Fiat 124 Sport Spider

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Fiat 124 Sport Spider
Fiat 124 Spider, 1,4 l, Bj. 1970 (2016-07-02 Sp).JPG
1970 Fiat 124 Sport Spider 1.4l
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat 1966–1982
Pininfarina 1983–1985
Also called Fiat Spider 2000 [1]
Pininfarina Spider (1983–1985)
Production 1966–1985
Assembly Turin, Italy
San Giorgio Canavese, Italy (Pininfarina)
Designer Pininfarina: Tom Tjaarda (designer), Franco Martinengo (design director), Battista Pininfarina[2]
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style 2-door cabriolet
Layout Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive
Related Fiat 124
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1,438 cc (1.4 L) I4
  • 1,592 cc (1.6 L) I4
  • 1,608 cc (1.6 L) I4
  • 1,756 cc (1.8 L) I4
  • 1,995 cc (2.0 L) I4
  • 1,995 cc (2.0 L) turbo I4
  • 1,995 cc (2.0 L) sc I4
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 89.75 in (2,280 mm)[3]
Length 156.25 in (3,969 mm)[3]
Width 63.5 in (1,613 mm)[3]
Height 49.25 in (1,251 mm)[3]
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 1500/1600 Cabriolet
Successor Fiat Barchetta

The Fiat 124 Sport Spider is a 2+2 convertible sports car marketed by Fiat for model years 1966-1980. Designed and manufactured by Italian carrozzeria Pininfarina, the monocoque, front-engine, rear drive Sport Spider debuted at the November 1966 Turin Auto Show with styling by Tom Tjaarda.

Fiat later marketed the car as the Spider 2000 (1979-1982), and Pininfarina marketed the car at the end of its production as the Pininfarina Spider Azzura (1983-1985).

The 124 Spider was marketed in Europe through model year 1975 and the U.S. through model year 1982. Sales resumed in Europe and continued in North America in 1983 when Pininfarina began marketing the 124 as the Pininfarina Europa Spider.[4]

In 2015 a successor of the Fiat 124 Spider was presented at the LA Auto Show.[5]

Development[edit]

1972 Fiat 124 Sport Spider

The Fiat 124 Sport Spider was designed by Pininfarina and styled inhouse by Tom Tjaarda.[6] The 124 Sport Spider, 124 Sport Coupé and 124 sedan share much of their running gear – and, in the case of the coupé, platforms. The Sports Spider uses a shorter platform along with a shorter wheelbase, and in contrast to the Pinifarina styled and manufactured spider, Fiat designed and manufactured the coupé in-house.

The succession of build series of the 124 were designated internally as AS, BS, BS1, CS and CSA. AS models had a torque tube transmitting power to the rear wheels; this crack-prone design was replaced by a trailing arm rear axle with the second series (BS) during 1969 — which was manufactured alongside the AS for the first six months of 1970. The early AS cars also have smaller taillights, while the BS receives a mesh grille and black-rimmed gauges inside. In July 1970 the 1.6-liter BS1 appeared; this model is recognizable by its twin humps on the bonnet and bumper overriders. The CS series Spider arrived during 1972. Also in 1972, a sports version of the Spider debuted, required for type-approval of its rally version, and was marketed as 124 CSA (C-Spider-Abarth). The vehicle has a capacity of 128 hp. In three years, Fiat manufactured less than 1000 CSA models, which were intended for sale to individual clients.

Specifications[edit]

Engines[edit]

The four-cylinder engine used in the spider and coupé is a double overhead cam, aluminum crossflow head version of the sedan's pushrod unit. It started in 1966 with a capacity of 1438 cc progressively increasing to 1608 cc in 1970 (although this was reduced to 1,592 cc in 1973), 1,756 cc in 1974 and finally 1,995 cc in 1979. The Fiat twin cam engine was designed by ex-Ferrari engineer Aurelio Lampredi.[7] Bosch fuel injection replaced the previously used Weber carburetors midway through 1980. In 1981 and 1982, Fiat USA, Inc. partnered with Legend Industries to create approximately 700 turbo models for US markets. There was also a supercharged model called "Volumex" offered toward the end of production, which was sold only in Europe, where it cost 35% more than a regular, fuel-injected Spidereuropa.[a] This family of engines remained in production into the 1990s giving it one of the longest production runs in automotive history. The double overhead cam (DOHC) version was the first mass manufactured DOHC to utilize reinforced rubber timing belts, an innovation that would come into nearly universal use in the decades after its introduction. Its family powered race cars such as the FIAT 131 Mirafiori, 124 Special T, Lancia Beta Montecarlo, Delta Integrale and many others.

