Fiat Professional is the brand name and subsidiary for FCA Italys light commercial vehicles and their passenger variants. It was launched on 17 April 2007 and replaced the Fiat Veicoli Commerciali division, Fiat Professional is only present in the EMEA and Asia-Pacific regions, the Fiat Automobiles brand is used in the Latin America region. Since 2013, certain Fiat Professional models are reengineered and marketed by Chrysler for the NAFTA region under the Ram Trucks brand, Fiat Panda Van The Fiat Panda Van is a panel van version of Fiats city car. Fiat Punto Van The Fiat Punto Van is a van version of Fiats supermini. Fiat Fiorino Fiorino is the name that Italian car maker Fiat gives to the van derivatives of its superminis. The Fiorino has the largest cargo capacity of its class and its MPV version is sold as Fiat Qubo, under the Fiat brand. It was first unveiled at the Paris Motor Show in 2000, opel launched a rebadged version, named the Combo. In North America, this model is called the Ram ProMaster City since its launch in the area, Fiat Scudo The Fiat Scudo is an intermediate sized van produced at the joint venture Sevel Nord factory, now in its second generation, it was first introduced in 1994.
It is known to be a rebadged Citroën Jumpy, Fiat Ducato The Fiat Ducato is a large van produced at the joint venture Sevel factories in Italy and Brazil, and since 2008 under licence in Elabuga by Russian automobile company Sollers JSC. Since 2013, the Ducato has been produced by FCA US as the Ram ProMaster, Fiat Strada The Fiat Strada is a supermini coupé utility, based on Fiats world car project, the Palio. It is produced in Betim, Minas Gerais and exported to the European Union, in 2015, Ram Trucks launched a rebadged version exclusively for the Mexican market, named the Ram 700. Fiat Fullback The Fiat Fullback is a pickup, which is a rebadged version of Mitsubishi Tritons fifth generation. It is produced in Thailand through joint venture of FCA and Mitsubishi Motors since 2016 and exported to Europe, Ram Trucks, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles light commercial vehicle brand in North America. Fiat Professional official website Fiat Professional official UK website Fiat Auto Press article
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of sizes designed to float, work or travel on water. Small boats are found on inland waterways or in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed for operation from a ship in an offshore environment, in naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard another vessel. Another less restrictive definition is a vessel that can be lifted out of the water, some definitions do not make a distinction in size, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet long on the Great Lakes are called oreboats. For reasons of tradition, submarines are usually referred to as boats rather than ships, regardless of their size. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on their size, shape. Boats have a variety of shapes and construction methods due to their intended purpose. Canoe-type boats have used since prehistoric times and various versions are used throughout the world for transportation. Fishing boats vary widely in style partly to local conditions.
Pleasure boats include ski boats, pontoon boats, and sailboats, house boats may be used for vacationing or long-term housing. Small boats can provide transport or convey cargo to and from large ships, lifeboats have rescue and safety functions. Boats can be powered by power, wind power and motor power. Dugouts are the oldest type of boats found by archaeologists, the earliest boats are thought to have been logboats, and the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7, 000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world is the Pesse canoe and this canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands. Other very old dugout boats have been recovered, rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. A7, 000-year-old seagoing reed boat has been found in Kuwait, boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in Sumer, ancient Egypt and in the Indian Ocean. Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia, evidence of varying models of boats has been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites.
Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut and this type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed using teak, without any iron, and had a transport capacity of 400 tonnes
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
A barchetta was originally an Italian style of open two-seater sports car which was built for racing. Weight and wind resistance were kept to a minimum, and any equipment or decoration were sacrificed in order to maximize performance. Although most barchettas were made from the late 1940s through the 1950s, typically handmade in aluminium on a tubular frame, the classic barchetta body is devoid of bumpers and any weather equipment such as a canvas top or sidescreens, and has no provision for luggage. Some barchettas have no windscreen, others, a shallow racing-type screen or aero screen, Classic barchettas either have no doors, in which case entry and exit entails stepping over the side of the car, or very small doors without exterior handles. The name has been associated with the model ever since, the MM in the car’s designation stands for Mille Miglia, the race it won in 1948 and 1949. In 1949 the 166MM barchetta won the 24 Hours of Le Mans and the Targa Florio and it won the 1949 Spa 24 Hours.
