Turin Auto Show
The Turin Motor Show was an auto show held annually in Turin, Italy. The first official show took place between 21 and 24 April 1900, at the Castle of Valentino, becoming a permanent fixture in Turin from 1938 having shared it with Milan and Rome until that time. From 1972, the show was held biannually and in 1984, it moved into Fiat's shuttered Lingotto factory; the event was last held in Turin in June 2000, cancelled from 2002, resulting in the Bologna Motor Show taking over the role of Italy's International Motor Show. Since 2015, Turin again now holds a Motor Show, albeit as an open air festival to keep exhibitors' costs down and provide free access to the public, it is held in the precinct of the Parco del Valentino. Adami Rondini Motoruota Garavaglia Aquila Italiana Cappa SPA 28/40HP Lancia Alfa-12HP Fiat Zero Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8 Fiat 501 OM 665 "Superba" Fiat 519 Itala 56 Chiribiri Monza Lancia Lambda Itala 61 Alfa Romeo 6C Fiat 509 Grand Prix racing car prototype designed by Porsche Ferrari 166 MM Lancia Ardea Maserati A6 cabriolet Fiat 500 Giardinetta Belvedere Porsche-Cisitalia racing cars Lancia Aurelia Alfa Romeo 1900 Fiat 1400 Panhard Dyna X86 Berlinetta Abarth 1500 Biposto Coupé Siata 208 CS Alfa Romeo BAT 5 concept Lancia Appia The 1954 36th Salone dell'Automobile was inaugurated by Italian President Luigi Einaudi on 21 April and closed on 2 May.
The exhibitors were 450 from 11 countries, including 66 car manufacturers and 22 coachbuilders. Alfa Romeo 1900 Super Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Fiat 1100 Familiare Fiat 1400 A Fiat 1900 A Lancia Aurelia series II Alfa Romeo BAT 7 by Bertone Fiat Turbina Fibreglass-bodied Fiat 8V At least 30 vehicle models from different manufacturers designed by Michelotti Abarth 750 Zagato Alfa Romeo BAT 9 concept Alfa Romeo Giulietta Lancia Florida I Italian President Giovanni Gronchi, escorted by a troop of Corazzieri, inaugurated the 38th Salone Internazionale dell'Automobile on 21 April 1956; the motor show closed on 2 May. The exhibitors were 450 from 13 countries, including 64 car manufacturers, 35 truck and bus manufacturers, 18 coachbuilders. Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Veloce Fiat 1400 B Fiat 1900 B Fiat 600 Taxi Lancia Flaminia Berlina Alfa Romeo 2000 Sportiva Alfa Romeo Superflow by Pininfarina Lancia Appia Cammello Alfa Romeo 2000 Berlina Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale by Bertone Alfa Romeo Mille Fiat 1200 Granluce Abarth 750 Zagato Spyder Lancia Appia Convertibile Lancia Florida II by Pininfarina Ferrari 4.9-Litre Superfast by Pininfarina Abarth 750 GT Bialbero Lancia Appia GTE Lancia Appia Lusso The 1959 41st Salone dell'Automobile was inaugurated by President of the Italian Republic Giovanni Gronchi on 31 October and closed on 11 November.
There were 490 exhibitors including 65 car manufacturers. Abarth 700S Fiat Abarth 2200 Coupé and Spider Allemano Chrysler Valiant Lancia Appia Giardinetta Viotti Maserati 5000 GT "Shah of Persia" BMW 3200 Michelotti Vignale Ghia Selene Pininfarina X concept Lancia Flavia Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ 1 Iso Rivolta IR 300 The 1963 45th Salone dell'Automobile was inaugurated by Italian President Antonio Segni on 30 October and closed on 10 November; the exhibitors were 524 from 13 countries, including 21 coachbuilders. Autobianchi Stellina Iso Grifo Lancia Superjolly Maserati Quattroporte Simca-Abarth 1150 Ghia-Fiat G230S Due Posti Daihatsu Sport Vignale De Tomaso Vallelunga Fiat 2300 S Lausanne Lamborghini 350GTV Lancia Flaminia Coupé Speciale OSI 1200 S Spider Fiat Moretti Sportiva Fiat 124 Spider Fiat 500 Ferves Ranger Ferrari Dino concept Lamborghini Flying Star II concept Maserati Ghibli prototype The 49th Salone dell'Automobile was held between 1 and 12 November 1967, it saw the presence of 580 exhibitors from 15 countries, including 70 car manufacturers and 13 coachbuilders.
Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale Lamborghini Marzal concept Fiat Dino Coupé The 50th Salone dell'Automobile was held between 30 October and 10 November 1968. Lancia Fulvia Berlina GTE, Coupé 1.3 S, Sport 1.3 S and Coupé 1.6 HF Fiat 124 Special and 125 Special Lamborghini Miura S Autobianchi coupé prototype Alfa Romeo P33 Roadster Pininfarina Bandini Saloncino Bizzarrini Manta Ferrari P6 Berlinetta Speciale Pininfarina Fiat 850 City Taxi LMX Sirex Maserati Simun by Ghia Maserati Indy prototype by Vignale The 51st Salone dell'Automobile was held between 29 October and 9 November 1969. Autobianchi A112 Alfa Romeo Spider series II Alfa Romeo Junior Z Fiat 124 Sport Coupé and Sport Spider 1600 Fiat 128 Familiare Fiat Dino 2400 Coupé and Spider Lancia Fulvia Berlina series II Alfa Romeo Iguana by Italdesign Autobianchi Runabout by Bertone Caprera LEM Ferrari 512 S Speciale by Pininfarina Fiat 128 Coupé by Bertone Fiat 128 coupé and roadster by Moretti Fiat 128 Teenager by Pininfarina Fissore Mongo Ikenga MK III McLaren Lancia Marica by Ghia Volvo GTZ by Zagato The 52nd Salone dell'Automobile was held between 28 October and 8 November 1970.
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, are pneumatically inflated structures, which provide a flexible cushion that absorbs shock as the tire rolls over rough features on the surface. Tires provide a footprint, designed to match the weight of the vehicle with the bearing strength of the surface that it rolls over by providing a bearing pressure that will not deform the surface excessively; the materials of modern pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black and other chemical compounds. They consist of a body; the tread provides traction. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Early rubber tires were solid. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, aircraft.
Metal tires are still used on locomotives and railcars, solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, carts and wheelbarrows. The word tire is a short form of attire, from the idea; the spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron. Traditional publishers continued using tire; the Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905. The spelling tyre began to be used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK; the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica states that "he spelling'tyre' is not now accepted by the best English authorities, is unrecognized in the US", while Fowler's Modern English Usage of 1926 says that "there is nothing to be said for'tyre', etymologically wrong, as well as needlessly divergent from our own older & the present American usage". However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling.
The earliest tires were bands of leather iron placed on wooden wheels used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a forge fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract and fit on the wheel. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work; the first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson. However, this never went into production; the first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop, owner of one of Ireland's most prosperous veterinary practices. It was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements, his doctor, John Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, was a regular visitor. Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. Cyclist Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tires in 1889, winning the tire's first-ever races in Ireland and England.
In Dunlop's tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles and light vehicles. In September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself. In 1892, Dunlop's patent was declared invalid because of prior art by forgotten fellow Scot Robert William Thomson of London, although Dunlop is credited with "realizing rubber could withstand the wear and tear of being a tire while retaining its resilience". John Boyd Dunlop and Harvey du Cros together worked through the ensuing considerable difficulties, they employed inventor Charles Kingston Welch and acquired other rights and patents which allowed them some limited protection of their Pneumatic Tyre business's position. Pneumatic Tyre would become Dunlop Tyres; the development of this technology hinged on myriad engineering advances, including the vulcanization of natural rubber using sulfur, as well as by the development of the "clincher" rim for holding the tire in place laterally on the wheel rim.
