Fiber or fibre is a natural or man-made substance, longer than it is wide. Fibers are used in the manufacture of other materials; the strongest engineering materials incorporate fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. Synthetic fibers can be produced cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but for clothing natural fibers can give some benefits, such as comfort, over their synthetic counterparts. Natural fibers develop or occur in the fiber shape, include those produced by plants and geological processes, they can be classified according to their origin: Vegetable fibers are based on arrangements of cellulose with lignin: examples include cotton, jute, abaca, piña, sisal and banana. Plant fibers are employed in the manufacture of paper and textile, dietary fiber is an important component of human nutrition. Wood fiber, distinguished from vegetable fiber, is from tree sources. Forms include groundwood, thermomechanical pulp, bleached or unbleached kraft or sulfite pulps.
Kraft and sulfite refer to the type of pulping process used to remove the lignin bonding the original wood structure, thus freeing the fibers for use in paper and engineered wood products such as fiberboard. Animal fibers consist of particular proteins. Instances are silkworm silk, spider silk, catgut, sea silk and hair such as cashmere wool and angora, fur such as sheepskin, mink, beaver, etc. Mineral fibers include the asbestos group. Asbestos is the only occurring long mineral fiber. Six minerals have been classified as "asbestos" including chrysotile of the serpentine class and those belonging to the amphibole class: amosite, tremolite and actinolite. Short, fiber-like minerals include palygorskite. Biological fibers known as fibrous proteins or protein filaments consist of biologically relevant and biologically important proteins, mutations or other genetic defects can lead to severe diseases. Instances are collagen family of proteins, muscle proteins like actin, cell proteins like microtubules and many others, spider silk and hair etc.
Man-made or chemical fibers are fibers whose chemical composition and properties are modified during the manufacturing process. Man-made fibers consist of synthetic fibers. Semi-synthetic fibers are made from raw materials with long-chain polymer structure and are only modified and degraded by chemical processes, in contrast to synthetic fibers such as nylon or dacron, which the chemist synthesizes from low-molecular weight compounds by polymerization reactions; the earliest semi-synthetic fiber is rayon. Most semi-synthetic fibers are cellulose regenerated fibers. Cellulose fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, regenerated from natural cellulose; the cellulose comes from various sources: rayon from tree wood fiber, bamboo fiber from bamboo, seacell from seaweed, etc. In the production of these fibers, the cellulose is reduced to a pure form as a viscous mass and formed into fibers by extrusion through spinnerets. Therefore, the manufacturing process leaves few characteristics distinctive of the natural source material in the finished products.
Some examples of this fiber type are: rayon bamboo fiber Lyocell, a brand of rayon Modal diacetate fiber triacetate fiber. Cellulose diacetate and -triacetate were classified under the term rayon, but are now considered distinct materials. Synthetic come from synthetic materials such as petrochemicals, unlike those man-made fibers derived from such natural substances as cellulose or protein. Fiber classification in reinforced plastics falls into two classes: short fibers known as discontinuous fibers, with a general aspect ratio between 20 and 60, long fibers known as continuous fibers, the general aspect ratio is between 200 and 500. Metallic fibers can be drawn from ductile metals such as copper, gold or silver and extruded or deposited from more brittle ones, such as nickel, aluminum or iron. See Stainless steel fibers. Carbon fibers are based on oxidized and via pyrolysis carbonized polymers like PAN, but the end product is pure carbon. Silicon carbide fibers, where the basic polymers are not hydrocarbons but polymers, where about 50% of the carbon atoms are replaced by silicon atoms, so-called poly-carbo-silanes.
The pyrolysis yields an amorphous silicon carbide, including other elements like oxygen, titanium, or aluminium, but with mechanical properties similar to those of carbon fibers. Fiberglass, made from specific glass, optical fiber, made from purified natural quartz, are man-made fibers that come from natural raw materials, silica fiber, made from sodium silicate and basalt fiber made from melted basalt. Mineral fibers can be strong because they are formed with a low number of surface defects, asbestos is a common one. Polymer fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, which are based on synthetic chemicals rather than arising from natural materials by a purely physical process; these fibers are made from: polyamide nylon PET or PBT polyester phenol-formaldehyde polyvinyl chloride fiber vinyon polyolefins olefin fiber acrylic polyesters, pure polyester PAN fibers are used to make carbon fiber by roasting them in a low oxygen environment. Traditional acrylic fiber is used more as a synthetic repl
Edward Clancy is an English professional track and road bicycle racer who rides for the Vitus Pro Cycling Team team. On the track his specialist discipline is the team pursuit, in which he is the reigning Olympic and European champion. In the London 2012 Olympics, he participated in the Omnium, claiming a bronze medal. In total, Clancy is four-time European champion in the team pursuit. On the road, he won the first stage of the 2005 Tour of Berlin. Clancy has featured in a number of world record team pursuits. On 17 August 2008, Clancy was a member of the Olympic team pursuit squad which broke the world record in the heats with 3:55:202, beating Russia to the ride-off for silver and gold; the next day, on their way to winning the gold medal, the British team broke their own world record in 3:53:314, beating Denmark by 6.7 seconds. Clancy was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2009 New Year Honours and Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2017 New Year Honours for services to cycling.