The car’s unadorned, lightweight aluminium body was designed by Carrozzeria Touring’s head of design, motor Trend Classic rated the 166MM barchetta sixth out of the ten greatest Ferraris of all time. The OSCA MT4, a 1452 cc,130 bhp barchetta made by the Maserati brothers, was for eight years the most successful under-1,500 cc sports racing car in the world. Other, even more diminutive OSCA, barchettas were powered by engines of 750 cc and 850 cc. Giovanni Moretti, another designer and manufacturer, ferrari revived the name in 2001 for their 550 Pininfarina Barchetta, which marked Pininfarina’s 70th anniversary. The car was first shown at the 2001 Salon de lAutomobile and 448 examples were built and it is n many ways. the legitimate successor to such legendary open Ferraris as the 166MM. Designed as a roadster for use on roads and not as a full-bred racing car, the 550 Barchetta has a rudimentary convertible top whose mechanism is said to require strength, skill. The top is intended only for use in a sudden downpour.
The top doesnt look as if it would survive the sacrilege of an automatic carwash, the list price of the 550 Barchetta was $245,000. The 1995-97 Renault Spider, although mid-engined, was designed very much in the barchetta style, Renault sponsored a one-make race series for it. Despite its name, the 1995-2005 Fiat Barchetta was not a car in the barchetta style or tradition. Red Barchetta is a song by rock band Rush from their album Moving Pictures
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
The Fiat Punto is a supermini car produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat since 1993, spanning over three generations. The third generation of the car was marketed as the Grande Punto, as of February 2012, nearly 8.5 million units had been produced. Internally codenamed Project 176, the Punto was announced in September 1993 as a replacement for the aging Fiat Uno, the Fiat Punto was voted European Car of the Year for 1995, defeating rival Volkswagen Polo by only 78 points. The Punto was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and was available as a three-door or five-door hatchback, as the majority of the new Fiat group models, suspension was all-independent, composed of MacPherson struts at the front and trailing arms at the rear. Entry-level in the Punto range were the 1.1 and 1.2 L petrol engines, the 1.2 engines actual capacity is 1242 cc, available in three versions. The first, was fitted in the Punto ELX75 and produced 75 hp at 6000 rpm while the second, the third was a 60 hp engine which eventually replaced the 1.154 hp engine.
A Sporting model was available with an 1.6 8v updated 128 SOHC engine, producing 88 hp, replaced in 1997 by the 1.2 16v FIRE engine used in the 85 ELX. During the years the GT was made in three different series with power 136 PS,133 PS and 130 PS. A cabriolet version was available, built by Bertone, it featured an electric powered fully retracting roof and was one of the cheapest open-top cars in the world at the time. In Europe, it was made with a manual roof. Available in both ELX and SX trim, initially powered by the 90 hp 1.6 Mpi unit, approximately 55,000 cars were built between 1994 and 1999, although the last cars were registered in 2000. The second generation Punto, codenamed Project 188, was launched in September 1999 at the Frankfurt Motor Show, the styling was all-new while retaining the original Puntos distinctive shape and design, while the chassis and interior were completely overhauled, with a new torsion beam rear suspension. The new Punto became the first Fiat in decades to carry the original round Fiat badge, to celebrate Fiats centenary.
At the launch event of the hatchback, the Fiat Wish concept car was presented, the model was conceived by Pininfarina to celebrate the centenary of Fiat. The 1. 2-L16 valve Sporting model with a manual. The 1. 2-L 16V model has a Speedgear CVT-equipped variant, the 1. 8-L HGT accelerates from 0-60 in 8.0 seconds. It was considered a big improvement in handling over the Punto GT, the HGT was available as an HGT Abarth which added deeper bumpers, rear spoiler, side skirts, new alloy wheels and interior trim. The HGT Abarth had no technical improvements over the regular HGT, the second generation Punto has adopted the Dualdrive electric power steering and came with two operation modes, using an electric motor, rather than a hydraulic pump driven by the engine
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
They are regular figures in traditional accounts of the nativity celebrations of Christmas and are an important part of Christian tradition. According to Matthew, the one of the four Canonical gospels to mention the Magi. Although the account does not mention the number of Magi, the three gifts has led to the assumption that there were three men. In Eastern Christianity, especially the Syriac churches, the Magi often number twelve and their identification as kings in Christian writings is probably linked to Psalms 72,11, May all kings fall down before him. For we observed his star at its rising, and have come to pay him homage. When King Herod heard this, he was frightened and all Jerusalem with him, Herod secretly called for the wise men and learned from them the exact time when the star had appeared. Then he sent them to Bethlehem, saying, Go and search diligently for the child, and when you have found him, bring me word so that I may go and pay him homage. When they had heard the king, they set out, and there, ahead of them, went the star that they had seen at its rising, when they saw that the star had stopped, they were overwhelmed with joy.