Synthetic rubbers were invented in the laboratories of Bayer in the 1920s. In 1946, Michelin developed the radial tire method of construction. Michelin had bought the bankrupt Citroën automobile company in 1934, so it was able to fit this new technology immediately; because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy, use of this technology spread throughout Europe and Asia. In the U. S. the outdated bias-ply tire construction persisted, with market share of 87% as late as 1967. Delay was caused by tire and automobile manufacturers in America "concerned about transition costs." In 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of radial construction, setting off a rapid decline in Michelin's competitor technology. In the U. S. the radial tire now has a market share of 100% in automobiles. Today, over 1 billion tires are produced annually in over 400 tire factories. There are 2 aspects to. First, tension in the cords pull on the bead uniformly around the wheel, except where it is reduced above the contact patch.
Second, the bead transfers that net force to the rim. Air pressure, via the ply cords, exerts tensile force on the entire bead surrounding th
Dino was a marque for mid-engined, rear-drive sports cars produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1976. Used for models with engines with fewer than 12 cylinders, it was an attempt by the company to offer a low-cost sports car; the Ferrari name remained reserved for its premium V-12 and flat 12 models until 1976, when "Dino" was retired in favour of full Ferrari branding. Named to honour Ferrari founder Enzo Ferrari's son and heir Dino Ferrari, the Dino models used Ferrari racing naming designation of displacement and cylinder count with two digits for the size of the engine in deciliters and the third digit to represent the number of cylinders, i.e. 246 being a 2.4-litre 6-cylinder and 308 being a 3.0-litre 8-cylinder. Ferrari street models of the time used a three-digit representation of the displacement in cubic centimeters of one of the 12 cylinders, which would have been meaningless in a brand with differing numbers of cylinders; the "Dino" marque was created to market a lower priced, "affordable" sports car capable of taking on the Porsche 911.
Ferrari's expensive V12s well exceeded the 911 in both price. Enzo Ferrari did not want to diminish his exclusive brand with a cheaper car, so the "Dino" was created; the name "Dino" honors the founder's late son, Alfredo "Dino" Ferrari, credited with designing the V6 engine used in the car. Along with engineer Vittorio Jano, Dino persuaded his father to produce a line of racing cars in the 1950s with V6 and V8 engines. Ferrari wished to race in the new Formula Two category in 1967 with the Dino V6 engine. However, the company could not meet the homologation rules, which called for 500 production vehicles using the engine to be produced. Enzo Ferrari therefore asked Fiat to co-produce a sports car using the V6, the front-engined, rear-drive Fiat Dino was born, it used a 1,987 cc version of the Dino V6. Although a mid-engine layout was common in the world of sports car racing at the time, adapting it to a production car was quite daring; such a design placed more of the car's weight over the driven wheels, allowed for a streamlined nose, but led to a cramped passenger compartment and more challenging handling.
Lamborghini created a stir in 1966 with its mid-engined Miura, but Enzo Ferrari felt a mid-engine Ferrari would be unsafe in the hands of his customers. He relented, allowed designer Sergio Pininfarina to build a mid-engined concept car for the 1965 Paris Motor Show under the Dino badge alone; the 206S, shown at Turin in 1966, bore an closer resemblance to the production version. Response to the radically styled car was positive, so Ferrari allowed it to go into production, rationalizing the lower power of the V6 engine would result in a more manageable car; the first road-going Dino as well as the first Ferrari-built road car was the 1968 Dino 206 GT, designed by Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina. The 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 L all-aluminium 65-degree V6 engine, with 180 PS at 8,000 rpm, the same used in the Fiat Dino. The 206 GT frame featured an aluminium body, full independent suspension, all round disc brakes. 152 were built in total in left hand drive only. In 1969 the 206 GT was superseded by the more powerful Dino 246 GT.
