Afonso III of Portugal
Afonso III, or Affonso, Alfonso or Alphonso or Alphonsus, the Boulonnais, King of Portugal was the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, from 1249. He was the second son of his wife, Urraca of Castile. Afonso was born in Coimbra; as the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal, he was not expected to inherit the throne, destined to go to his elder brother Sancho. He lived in France, where he married Matilda, the heiress of Boulogne, in 1238, thereby becoming Count of Boulogne, Mortain and Dammartin-en-Goële jure uxoris. In 1246, conflicts between his brother, the king, the church became unbearable. In 1247, Pope Innocent IV ordered Sancho II to be removed from the throne and to be replaced by the Count of Boulogne. Afonso, of course, did not refuse the papal order and marched to Portugal. Since Sancho was not a popular king the order was not hard to enforce, he fled in exile to Toledo, where he died on 4 January 1248; until his brother's death and his own eventual coronation, Afonso retained and used the title of Visitador, Curador e Defensor do Reino.
In order to ascend the throne Afonso abdicated his rights to the county of Boulogne in 1248. In 1253, he divorced Matilde in order to marry Beatrice of Castile, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X, King of Castile, Mayor Guillén de Guzmán. Determined not to make the same mistakes as his brother, Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254, in the city of Leiria, he held the first session of the Cortes, a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities, he made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favored part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration. Afonso showed extraordinary vision for the time. Progressive measures taken during his kingship include: representatives of the commons, besides the nobility and clergy, were involved in governance.
These may have led to his excommunication by the holy see and precipitated his death, his son Denis's premature rise to the throne at only 18 years old. Secure on the throne, Afonso III proceeded to make war with the Muslim communities that still thrived in the south. In his reign the Algarve became part of the kingdom, following the capture of Faro. Following his success against the Moors, Afonso III had to deal with a political situation concerning the country's borders with Castile; the neighbouring kingdom considered that the newly acquired lands of the Algarve should be Castilian, not Portuguese, which led to a series of wars between the two kingdoms. In 1267, the Treaty of Badajoz was signed in Badajoz, determining that the southern border between Castile and Portugal should be the River Guadiana, as it is today. Afonso died in Alcobaça, Coimbra or Lisbon, aged 68. Afonso's first wife was Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne, daughter of Renaud, Count of Dammartin, Ida, Countess of Boulogne.
They had no surviving children. He divorced Matilda in 1253 and, in the same year, married Beatrice of Castile, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X, King of Castile, Mayor Guillén de Guzmán
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Galician is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch. It is spoken by some 2.4 million people in Galicia, an autonomous community located in northwestern Spain, where it is official along with Spanish. The language is spoken in some border zones of the neighbouring Spanish regions of Asturias and Castile and León, as well as by Galician migrant communities in the rest of Spain, in Latin America, the United States and elsewhere in Europe. Modern Galician is part of the West Iberian languages group, a family of Romance languages that includes the Portuguese language, which developed locally from Vulgar Latin and evolved into what modern scholars have called Galician-Portuguese. Dialectal divergences are observable between the northern and southern forms of Galician-Portuguese in 13th-century texts but the two dialects were similar enough to maintain a high level of cultural unity until the middle of the 14th century, producing the medieval Galician-Portuguese lyric; the divergence has continued to this day, producing the modern languages of Portuguese.
The lexicon of Galician is predominantly of Latin extraction, although it contains a moderate number of words of Germanic and Celtic origin, among other substrates and adstrates, having received via Spanish, a number of nouns from the Arabic of Al Andalus. The language is regulated in Galicia by the Royal Galician Academy. However, independent organisations, such as the Galician Association of Language and the Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language, include Galician as part of the Portuguese language, as the Galician-Portuguese variant. Modern Galician and its sibling, originated from a common medieval ancestor designated variously by modern linguists as Galician-Portuguese; this common ancestral stage developed in the territories of the old Kingdom of Galicia, which covered the territories of modern-day Galicia and northern Portugal. In the 13th century it became a written and cultivated language. In the past Galician and Portuguese formed a dialect continuum, which many scholars contend still exists today at the level of rural dialects.
Others point out that modern Galician and Portuguese have diverged to such an extent during the past seven centuries that they now constitute two related but separate languages. The Galician-Portuguese language originated from Vulgar Latin as a Western Romance language in the lands now in Galicia and northern half of Portugal, which belonged to the mediaeval Kingdom of Galicia, itself comprising the former Roman territory of Gallaecia as modified during the two centuries of the Suevic Kingdom of Galicia; the standards of the language began to diverge in the 14th century, as Portuguese became the official language of the independent kingdom of Portugal and its chancellery, while Galician was the language of the scriptoria of the lawyers and churchmen of the Kingdom of Galicia integrated in the crown of Castile and open to influence from Castilian language and politics. During the 16th century the Galician language stopped being used in legal documentation, becoming de facto an oral language, with just some use in lyric and private letters.