Years Model Engine Capacity Bore x stroke
mm
Compr.
ratio
Power at engine speed
1967–73 124 AC 040 1,438 cc 80 x 71.5 mm 8.9:1 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) at 6,000 rpm
1973–77 132 AC 000 1,592 cc 80 x 79.2 mm 9.8:1 108 PS (79 kW; 107 hp) at 6,000 rpm
1973–75 Abarth Rally 132 AC 4.000 1,756 cc 84 x 79.2 mm 9.8:1 128 PS (94 kW; 126 hp) at 6,200 rpm
1970–73 125 BC 000 1,608 cc 80 x 80 mm 9.8:1 110 PS (81 kW; 108 hp) at 6,400 rpm
1973–77 132 AC1 000 1,756 cc 84 x 79.2 mm 9.8:1 118 PS (87 kW; 116 hp) at 6,000 rpm
1974–78 132 A1 040 1,756 cc 84 x 79.2 mm 8.9:1 118 PS (87 kW; 116 hp) at 5,800 rpm
1974–78 131 A1 040 1,756 cc 84 x 79.2 mm 8.1:1 87 PS (64 kW; 86 hp) at 6,200 rpm
1979–81 132 C2 040 1,995 cc 84 x 90 mm 8.1:1 83 PS (61 kW; 82 hp) at 5,800 rpm
1979–85 132 C3 031 1,995 cc 84 x 90 mm 8.2:1 102 PS (75 kW; 101 hp) at 5,500 rpm
1979–85 Spidereuropa 132 C3 031 1,995 cc 84 x 90 mm 8.2:1 105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp) at 5,500 rpm
1984–85 Volumex 132 V3 031 1,995 cc 84 x 90 mm 7.5:1 135 PS (99 kW; 133 hp) at 6,000 rpm

Suspension[edit]

Suspension is conventional by unequal length wishbones and coil over damper at the front and by coil sprung live rear axle at the rear which is located by a transverse link (Panhard rod) and two pairs of forward extending radius rods to react to braking and acceleration forces, and to control axle wind-up.

Models[edit]

North American model[edit]

1981 Fiat 124 Spider 2000 (US)

The coupé and spider were marketed in the US market beginning in 1968. In 1969, the Spider featured four-wheel disc-brakes, double overhead cams, hesitation wipers, steering-column mounted lighting-controls, radial ply tyres and a five-speed manual transmission. An optional three-speed automatic transmission from General Motors was available from 1979 through 1985 for North America as well as Japan. The Spider's convertible top was known for its simplicity of use — allowing a seated driver to quickly raise or lower the top.[9] When the engine was upgraded to two litres, the model was renamed the Fiat 2000 Spider. For the 1980 model year a version with a catalytic converter and Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection was introduced for California and optional in the other 49 states. For 1981 this engine, with 102 hp (76 kW), became standard fitment in North America.[9]

Fiat subsequently stopped marketing the Spider and the X1/9 — to have their marketing assumed by their respective carozzeria.[4] In Europe, the Ritmo Cabrio was also marketed by Bertone rather than Fiat themselves.[10] In the US, Fiat turned over marketing and support of the spider and the X1/9 to International Automobile Importers, Inc., headed by Malcolm Bricklin.

Fiat Abarth 124 Rally[edit]

Fiat Abarth 124 Rally
Fiat Abarth 124 Rally - Cesana-Sestriere 2014 (14666745863) (cropped).jpg
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door spider with fixed hardtop
Chronology
Successor Fiat Abarth 131 Rally

The Fiat Abarth 124 Rally is a street legal rally version of the 124 Sport Spider sold to the masses, known also as "124 Abarth Stradale", introduced in November 1972.[11][12] Its main purpose was to receive FIA homologation in the special grand touring cars (group 4) racing class, and replace the 1.6-litre Fiat Sport Spider rally cars which were presently being campaigned. At the time 124 had already won the 1972 European Rally Championship at the hands of Raffaele Pinto and Gino Macaluso.[11] The 124 Rally was added to the Sport Spider range, which included the 1600 and 1800 models; the first 500 examples produced were earmarked for the domestic Italian market.[12]

Amongst the most notable modifications over the standard spider there were independent rear suspension, engine upgrades, lightweight body panels, and a rigid hard top.

In place of the usual rear solid axle, there is independent suspension from lower wishbones, the original trailing arms, an upper strut and an anti-roll bar. At the front a radius rod on each side was added to the standard double wishbones.