On entering the house, they saw the child with Mary his mother, opening their treasure chests, they offered him gifts of gold and myrrh. And having been warned in a not to return to Herod. This maximum interval explained Herods command at Matthew 2, 16–18 that the Massacre of the Innocents included boys up to two years old, more recent commentators, not tied to the traditional feast days, may suggest a variety of intervals. The wise men are mentioned twice shortly thereafter in verse 16, in reference to their avoidance of Herod after seeing Jesus, the star which they followed has traditionally become known as the Star of Bethlehem. The Magi are popularly referred to as wise men and kings, the word magi is the plural of Latin magus, borrowed from Greek μάγος magos, as used in the original Greek text of the Gospel of Matthew. Greek magos itself is derived from Old Persian maguŝ from the Avestan magâunô, the term refers to the Persian priestly caste of Zoroastrianism. As part of their religion, these priests paid particular attention to the stars and gained a reputation for astrology.
The King James Version translates the term as wise men, the translation is applied to the wise men led by Daniel of earlier Hebrew Scriptures. The same word is given as sorcerer and sorcery when describing Elymas the sorcerer in Acts 13, 6–11, although the Magi are commonly referred to as kings, there is nothing in the account from the Gospel of Matthew that implies that they were rulers of any kind. Early readers reinterpreted Matthew in light of these prophecies and elevated the Magi to kings, by AD500 all commentators adopted the prevalent tradition that the three were kings
The Fiat Panda is a city car from the Italian automobile manufacturer Fiat, now in its third generation. The first generation Fiat Panda was introduced in 1980, and was produced until 1986, from 1986 until 2003, it was produced with only a few changes. The second generation, launched in 2003, was the European Car of the Year in 2004, the third generation debuted at Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2011 and assembled in Italy at Pomigliano dArco. In over 31 years Fiat has sold over 6.5 million Pandas globally, introduced in 1980, the Panda was designed as a cheap, easy to use and maintain, no-frills utility vehicle, positioned in Fiats range between the 126 and 127. It can be seen as an approach to the same niche which the Citroën 2CV. The first Panda was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro of Italdesign, ho cercato di portare in questa auto lo spìrito delle costruzioni militari, in particolare degli elicotteri, ossia di mezzi leggeri, nati per assolvere nel modo migliore a certi scopi». The Panda is like a pair of jeans, that simple, practical, I tried to bring into this car the spirit of military machinery, especially helicopters, that means light, built-for-purpose vehicles.
The car was introduced to the press in December 1979, it went on sale in Italy in late February, however, it was not launched onto the right-hand drive UK market until May 1981. Mechanically the first Pandas borrowed heavily from the Fiat parts bin and transmissions came from the Fiat 127 and, in certain territories, the air-cooled 652 cc two-cylinder powerplant from the Fiat 126. The plan for a simple car was evident in the rear suspension. Later versions of the car added various improvements but this spirit of robust simplicity was adhered to throughout the life of the model. Many design features reflect the Pandas utilitarian practicality, much like its earlier French counterparts the Panda could be specified with a two piece roll forward canvas roof. As a consequence of the different drivetrain layout the 45 had the radiator grille to the right side, in September 1982 Fiat added another engine to the line-up, the Panda 34 used an 843 cc water-cooled unit, derived from that in the 850. It was originally reserved for export to France, Germany, Fiat launched the Panda 45 Super at the Paris Motor Show in 1982, with previous specification models continuing as the Comfort trim.
The Super offered numerous improvements, most significant being the availability of a five-speed gearbox as well as improved trim, there were minor styling changes to the Super including the introduction of Fiats new black plastic corporate grille with five diagonal silver bars. The earlier grille design continued on the Comfort models until the major revision of the line-up. A30 Super was added to the range in February 1983, the Panda 4x4 was launched in June 1983, it was powered by a 965 cc engine with 48 bhp derived from that in the Autobianchi A112. Known simply as the Panda 4x4, this model was the first small, the system itself was manually selectable, with an ultra-low first gear
Left- and right-hand traffic
This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road. About two-thirds of the population use RHT, with the remaining 76 countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the worlds area, in the early 1900s some countries including Canada and Brazil had different rules in different parts of the country. During the 1900s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, in 1919,104 of the worlds territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986,34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT, many of the countries with LHT are former British colonies in the Caribbean, Southern Africa, Southeast Asia and New Zealand. Japan, Nepal, Mozambique, East Timor, in Europe, only four countries still drive on the left, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Cyprus, all of which are islands. Nearly all countries use one side or the other throughout their entire territory, most exceptions are due to historical considerations and involve islands with no road connection to the main part of a country.