The linguistic status of Galician with respect to Portuguese is controversial, the issue sometimes carries political overtones. There are linguists who deal with modern Galician and modern Portuguese as norms or varieties of the same language; some authors, such as Lindley Cintra, consider that they are still co-dialects of a common language, in spite of superficial differences in phonology and vocabulary, while others, such as Pilar Vázquez Cuesta, argue that they have become separate languages due to major differences in phonetics and vocabulary usage, and, to a lesser extent and syntax. Fernández Rei in 1990 stated that the Galician language is, with respect to Portuguese, an ausbau language, a language through elaboration, not an abstand language, a language through detachment. With respect to the external and internal perception of this relation, for instance in past editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Galician was defined as a Portuguese dialect spoken in northwestern Spain. However, most Galician speakers do not regard Galician as a variety of Portuguese, but as a different language, as modern Galician evolved without interruption and in situ from Latin, Portuguese and Galician have had separate literary traditions since the 14th century.
The oldest internal attestation of the expression Galician language dates from the 14th century. In Spanish "lenguaje gallego" is documented in this same century, circa 1330. Mutual intelligibility is high between Galicians and northern Portuguese; the parliament of Galicia approved unanimously in 2014 the law 1/2014 of links with the Lusophony. As a consequence, on 20 October 2016, the city of Santiago de Compostela, the political capital of Galicia, approved by unanimity a proposal to become an observer member of the Union of Portuguese-Speaking Capitals. On 1 November 2016, the Council of Galician Culture was admitted as a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries; the official position of the Galician Language Institute
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean: a sociologically defined class in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural and financial capital belonging to the middle or upper middle class: the upper and petty bourgeoisie. Originally and "those who live in the borough", to say, the people of the city, as opposed to those of rural areas. A defined class of the Middle Ages to the end of the Ancien Régime in France, that of inhabitants having the rights of citizenship and political rights in a city; the "bourgeoisie" in its original sense is intimately linked to the existence of cities recognized as such by their urban charters, so there was no bourgeoisie "outside the walls of the city" beyond which the people were "peasants" submitted to the stately courts and manorialism. In Marxist philosophy, the bourgeoisie is the social class that came to own the means of production during modern industrialization and whose societal concerns are the value of property and the preservation of capital to ensure the perpetuation of their economic supremacy in society.
Joseph Schumpeter saw the incorporation of new elements into an expanding bourgeoisie entrepreneurs who took risks to bring innovation to industries and the economy through the process of creative destruction, as the driving force behind the capitalist engine. The Modern French word bourgeois derived from the Old French burgeis, which derived from bourg, from the Old Frankish burg. In its literal sense, bourgeois in Old French means "town dweller". In English, the word "bourgeoisie" identified a social class oriented to economic materialism and hedonism, to upholding the extreme political and economic interests of the capitalist ruling-class. In the 18th century, before the French Revolution, in the French feudal order, the masculine and feminine terms bourgeois and bourgeoise identified the rich men and women who were members of the urban and rural Third Estate – the common people of the French realm, who violently deposed the absolute monarchy of the Bourbon King Louis XVI, his clergy, his aristocrats in the French Revolution of 1789-1799.
Hence, since the 19th century, the term "bourgeoisie" is politically and sociologically synonymous with the ruling upper-class of a capitalist society. The medieval French word bourgeois denoted the inhabitants of the bourgs, the craftsmen, artisans and others, who constituted "the bourgeoisie", they were the socio-economic class between the peasants and the landlords, between the workers and the owners of the means of production; as the economic managers of the materials, the goods, the services, thus the capital produced by the feudal economy, the term "bourgeoisie" evolved to denote the middle class – the businessmen and businesswomen who accumulated and controlled the capital that made possible the development of the bourgs into cities. Contemporarily, the terms "bourgeoisie" and "bourgeois" identify the ruling class in capitalist societies, as a social stratum; the 18th century saw a partial rehabilitation of bourgeois values in genres such as the drame bourgeois and "bourgeois tragedy".
The bourgeoisie emerged as a historical and political phenomenon in the 11th century when the bourgs of Central and Western Europe developed into cities dedicated to commerce. This urban expansion was possible thanks to economic concentration due to the appearance of protective self-organisation into guilds. Guilds arose when individual businessmen conflicted with their rent-seeking feudal landlords who demanded greater rents than agreed. In the event, by the end of the Middle Ages, under régimes of the early national monarchies of Western Europe, the bourgeoisie acted in self-interest, politically supported the king or queen against legal and financial disorder caused by the greed of the feudal lords. In the late-16th and early 17th centuries, the bourgeoisies of England and the Netherlands had become the financial – thus political – forces that deposed the feudal order. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the bourgeoisie were the politically progressive social class who
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates are inherited from a shared parent language, but they may involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the English words dish and desk and the German word Tisch are cognates because they all come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or opposite meanings, but in most cases there are some similar sounds or letters in the words; some words don't come from the same root. The word cognate derives from the Latin noun cognatus, which means "blood relative". Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, *sterbaną. Discus is from Greek δίσκος. A and separate English reflex of discus through medieval Latin desca, is desk. Cognates do not need to have similar forms: English father, French père, Armenian հայր all descend directly from Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr.
