Hawkman is the name of several fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Dennis Neville, the original Hawkman first appeared in Flash Comics #1, published by All-American Publications in 1940. Several incarnations of Hawkman have appeared in DC Comics, all of them characterized by the use of archaic weaponry and by large, artificial wings, attached to a harness made from the special Nth metal that allows flight. Most incarnations of Hawkman work with a partner/romantic interest named Hawkgirl or Hawkwoman. Hawkman is most depicted as human archaeologist Carter Hall – the modern-day reincarnation of an ancient Egyptian prince named Khufu – or as alien police officer Katar Hol from the planet Thanagar; the character is regarded as having one of the most confusing backstories of any in DC Comics, due to a series of reinventions over the years following DC’s 1985 series Crisis on Infinite Earths. Some writers have attempted to integrate Carter Hall and Katar Hol into one story by linking the Thanagarian aliens to the Egyptian curse that causes Hawkman to reincarnate periodically throughout human history, or by using Carter Hall as Katar Hol's alias, or otherwise depicting the merger of Carter and Katar into one being.
The character has been adapted into other media numerous times, with significant appearances in the animated Justice League Unlimited cartoon, which featured Hawkgirl as a main character, as well as several DC Universe Original Animated Movies. In live action, the character has been portrayed by Michael Shanks in Smallville and by Falk Hentschel in the Arrowverse family of shows, both favouring the ancient Egyptian version of the character. Hawkman first appeared in Flash Comics #1, was a featured character in that title throughout the 1940s; this Hawkman was a reincarnation of the ancient Egyptian prince, Khufu. Hall discovered that the mysterious "ninth metal" could negate the effects of gravity and allow him to fly, he donned a costume with large wings to allow him to control his flight and became the crimefighter, Hawkman. He had a companion hawk named Big Red that assisted him in fighting crime. An archaeologist by profession, Hall used ancient weapons from the museum. Hawkman was a charter member of the Justice Society of America, beginning with All Star Comics #3.
In issue #8 he became the JSA's chairman, a position he would hold until the end of the JSA's run in All Star Comics in 1951. He was the only member of the JSA to appear in every adventure during the Golden Age of Comic Books, he romanced Shiera Sanders, who became the crimefighter Hawkgirl. His first three adventures were drawn by creator Dennis Neville by Sheldon Moldoff, by Joe Kubert, who redesigned his mask in Flash Comics # 85 and one year replaced the winged-hawk-like mask with a much simpler yellow cowl in Flash Comics #98. Along with most other superheroes, Hawkman's Golden Age adventures came to an end when the industry turned away from the genre in the early 1950s, his last appearance was in All Star Comics #57. In the decade, DC Comics, under editor Julius Schwartz, decided to revive a number of heroes in new incarnations, but retaining the same names and powers. Following the success of the Flash and Green Lantern, Hawkman was revived in The Brave and the Bold # 34, this time as an alien policeman from the planet Thanagar, though his powers were the same.
Created by Gardner Fox and Joe Kubert, this Hawkman, Katar Hol, came to Earth with his wife Shayera in pursuit of a criminal, decided to remain on earth to study earth police methods as well as fight crime. They became curators of a museum in Midway City; this Hawkman became a member of the Justice League of America in issue #31, where he verbally sparred with the iconoclastic liberal hero Green Arrow. In the 1960s it was revealed that the original Hawkman lived on the parallel world of Earth-Two, that Katar Hol lived on Earth-One; the JLA and JSA had an annual meeting throughout the 1960s and 1970s during which the two heroes met. The Silver Age Hawkman had his own series for a few years in the'60s, but with declining sales it ended at issue #27 and was merged with that of the Atom. Atom and Hawkman so before cancellation. In the late 1970s in Showcase and World's Finest Comics, Thanagar went to war with the planet Rann, the adopted home of Adam Strange; this led to Hawkman and Hawkwoman severing ties with their homeworld, fighting The Shadow War of Hawkman as Thanagar tried secretly to conquer the Earth.
