performer and who worked in films during the 1930s. Born in San Francisco, California as Lenore Gilmartin, she had a twin sister, Joan Gale, along with another set of twin sisters, Jane Gale and June Gale, although they were not quadruplets, as has been misreported, they did appear in Vaudeville as the Gale Quadruplets, in George White's Scandals of 1931. Jean's elder sister June wed Oscar Levant in 1939, to whom she remained married until his death in 1972, by whom she had three children; the sisters began performing in "vaudeville" at an early age. This brought Jean to the attention of studios, led to a small role in the film Bottoms Up, starring Spencer Tracy; that same year she was selected as one of thirteen girls chosen to be "WAMPAS Baby Stars", the last year that "WAMPAS" made such selections. Although it appeared that Jean's acting career would take off, it never did, she only had three film roles, first is "Bottom's Up", second is a A Star Is Born, third is Girl from Avenue A, all of which were uncredited.

Her acting career was over. She settled in Los Angeles, where she was residing at the time of her death on September 26, 1974. Jean Gale on IMDb


Amaurobiidae is a family of three-clawed cribellate or ecribellate spiders found in crevices and hollows or under stones where they build retreats, are collected in pitfall traps. Unlidded burrows are sometimes quite obvious in loamy soil, they are difficult to distinguish from related spiders in other families Agelenidae and Amphinectidae. Their intra- and interfamilial relationships are contentious. According to the World Spider Catalog, 2019, the family Amaurobiidae includes about 275 species in 49 genera. In Australia, they are small to medium-sized entelegyne spiders with minimal sheet webs, they are common in Tasmania and nearby mainland Australia in cooler rainforests, some in caves. They are uncommon along the eastern coastline, they have eight similar eyes in two conservatively curved rows. They have a calamistrum on metatarsus IV associated with a cribellum. Australian amaurobiids may be distinguished from the Amphinectidae by the absence of a pretarsal fracture and the presence of a retrocoxal hymen on coxa I.

This family gained several genera resulting from DNA analysis. It lost Bakala and Manjala to Desidae, while Toxopidae took in Midgee and the monotypic genus Jamara. In return, it gained some of Australia's medium-sized brown spiders in the former family Amphinectidae, including Tasmabrochus and Teeatta). ==Genera== As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera: List of Amaurobiidae species Narrated Video of A. fenestralis Video of Amaurobiid from Ireland