The Abarth-tuned type 132 AC 4.000 1.8-litre, twin-cam engine was brought from the standard 118 to 128 PS DIN (94 kW; 126 hp)[13] by replacing the standard twin-choke carburettor with double vertical twin-choke Weber 44 IDFs, and by fitting an Abarth exhaust with a dual exit muffler.[11][12] The 9.8:1 compression ratio was left unchanged.[12]

The transmission is the all-synchronised five-speed optional on the other Sport Spider models, and brakes are discs on all four corners. Despite the 20 kg (44 lb) four-point roll bar fitted, kerb weight is 938 kg (2,068 lb), roughly 25 kg (55 lb) less than the regular 1.8-litre Sport Spider.[11]

Engine bonnet, boot lid and the fixed hard top are fibreglass, painted matt black, the rear window is perspex and the doors aluminium. Front and rear bumpers were deleted and replaced by simple rubber bumperettes. A single matte black wing mirror was fitted. Matte black wheel arch extensions house 185/70 VR 13 Pirelli CN 36 tyres on 5.5 J × 13" four-spoke alloy wheels.[11] Inside centre console, rear occasional seats, and glovebox lid were eliminated; while new features were anodised aluminium dashboard trim, a small three-spoke leather-covered Abarth steering wheel, and Recaro corduroy-and-leather bucket seats as an extra-cost option.[11] The car carries Fiat badging front and rear, Abarth badges and "Fiat Abarth" scripts on the front wings, and Abarth wheel centre caps. Only three paint colours were available: Corsa red, white, and light blue.[11]

Fiat Abarth 124 Rally, specifications and comparison[11][13]
Fiat Abarth 124 Rally Fiat 124 Sport Spider 1800
Engine 1,756 cc DOHC inline-four
Carburettors 2x twin-choke Weber 44 IDF 1x twin-choke Weber 34 DMS
Power 128 PS DIN (94 kW; 126 hp) at 6,200 rpm 118 PS DIN (87 kW; 116 hp) at 6,000 rpm
Torque 16.2 kg⋅m (159 N⋅m; 117 lb⋅ft) at 5,200 rpm 15.6 kg⋅m (153 N⋅m; 113 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm
Wheelbase 2,280 mm (89.8 in) 2,280 mm (89.8 in)
Length 3,914 mm (154.1 in) 3,971 mm (156.3 in)
Width 1,630 mm (64.2 in) 1,613 mm (63.5 in)
Track
front–rear
1,413–1,400 mm (55.6–55.1 in) 1,346–1,316 mm (53.0–51.8 in)
Kerb weight
incl. 75 kg driver[14]
938 kg (2,068 lb) 960 kg (2,116 lb)
Top speed over 190 km/h (118 mph) 185 km/h (115 mph)


Rallying[edit]

Fiat Abarth 124 Rallyes in Abarth factory in Turin, c. 1975
Fiat 124 Abarth at Sliverstone circuit 2003

In 1971 the 124 Spider was prepared for the World Rally Championship when Abarth became involved with its production and development. Abarth designer Ing. Colucci was responsible for getting the 124 Spider into group 4 rally trim. Over this period the Abarth Spider had relative success with wins at the 1972 Hessen Rally, Acropolis Rally, 1973 Polish Rally, 19th on the 1973 RAC rally and seventh to mostly the Alpine Renaults on the 1973 Monte Carlo Rally. The Spider continued to perform with first, second and third in the 1974 eighth Portuguese TAP Rally, sixth in the 1974 1000 Lakes, fourth in the 1975 Monte Carlo Rally and also with Markku Alén driving the spider to third place. By 1976 the days of 124 rallying were numbered due to the appearance of the Fiat-Abarth 131.[15]

Production[edit]

The model ended in 1985 after almost 200,000 spiders alone had been manufactured, with 75% for the US market. There were nine models of the spider, the AS, BS, BS1, CS, CSA (Abarth), CS1, CS2, CS0, and DS.