The landmark 1985 series Crisis on Infinite Earths resulted in a massive revision of much DC continuity and led to many characters being rewritten. Hawkman was to suffer some of the greatest confusion as successive writers sought to explain his various appearances. In the revised timeline there was a single Earth which had witnessed the JSA in the 1940s and the JLA decades later. Successive revisions sought to establish, Hawkman and Hawkwoman at different stages. For the first few years the pre-Crisis incarnations were still used, during which time they were prominent across the DC Universe and joined the latest incarnation of the Justice League. DC decided to reboot Hawkman, in a limited series entitled Hawkworld by Tim Truman, John Ostrander. In this series, Thanagar was a stratified society which conquered other worlds to enrich itsel
The Flash (season 4)
The fourth season of the American television series The Flash, based on the DC Comics character Barry Allen / Flash, premiered on The CW on October 10, 2017, ran for 23 episodes until May 22, 2018. The season follows a crime scene investigator with superhuman speed who fights criminals, including others who have gained superhuman abilities, it is set in the Arrowverse, sharing continuity with the other television series of the universe, is a spin-off of Arrow. The season is produced by Warner Bros.. Television, DC Entertainment, with Andrew Kreisberg and Todd Helbing serving as showrunners; the season was ordered in January 2017, filming began that July. Grant Gustin stars as Barry, with principal cast members Candice Patton, Danielle Panabaker, Carlos Valdes, Keiynan Lonsdale, Tom Cavanagh, Jesse L. Martin returning from previous seasons, are joined by Neil Sandilands; the series was renewed for a fourth season on January 2017, earlier than usual for the series. Executive producer Andrew Kreisberg said on this, "The great thing about our dear friends at The CW and Mark Pedowitz picking the shows up as early as they did has allowed us to start building the schedules for next season."
In May 2017, it was announced that Aaron Helbing would not return as an executive producer for season four, with only Greg Berlanti, Andrew Kreisberg, Sarah Schechter, Todd Helbing returning from previous seasons. Todd Helbing and Kreisberg were slated to serve as the season's showrunners. In November 2017, Kreisberg was suspended from his role as executive producer and showrunner on The Flash over allegations of sexual harassment. By the end of the month, he had been fired, with his name being removed from the credits from all shows he worked on. In addition, Berlanti would take additional responsibilities working with Helbing to co-showrun the season. In March 2017, Kreisberg confirmed that the main villain for the fourth season would not be a speedster, like the previous three seasons. Executive producers Aaron and Todd Helbing mentioned that there would be less time travel in the season, with Aaron saying, "We like playing with the timelines and the different time periods and future and past.
For now, I think we're going to focus on the present." In June 2017, Clifford DeVoe / Thinker was reported to be the main antagonist of the season. He was first hinted in the third season episode "Abra Kadabra" when the titular villain mentions him among the Flash's greatest enemies, again in the season finale "Finish Line" when Savitar mentions facing DeVoe but states that the Flash has not dealt with him yet. At the series' San Diego Comic-Con panel, the speculation was confirmed, with Todd Helbing saying, "With three Speedsters in a row, this year it's the fastest man alive against the fastest mind alive." He added that the writers were "making a conscious effort this year to get the fun quotient back up". Regarding the possibility of Wally West taking on the mantle of the Flash in Barry's absence, Keiynan Lonsdale said that "It's not something that's on my radar. I feel as though there is so much story to tell and Wally has so much growing to do... We need to see how these character realistically get to where they are headed for."
With the action picking up six months after season three, Kid Flash and Vibe are left to protect Central City, with Carlos Valdes saying "the team is sort of clutching at straws to keep the city together... There is a unanimous feeling amongst the remaining members that it's just not the same without Barry... So in light of that, Cisco does whatever it takes to get his friends back." Valdes confirmed the return of Cisco's more lighthearted joking manner. Candice Patton explained Iris West's larger role within Team Flash as "a way of distracting herself," adding that " is forced to deal with that anger and resentment and abandonment by kind of focusing on protecting Central City... We're seeing a different Iris a hardened Iris." Kreisberg hinted at some major growth for Iris this season, noted that "the season premiere is all about Iris and Cisco, not Barry". In July 2017, Sterling Gates, DC Comics comic book writer, joined as a member of the fourth season's writing staff. At the Television Critics Association press tour in August 2017, Pedowitz stated that the fourth season of The Flash is "going to try to find the lightness... of the Barry Allen of the first two seasons," and said that the show was "done with Speedster villains".