The 246 GT was powered by an enlarged 2418 cc V6 engine, producing with 195 PS at 7,600 rpm in European specification. Available as a fixed-top GT coupé, a targa topped GTS was offered after 1971. Other notable changes from the 206 were the body, now made of steel instead of aluminium, a 60 mm longer wheelbase than the 206. Three series of the Dino 246 GT were built, with differences in wheels, windshield wiper coverage, engine ventilation. Dino 246 production numbered 2,295 GTs and 1,274 GTSs, for a total production run of 3,569; the 308 GT4 was produced from 1973 to April 1980. Branded "Dino", the 308 GT4 was Ferrari's first V-8 production automobile; the 308 was a 2+2 with a wheelbase of 100.4 inches. The 308 was designed by Bertone; the 308 GT4 V-8 had a 90-degree, dual-overhead-camshaft, 2927 cc motor with 4 Weber carburetors which produced 250 hp. The V-8 block and heads were made of an aluminum alloy; the compression ratio was 8.8:1. The American version had an air-pump; the GT4 weighed 2535 pounds.
The 308 GT4 wore the Dino badge until May 1976, when it got the Ferrari "Prancing Horse" badge on the hood and the steering wheel. Buckley, Martin. World Encyclopedia of Cars. London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 1-84038-083-7. Gabriel, Jean-Pierre. Les Ferrari de Turin. Nîmes: Editions du Palmier. ISBN 2-914920-25-3. Dino Register Club Dino Italia Ferrari, Lancia Stratos Dino UK Ferrari, Lancia Stratos
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Internal combustion piston engines are arranged so that the cylinders are in lines parallel to the crankshaft. Where they are in a single line, this is referred to as an straight engine. Where engines have a large number of cylinders, the cylinders are arranged in two lines, placed at an angle to each other as a V engine; each line is referred to as a cylinder bank. The angle between cylinder banks is described as the bank angle. Engines with six cylinders are common as either straight or vee engines. With more cylinders than this, the vee configuration is more common. Fewer cylinders are more arranged as an inline engine. There are exceptions to this: straight-8 engines were found on some pre-war luxury cars with the bonnet length to house them. A few V4 engines have been produced where an extra-compact engine was required, including some outboard motors with a vertical crankshaft. Although twin-cylinder engines are now rare for cars, they are still used for motorcycles and the vee-twin and inline twin are both used.
An obvious advantage to a multi-bank engine is. This allows a torsionally stiffer construction for both the crankcase; the most important advantage though is less obvious: a multi-plane engine can be arranged to have better balance and less vibration. This depends on the layout of the crankshaft more than the cylinder banks alone: the planes on which the pistons are arranged, thus their timing and vibration, depend on both the cylinder bank and the crankshaft angles; the W or broad arrow arrangement uses three cylinder banks a W-12 with three banks of four cylinders. Narrow-angle vee engines, such as the Lancia V4 and the Volkswagen VR6, have such a narrow bank angle that their cylinders are combined into a single cylinder block; these are still described as vee engines, although they may be described as having either two or one cylinder bank. In a radial engine, cylinders are arranged radially in a circle. Simple radials use one row of cylinders. Larger radials use two rows, or four. Most radials are air-cooled with separate cylinders and so there are no banks as such.
Most radials have odd numbers of cylinders in each row and stagger these between successive rows, for better cooling. A few rare radial engines, such as the Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound and the Zvezda M503 have arranged their multiple rows so as to align their cylinders into banks
Dino 206 GT and 246 GT
The Dino 206 GT, 246 GT and 246 GTS are V6 mid-engined sports cars produced by Ferrari and sold under the Dino marque between 1967 and 1974. The Dino 246 was the first automobile manufactured by Ferrari in high numbers, it is lauded by many for groundbreaking design. In 2004, Sports Car International placed the car at number six on its list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s. Motor Trend Classic placed the 206/246 at number seven in their list of the 10 "Greatest Ferraris of all time"; the production Dino 206 GT was designed by Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina and built by Scaglietti. It had the soft edges and curving lines typical of earlier Italian cars, unlike its angular successor, the 308 GT4; the 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 litre all-aluminum, 160 hp at the 8,000 rpm redline, 65-degree V6 engine with dual overhead camshafts and a 9.7:1 compression ratio. Torque was 138 lb⋅ft at 6,500 rpm; the crankshaft featured four main bearings. Induction was via three Weber 40 DCN/4 2-barrel carburetors.