On 4 April 2012, Clancy was part of the Great Britain team which set a new world record of 3:53.295 in winning the gold medal in the team pursuit at the 2012 World Track Cycling Championships in Melbourne. After the 2012 Olympic Games, where he set a time of 1:00.981 in the Omnium Kilo Time Trial, British Cycling announced that Clancy would replace Sir Chris Hoy in the Great Britain team for the team sprint event, where he rode in the Man 3 position. Despite finishing 2nd in the Glasgow round of the World Cup, Clancy returned to the endurance team for the 2013 World Championships. In November 2018, it was announced that Clancy would join the Vitus Pro Cycling Team for the 2019 season, after the JLT–Condor team which he had been part of for eight years confirmed that it would be disbanding at the end of the year, he lives in Huddersfield. He is a lifelong supporter of his local football team – Huddersfield Town.. He dated GP Dr Gemma Eyres. 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics gold post boxes Ed Clancy at Cycling Archives Ed Clancy at the International Olympic Committee Ed Clancy at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com "Rapha Condor JLT Rider Profile".
Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2013. Motorpoint Pro-Cycling 2010 "Ed Clancy Bio on Britishcycling.com". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2007. Ed Clancy Rider Profile – Cycling Weekly Team halfords bikehut Ed Clancy's 09 team
Lady Godiva was an Anglo-Saxon noblewoman who, according to legend, rode naked through the streets of Coventry, in England, covering herself only with her long hair, in order to gain a remission of the oppressive taxation imposed by her husband on his tenants. Because of the growth of the legend, Lady Godiva has since entered popular culture in a number of countries. Godiva Chocolatier is named after Lady Godiva, features a stylised image of her ride as its trademark. Kimberly-Clark's 2010 TV campaign for Poise adult underwear with Whoopi Goldberg as Lady Godiva The plot of Mascagni's opera Isabeau is based on the story of Lady Godiva. Vítězslav Novák composed a concert overture called Lady Godiva based on the story; the Godiva Procession, a commemoration of the legendary ride, was instituted on 31 May 1678 as part of Coventry fair and was celebrated up to the 1960s. The part of Lady Godiva was played by a scantily clad actress or dancer, the occasion attracted controversy. For instance, in 1854, the Bishop of Worcester protested against "a Birmingham whore being paraded through the streets as Lady Godiva."
These annual processions were enlivened by constant rumours, that the girl playing the part of Lady Godiva would appear nude, like the original. These hopes were realised in a play staged in 1974, at the Belgrade Theatre, entitled The Only True Story of Lady Godiva, in which Lady Godiva appeared naked, riding a motor bike; the celebration has been revived as part of the Godiva Festival. The wooden effigy of Peeping Tom which, from 1812 until World War II looked out on the world from a hotel at the northwest corner of Hertford Street, can now be found in Cathedral Lanes Shopping Centre, it represents a man in armour and was an image of Saint George. Nearby, in the 1950s rebuilt Broadgate, an animated Peeping Tom watches over Lady Godiva as she makes her hourly ride around the Godiva Clock. From the mid-1980s a Coventry resident, Pru Porretta, has adopted a Lady Godiva role to promote community events and good works in the city. In 1999 Coventry councillors considered eliminating Godiva from the city's public identity.
As of 2005, Porretta retains the status of Coventry's unofficial ambassador. Each September Poretta marks the occasion of Lady Godiva's birthday by leading a local pageant focusing on world peace and unity known as The Godiva Sisters. In August 2007, the Godiva Sisters was performed in front of 900 delegates from 69 countries attending the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children Biennial Conference held at the University of Warwick. In the New Year Honours 2010 Porretta was appointed a Member of the Order of The British Empire for services to the city of Coventry community and tourism services; the image of Lady Godiva on horseback is the corporate symbol of the Coventry Building Society, appearing on letterheads, statements and other documents. In 2010 an arts project, "Godiva Awakes", involving a 10 metre tall puppet-version of Lady Godiva, powered by 50 bicycles, leading a procession from Coventry to London, was proposed by the independent company Imagineer productions; this proposal went on to become the regional winner and will be realised as part of the Arts Council's 2012 Cultural Olympiad.
In some university engineering faculties, military engineering corps and other engineering organisations, Lady Godiva is regarded as a mascot and called the "Patron Saint of Engineers" or "Goddess of Engineering." The origin is unclear, although it developed in Britain, where several early engineering schools were founded during the industrial revolution. The practice migrated to North America through Canadian schools, such as the University of Toronto and McMaster University, which today hold an annual "Godiva Week" in January consisting of events intended to engender school spirit. By the mid-20th century, the practice of engineering organizations associating themselves with Lady Godiva was well established in the United States. A particular tradition associated with this is that of drinking songs, which make reference to Lady Godiva Godiva's Hymn. Certain college organisations staged an annual "Godiva Ride" in which a naked female rode a horse across campus; this practice may have declined with the advent of modern feminist attitudes.
Lady Godiva, the first film telling of the story starring Julia Swayne Gordon and produced by the Vitagraph company. Lady Godiva, a British silent short with Gladys Jennings in the title role. Cavalcade; when Cook asks Alfred Bridges to give her his opinion about the special clothes she has put on for New Year's Eve, he jokes twice that she reminds him of Lady Godiva. The Ghost Talks, a short film featuring the Three Stooges in a slapstick send-up of the Lady Godiva legend; the film changes key elements of the legend, eliminating Tom's blindness as his penalty and inventing a relationship between the tailor and the Lady. After an encounter between the Stooges and a haunted, empty suit of armour occupied by the spirit of Peeping Tom, the Stooges act out the ghost's narrative of the events of the famous day in costumes based on the clothing of a period many years than the life of the historic Godiva. Lady Godiva Rides Again British film with Pauline Stroud. Lady Godiva of Coventry starring Irish actress Maureen O'Hara in the title role.
Young Guns II. As the town's advocates for "decency" set fire to the local brothel, the madam strips off her clothes, sets loose her long red hair and leisurely rides off the town on horseback, middle of loud pr