In the month, Kreisberg confirmed the return of Harry Wells from Earth-2, saying that "season 4 for Harry is realizing what he's missing in his life and what it is he needs to become a better, more complete person, so he's going to be going on a epic emotional journey this season, tied to the Thinker's plan," in addition to confirming the introduction of a new version of the Wells character. In September 2017, Helbing noted "There's a lot of love in the air this season," and compared Barry and Iris' reunion to "somebody going off to war for six months and coming back. There's a lot that Iris experienced that Barry didn't when he was gone, it's the fun and the emotional component of making up that time when they weren't together." Helbing explained that the Speed Force "let deal with all of the baggage. When he comes out, he's sort of left that all behind." That month, Kreisberg confirmed that Barry and Iris will be getting married this season, while revealing that the pair will be going to couples therapy since " keep comically clashing inadvertently because used to being in charge, so they wind up going... to work through it."
He added, "The two of them with the therapist is some of the funniest stuff we
Infinity, Inc. is a team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The team is composed of the children and heirs of the Justice Society of America, making them the Society's analogue to the Teen Titans, composed of sidekicks of Justice League members. Created by Roy Thomas, Jerry Ordway, Mike Machlan, they first appeared in All-Star Squadron #25. There was an eponymous comics series starring the group, which ran from March 1984 through June 1988. Roy Thomas and his wife, Dann Thomas, wrote the series throughout its run. Artists on the series included Jerry Ordway, Don Newton, Todd McFarlane, Michael Bair, Vince Argondezzi; the group was organized by the original Star-Spangled Kid, in Infinity Inc.. #1, when a number of JSA protégés were denied admission to the JSA. They instead formed their own group. Members of Infinity, Inc. were known as Infinitors. The series ended in 1988 with the death of the Star-Spangled Kid, the group disbanded shortly thereafter. Several members have gone on to supporting roles in other comics series.
Fury is the mother of Daniel Hall. Hourman, Nuklon, Silver Scarab, Power Girl joined the 21st century incarnation of the JSA; the series took place on the parallel world of Earth-Two, but in 1986 it was merged with the rest of DC continuity following Crisis on Infinite Earths. From on, they shared their spot as Los Angeles' superteam with the Outsiders, were involved in a crossover with the New Teen Titans. Hector Hall, Lyta Trevor, Norda Cantrell, Albert Rothstein decide to adopt identities of their own and apply for membership in the Justice Society of America; the four of them adopt the codenames of Silver Scarab, Fury and Nuklon respectively. They are turned down but, not willing to give up, they apply again with Jennie-Lynn Hayden and Todd Rice. Taking pity on the youngsters, Star-Spangled Kid decides to leave the JSA to create a new group, they are joined by Power Girl, the Huntress, Brainwave, Jr.. They call themselves "Infinity, Inc."The team first faces the Justice Society of America, turned evil by the Stream of Ruthlessness, thanks to the Ultra-Humanite.
They save the world. In a press conference, the team publicly divulge their secret identities, revealing those of their parents in the process, Hector announces his engagement to Lyta; the Star-Spangled Kid is able to form a partnership with the city of Los Angeles to commission his team as for-hire protectors and purchases Stellar Studios to revitalize its production of movies. Fury is kidnapped in an extortion attempt by the villains known as Helix, all products of invitro genetic manipulation by the mad scientist Doctor Love; the original members are Arak the Wind-walker, Baby Boom, Mister Bones, Penny Dreadful, Tao Jones. They manage to escape; the second Wildcat, Yolanda Montez, learns that she is a cousin of new Helix member Carcharo and that they are products of the same genetic experiments as Helix. The two teams battle to a stalemate; the teams are involved within the Crisis on Infinite Earths event, which results in three new superheroes — Yolanda Montez as Wildcat, Rick Tyler as Hourman, Beth Chapel as Dr. Midnight — who all join Infinity, Inc.