Examples of cognates in Indo-European languages are the words night, noche, nacht, nicht, nat, nátt, nótt, noc, ночь, noch, ноќ, noć, нощ, nosht, ніч, nich, ноч, noch/noč, noč, noć, νύξ, nox/nocte, nakt-, natë, nueche, notte, nit, nuèch/nuèit, nakts and Naach, all meaning "night" and being derived from the Proto-Indo-European *nókʷts "night". Another Indo-European example is star, str-, tora, astre/étoile, ἀστήρ, astro/stella, aster stea, astgh, ster, Schtähn, stjerne, stjärna, stjørna, setāre, seren, estel, estela estrella and astro Spanish, estrella Asturian and Leonese and astro and estêre or stêrk, from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr "star"; the Arabic سلام salām, the Hebrew שלום shalom, the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic shlama and the Amharic selam are cognates, derived from the Proto-Semitic *šalām- "peace". Cognates may be less recognised than the above examples, authorities sometimes differ in their interpretations of the evidence; the English word milk is a cognate of German Milch, Dutch melk, Russian молоко and Bosnian, Croatian, Slovenian mleko Montenegrin mlijeko.
On the other hand, French lait, Catalan llet, Italian latte, Romanian lapte, Spanish leche and leite are less-obvious cognates of Ancient Greek γάλακτος gálaktos, a relationship, more evidently seen through the intermediate Latin lac "milk" as well as the English word lactic and other terms borrowed from Latin. All of them come from Proto-Indo-European h₂melǵ- "milk"; some cognates are semantic opposites. For instance, while the Hebrew word חוצפה chutzpah means "impudence," its Classical Arabic cognate حصافة ḥaṣāfah means "sound judgment." Cognates within a single language, or doublets, may have meanings that are or totally different. For example, English ward and guard are cognates, as are skirt. In some cases, including this one, one cognate has an ultimate source in another language related to English, but the other one is native; that happened with many loanwords, such as skirt in this example, borrowed from Old Norse during the Danelaw. Sometimes both doublets come from other languages the same one but at different times.
For example, the word chief comes from the Middle French chef, its modern pronunciation preserves the Middle French consonant sound. Such word sets can be called etymological twins, they may come in groups of higher numbers, as with, for example, the words wain, waggon/wagon, vehicle in English. A word may enter another language, develop a new form or meaning there, be re-borrowed into the original language. For example, the Greek word κίνημα became French cinéma and later returned to Greece as σινεμά. In Greek, κίνημα and σινεμά are now doublets. A less obvious English-language doublet pair is glamour. False cognates are words that people believe are related, but that linguistic examination reveals are unrelated. For example, on the basis of superficial similarities, the Latin verb habēre and German haben, both meaning'to have
Nobile, traditionally abbreviated to Nob. is an Italian hereditary title borne by a noble who ranks below a baron, similar to the rank of a baronet. Unlike higher Italian titles which are referred to in lieu of an individual's name, nobile is used before the given and surnames in the abbreviated form Nob.. Sometimes is abbreviated to "N. H." or "N. D." for women. The word "nobile" is derived from meaning honourable; the heraldic coronet of a nobile consists of a jewelled circlet of gold surmounted by five pearls, either on stems or set directly upon the rim. The armorial shield of a nobile is surmounted by a silver helm displayed in a ¾ side-view and surmounted by the coronet described, it is displayed above the shield in the full heraldic achievement associated with a noble's the specific title. The rank of nobile had existed for centuries, used to denote either titled nobles or their cadets). In this connection, however, by 1800 many signori in Sicily and vassals in Piedmont were recognised as barons, whereas they would have been simple nobili.
Prior to the creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the Heraldic Court of Milan awarded and registered the term nobile as a title of nobility, until Napoleon's army overran the Austrian Habsburg-controlled Duchy of Milan in 1796. When such a title was granted, the coat of arms of the new “nobile” was entered into the "Book of Coat of Arms of Maria Teresa of Austria", along with a painting of the arms concerned; the records of such grants and the depictions of their corresponding arms show that, at that period, the title of nobile did not include a corresponding coronet of rank. Following the creation and formal proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, the existing Consulta Araldica, thenceforth denoted as the Italian Heraldic College, recorded nobile, as the lowest rank in the hierarchy of Italian titles of nobility; the Italian Republic does not recognize titles of nobility. The Italian Constitution of 1948 abolished the Consulta Araldica, with it any official registry of titles of nobility. E. Genta, "Titoli nobiliari", in AA.
VV. Enciclopedia del diritto, Varese 1992, vol. XLIV, pag. 674-684. Regolamento della Consulta araldica, approvato con regio decreto del 8 maggio 1870. Enciclopedia Storico-Nobiliare Italiana, MCMXXVIII - ANNO VII Archivio di Stato di Milano Burke's Peerage and Knightage of the UK.- 1914 ed