China is RHT except the Special Administrative Regions of China of Hong Kong, the United States is RHT except the United States Virgin Islands. The United Kingdom is LHT, but its overseas territories of Gibraltar, according to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, water traffic is RHT. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations provide for passing on the right, light rail vehicles generally operate on the same side as other road traffic in the country. Many countries use RHT for automobiles but LHT for trains, often because of the influence of the British on early railway systems, in some countries rail traffic remained LHT after automobile traffic switched to RHT, for example in China and Argentina. However, France and Switzerland have used RHT for automobiles since their introduction, there is no technical reason to prefer one side over the other. Ancient Greek and Roman troops kept to the left when marching, in 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved double track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon.
The first reference in English law to an order for LHT was in 1756, northcote Parkinson, believed that ancient travellers on horseback or on foot generally kept to the left, since most people were right handed. If two men riding on horseback were to start a fight, each would edge toward the left, in the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII directed pilgrims to keep left. In the late 1700s, traffic in the United States was RHT based on use of large freight wagons pulled by several pairs of horses. The wagons had no seat, so a postilion sat on the left rear horse. Seated on the left, the driver preferred that other wagons pass him on the left so that he could be sure to keep clear of the wheels of oncoming wagons, in France, traditionally foot traffic had kept right, while carriage traffic kept left
Jeremy Charles Robert Clarkson is an English broadcaster and writer who specialises in motoring. He is best known for co-presenting the BBC TV show Top Gear with Richard Hammond and he writes weekly columns for The Sunday Times and The Sun. From a career as a local journalist in northern England, Clarkson rose to prominence as a presenter of the original format of Top Gear in 1988. Since the mid-1990s, he has become a public personality, regularly appearing on British television presenting his own shows. As well as motoring, Clarkson has produced programmes and books on such as history. From 1998 to 2000, he hosted his own chat show. His opinionated but humorous tongue-in-cheek writing and presenting style has often provoked public reaction and his actions both privately and as a Top Gear presenter have sometimes resulted in criticism from the media, pressure groups and the public. He has a significant public following, being credited as a factor in the resurgence of Top Gear as one of the most popular shows on the BBC.
On 25 March 2015, the BBC announced it would not renew Clarksons contract after he verbally and physically attacked a Top Gear producer over a dispute at a hotel while filming on location. In mid-2015 Clarkson, Hammond and producer Andy Wilman formed production company W. Chump & Sons to produce The Grand Tour for Amazon Video. Clarkson was born in Doncaster, the son of Shirley Gabrielle Clarkson, a teacher, and Edward Grenville Clarkson, according to his own account, he was expelled from Repton School for drinking and generally making a nuisance of himself. Clarkson attended Repton alongside Formula One engineer Adrian Newey and Top Gear Executive Producer, Clarkson played the role of a public schoolboy, Atkinson, in a BBC radio Childrens Hour serial adaptation of Anthony Buckeridges Jennings novels until his voice broke. Clarkson married Alexandra James in 1989, but she left him for one of his friends after six months, in May 1993 he married his manager, Frances Cain, daughter of VC recipient Robert Henry Cain, in Fulham.
The couple lived in Chipping Norton, in the Cotswolds, with their three children, Clarkson has been described as a member of the Chipping Norton set. Known for buying him car-related gifts, for Christmas 2007 Clarksons second wife bought him a Mercedes-Benz 600 and she was reported to have filed divorce proceedings in April 2014. In September 2010 Clarkson was granted an injunction against his first wife to prevent her from publishing claims that their sexual relationship continued after his second marriage. He voluntarily lifted the injunction in October 2011, commenting that, Clarkson is a fan of the rock band Genesis and attended the bands reunion concert at Twickenham Stadium in 2007. He provided notes for the reissue of the album Selling England by the Pound as part of the Genesis 1970–1975 box set