The Crisis had severe changes for three members of the team. The Justice Society, who are written out of the DC universe proper by editorial decision and are exiled into a dimension where they fight against the tide of Ragnarok. With all of his friends at Infinity, Inc. Hector Hall leaves the group after a fall-out with Lyta, following shortly after the team learns that the Justice Society is gone; the other members go around notifying the wives and other related characters of the Society of the JSA's disappearance. A certain Professor James Rock has contacted Hector, but the real James Rock is supposed to be long dead. Travelling to Hall Mansion, Northwind means to confront Hector, only to find him under Hath-Set's manipulations. Hector goes on to kidnap Fury, he and Hath-Set uncover the Eye of Ra, a powerful and ancient weapon. Northwind returns and leads Infinity, Inc. into a final confrontation with the Silver Scarab at Hall Mansion, when burned down, reveals a topless pyramid inside. While Northwind confronts the Silver Scarab in a duel, Nuklon saves Fury.
The Eye of Ra flies away. The Silver Scarab is not pure enough in the eyes of Seketh the Egyptian god of Death, for the pureness of Hector's heart still lives on in his unborn child with Lyta. Therefore, he is not cleansed of his goodness and the Silver Scarab is thrown away by the Eye's power, the armor of Nth Metal an empty shell. Northwind is able to close the Eye of Ra. Infinity, Inc. mourn the loss of Hector, Northwind and Fury leave the team after his funeral. A pregnant Lyta goes home to spend time with her parents; when Nuklon goes to visit her, she tells him she isn't over Hector yet and that she only has friendly feelings for him. Disappointed, he discovers. Nuklon discovers him to be Hector Hall, the new Sandman. Hector reveals that his spirit wound u
Fire is a fictional comic book superheroine from the DC Comics universe. A version of her first appeared in Super Friends #25, was created by E. Nelson Bridwell and Ramona Fradon. Beatriz da Costa, alias Green Fury, had been bequeathed her powers due to Brazilian mysticism and was the president of the Brazilian branch of Wayne Enterprises, she possessed an array of abilities which included the power to exhale vast quantities of mystical green fire. She could fly, alter her clothing at will, displayed a limited capacity to project hallucinations. In her first appearance, she confronted and battled Superman, controlled by the "puppet master" Overlord, Sandor Fine. In her next appearance, Green Fury called The Super Friends to help defeat the villain Green Thumb, months revealed her secret origin to them to thwart the demons from a green hell. Green Fury became a member of the Global Guardians when Superman, recruited by Doctor Mist, asks for assistance in locating one of many ancient artifacts being pursued by a powerful group of evil mystics.
They battle a wizard called ` El Dorado' in an overgrown city deep in the jungle. The two face off against'spirit jaguars' and lose the artifact, a crown, to the wizard. Costa assists Superman and other Guardians in battling the wizards, El Dorado included, on Easter Island; the heroes catch a break. This prevents the rise to power of Thaumar Dhai. Though not as powerful as planned, Dhai was still a threat. Green Fury's mystical based powers were essential in destroying him. After the Crisis on Infinite Earths, her history was altered so that she had followed an unusual career path. Renamed Beatriz Bonilla da Costa, she started as an amateur model on the beaches of Rio becoming a showgirl and stage performer before finding herself serving as a top secret agent for Brazilian government's SNI Abin. In the course of one of her missions, Beatriz was trapped in a pyroplasmic explosion that endowed her with the unusual power of being able to exhale an eight-inch burst of fire, she assumed the identity of the Green Fury, soon changed it again to Green Flame.
She joined the international superhero team the Global Guardians, of which she was a long-standing, loyal member. She first met Inc. while on a mission to Canada. Shortly after changing her name to Green Flame, the Guardians' United Nations funding was withdrawn in the wake of the formation the Justice League International. Beatriz convinced her teammate and best friend Icemaiden into joining her to apply for Justice League International membership. Remarkably, in the wake of Black Canary's resignation and the abduction of several members, the short-handed JLI took them on, she once again changed her heroic name, this time to Fire in affinity with Icemaiden's shortening of her name to Ice. As a result of the "gene bomb" detonated by the alien Dominators, Fire's powers were increased, but were less reliable for a time. Fire always assumed a big sister role with Ice, watching out for her and her interactions with the "real" world. For example, Fire stepped in. However, Fire herself makes mistakes, such as torching the cash she'd just saved while foiling a bank robbery.