The 206 GT was the first car sold by Ferrari which used an electronic ignition, a Dinoplex C capacitive discharge ignition system, developed by Magneti Marelli for the high revving Dino V6 engine. It was the first Ferrari product to have a direct rack-and-pinion steering; the 206 GT frame featured a light-weight, aluminium body, full independent suspension, all round disc brakes. It had a top speed of 146 mph. 152 were built in total in left hand drive only. The same 2.0 L engine was used in the Fiat Dino Spider, produced during the same period. The conversion of the Dino 196 racing engine for road-going use in the Dino was entrusted by Fiat to Aurelio Lampredi, to whom Ferrari owed so many great engines. Lampredi, interviewed in the early 1980s, noted that, "Things didn't work out as Ferrari had foreseen." Ferrari had counted on building the engines at Maranello, but Fiat's management insisted on taking control of production, to avoid any breaks in the engine supply. Fiat quoted 160 hp DIN for the Fiat Dino and Coupé, in 1967 Ferrari - presenting the first prototype of the Dino 206 GT - claimed 180 hp.
This, was not the case. Both engines were made by Fiat workers in Turin on the same production line, without any discrimination as to their destination, all were the same. 150 units were taken from the first production batch at the beginning of 1968 to power the Dino 206 GTs. Fiat Dinos used the 2.4L engine, although fewer were produced with this engine. Calls for more power were answered with the 2.4 L Dino 246 65° V6 engine, DOHC 2 valves per cylinder 9.0:1 compression ratio, iron block with alloy heads. It produced 195 PS at 226 N ⋅ m. A detuned American version had an exhaust air pump, timing changes which created 175 hp; the GT had 3X2-barrel 40 40 DCNF/7 Weber carburetors. For the 246 a new version of the Dinoplex ignition was deployed, the more compact Magneti Marelli AEC103A system; the 246 Dino GT weighed 2,380 lb. The 246 Dino GTS weighed 2,426 lb; the body was now made of steel to save cost. The 246 Dino had a 2.1-inch longer wheelbase than the 206, at 92.1 inches. The height of the 246 was the same as the 206 at 43.9 inches.
Dino 246 production numbered 2,295 GTs and 1,274 Spyders, the latter being built from 1972 to 1974 only, for a total production run of 3,569. Three series of the Dino were built, with differences in wheels, windshield wiper coverage, engine ventilation; the Series I cars, 357 of which were built until the summer of 1970, used the same center-bolt wheels as did the 206. Series II cars received "clap-hands" wipers; the Series III cars had minor differences to gearing and fuel supply, were built at a much higher rate as sales in the United States commenced with this version. 1,431 Series III coupés and 1,274 GTS cars were built. The 246 had a claimed top speed of 146 mph, although in July 1971 a road test by Britain's Motor magazine reported a top speed of 148 mph, which compared favourably with the 136 mph achieved by a tested Porsche 911S. With a 0 – 50 mph acceleration time of 5.5 seconds the Dino narrowly outperformed the Porsche again, although the Porsche was narrowly the winner on fuel economy.
The manufacturer's recommended UK retail price of £5,485 was higher than the £5,211 asked for the Porsche. For comparison, the much larger, four-passenger Citroën SM high-performance luxury coupe sold for £4,700; the Dino's 2.4 L V6 was used in a number of other Italian performance cars after its application in the 246, most notably the Lancia Stratos rally car. There were some minor differences in trim for various markets, the most obvious being different marker lights on US market Dinos. Group 4-style flared wheelarches were optional, as were seats from the 365 GTB/4 Daytona, the pair ordered in conjunction with wide, sand-cast Campagnolo alloy wheels. Dino Register Club Dino Italia Ferrari, Lancia Stratos Dino UK Ferrari, Lancia Stratos
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a