Year Model Starting chassis no. Displacement Engine type Fuel delivery Aspiration
1966 AS 000001 1438 124 AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1967 AS 1438 124 AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1968 AS 0005619 1438 124 AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1969 AS 0010554 1438 124 AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1970 BS 0021861 1438 124 AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1971 BS 22589 1438 124 AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1971 BS1 33950 1608 125BC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1972 BS1 47032 1608 125BC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1973 CS 59592 1608 125BC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1973 CS1 63308 1592 132 AC.040.3 Carbureted Naturally
1974 CS1 71650 1756 132 A1.040.4 Carbureted Naturally
1975 CS 88792 1756 132 A1.040.5 Carbureted Naturally
1975 CS 88792 1756 132 A1.031.5 US market Carbureted Naturally
1976 CS1 99909 1756 132 A1.040.5 Carbureted Naturally
1976 CS1 99909 1756 132 A1.031.5 US market Carbureted Naturally
1977 CS 113343 1756 132 A1.040.5 Carbureted Naturally
1977 CS 113343 1756 132 A1.031.5 US market Carbureted Naturally
1978 CS 126001 1756 132 A1.040.5 Carbureted Naturally
1978 CS 126001 1756 132 A1.031.5 US market Carbureted Naturally
1979 CS2 142514 1995 132 CS2.040 Carbureted Naturally
1979 CS2 142514 1995 132 CS2.031 US market Carbureted Naturally
1980 CS0 00171001 1995 132 C3.031 Fuel Injected Naturally
1980 CS0 1938507 1995 132 C3.031 Carbureted Naturally
1980 CS2 0157654 1995 132 C3.040 Carbureted Naturally
1981 CS0 171001 1995 132 C3.031 Fuel injected Naturally
1981 CS2 164089 1995 132 C3.040 Fuel injected Turbocharged option
1982 CS2 1938507 1995 132 C3.040 Fuel injected Turbocharged option
6/1982 DS0 1967897 1995 132 C3.040 Fuel injected Naturally
1983 DS0 5500001 1995 132 C3.040 Fuel injected Naturally
1984 DS0 5503666 1995 132 C3.040 Fuel injected Naturally
1985 DS0 5506060 1995 132 C3.040 Carbureted Supercharged (Volumex)
Production by year, 1970–1985[16]
Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1970–85
Units made 14,288 13,412 12,362 12,738 15,754 14,143 11,862 14,012 16,105 18,943 14,435 4,747 3,456 2,480 2,577 1,504 172,818

2016[edit]

The 124 name was revived in 2016 through a joint venture with Mazda, using the new Mazda MX-5 platform. After considering possibly marketing the result as an Alfa Romeo Spider, the car was brought to the market as a Fiat. It was unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show in November 2015 and made available in late 2016.[17] The engine is a turbocharged 1.4 MultiAir with 160 HP (119 kW) from the Alfa Romeo range.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fiat Spider 2000 brochure, www.fiat500usa.com Retrieved 23 April 2018
  2. ^ Tom, Tjaarda. "Fiat 124 Spyder Design Story". spidersweb.nl. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Bensted-Smith, Richard (5 November 1966). "Sport-out of Fiat 124: The 124 spider; larger engine: twin overhead camshafts; Pininfarina 2+2 body". The Motor: 25–27.
  4. ^ a b The Concise 1966-78 FIAT 124 Spider, 1979-82 FIAT 2000 Spider & 1983-85 Pininfarina Spider History
  5. ^ "Fiat 124 Spider revealed at 2015 LA Motor Show". Auto Express. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  6. ^ Thorson, Thor (May 2016). "1975 Fiat-Abarth 124 Sport Rally Group 4 Spider". Sports Car Market. 28 (5): 70–71.
  7. ^ Fiat Twin Cam engine
  8. ^ World Cars 1984. Pelham, NY: L'Editrice dell'Automobile LEA/Herald Books. 1984. p. 222. ISBN 0-910714-16-9.
  9. ^ a b Hogg, Tony (ed.). "1981 Buyer's Guide". Road & Track's Road Test Annual & Buyer's Guide 1981 (January–February 1981): 96.
  10. ^ World Cars 1984, p. 199
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Fiat Abarth 124 Rally—La 124 R con la sospensione alla Chapman" [The 124 R with the Chapman-style suspension]. Autosprint (in Italian). XII (47): 36–37. 20 November 1972.
  12. ^ a b c d "La "124 Rally", nuova sportiva". La Stampa (in Italian). 19 November 1972. p. 11. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  13. ^ a b Fiat Abarth 124 Rally—Uso e caratteristiche (owner's manual) (in Italian). Fiat.
  14. ^ FIAT Factory Homologation Certificate
  15. ^ Giacosa, John Tipler ; foreword by Dante (1993). Fiat & Abarth 124 Spider & coupé. Godmanstone, England: Veloce Pub. Plc. ISBN 1-874105-09-X.
  16. ^ "Produzione complessiva" (PDF). pininfarina.it ((Pininfarina production records)). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
  17. ^ Horncastle, Rowan. "Meet Fiat's 124 Spider, Italy's MX-5-based answer to the MX-5". Top Gear. BBC Worldwide. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  1. ^ 22,000,000 versus 16,300,000 liras in 1984[8]

External links[edit]