Beatriz remained with the Justice League International for the remainder of its existence — in fact she served the longest tenure of any JLI member. During this time, she was trained in the arts of battle by Big Barda. In the battle against Doomsday, Bea lost her powers by taxing them to their limits while trying to blast Doomsday, in effect "her fire went out", she remained with the team but by the time she returned in Justice League America #88, it was too late to help prevent her best friend's death, as Ice was killed by the Overmaster. As Beatriz tried to cope with this loss, she had a romantic relationship with Ice's former lover, Guy Gardner, a longer one with Nuklon; when the first Icemaiden, Sigrid Nansen, joined the League Ice's place, Fire befriended her. However, their friendship was tainted by Bea's irrational grief-driven behavior, Sigrid's romantic attraction to Bea; when this League collapsed, Beatriz returned to Brazil, tried to re-establish herself as the country's main protector.
This met with varied success, which she blamed on the Martian Manhunter's prominence in the Southern hemisphere. Fire tried to retire from being a superhero and establish a career as an internet glamor girl when Maxwell Lord talks her and several other former JLI members into reforming as a group of "heroes for the common man" called the "Super Buddies", she found herself sharing an apartment with Mary Marvel and, in a characterization reminiscent of her relationship with Ice, became a reluctant "babysitter" for the naive teenager. In one adventure with the Super Buddies and the others were given the opportunity to rescue Ice's spirit from Hell, yet like in the Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, Fire could not resist looking behind her, which caused Ice's spirit to vanish. During the Super Buddies' time in Hell, Etrigan the Demon suggested that it was Fire, fated to die instead of Ice. During her time in the group, she encounters an alternate universe version of Ice; the Super Buddies did not realize that Maxwell Lord was secretly the Black King of Checkmate.
After the Buddies' dissolution, Bea became an agent of Checkmate as well. It has not been revealed whe
Green Lantern is the name of several superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. They fight evil with the aid of rings that grant them a variety of extraordinary powers, all of which comes from imagination and/or emotions; the first Green Lantern character, Alan Scott, was created in 1940 by Martin Nodell during the initial popularity of superheroes. Alan Scott fought common criminals in New York City with the aid of his magic ring; the Green Lanterns are among DC Comics' longer lasting sets of characters. They have been adapted to television, video games, motion pictures. Martin Nodell created the first Green Lantern, he first appeared in the Golden Age of comic books in All-American Comics #16, published by All-American Publications, one of three companies that would merge to form DC Comics. This Green Lantern's real name was Alan Scott, a railroad engineer who, after a railway crash, came into possession of a magic lantern which spoke to him and said it would bring power.
From this, he crafted a magic ring. The limitations of the ring were that it had to be "charged" every 24 hours by touching it to the lantern for a time, that it could not directly affect objects made of wood. Alan Scott fought ordinary human villains, but he did have a few paranormal ones such as the immortal Vandal Savage and the zombie Solomon Grundy. Most stories took place in New York; as a popular character in the 1940s, the Green Lantern featured both in anthology books such as All-American Comics and Comic Cavalcade, as well as his own book, Green Lantern. He appeared in All Star Comics as a member of the superhero team known as the Justice Society of America. After World War II the popularity of superheroes in general declined; the Green Lantern comic book was cancelled with issue #38, All Star Comics #57 was the character's last Golden Age appearance. When superheroes came back in fashion in decades, the character Alan Scott was revived, but he was forever marginalized by the new Hal Jordan character, created to supplant him.
He made guest appearances in other superheroes' books, but got regular roles in books featuring the Justice Society. He never got another solo series. Between 1995 and 2003, DC Comics changed Alan Scott's superhero codename to "Sentinel" in order to distinguish him from the newer and more popular science fiction Green Lanterns. In 2011, the Alan Scott character was revamped, his costume was redesigned and the source of his powers was changed to that of the mystical power of nature. In 1959, Julius Schwartz reinvented the Green Lantern character as a science fiction hero named Hal Jordan. Hal Jordan's powers were more or less the same as Alan Scott's, but otherwise this character was different than the Green Lantern character of the 1940s, he had a new name, a redesigned costume, a rewritten origin story. Hal Jordan received his ring from a dying alien and was commissioned as an officer of the Green Lantern Corps, an interstellar law enforcement agency overseen by the Guardians of the Universe.
Hal Jordan was introduced in Showcase #22. Gil Kane and Sid Greene were the art team most notable on the title in its early years, along with writer John Broome. With issue #76, the series made a radical stylistic departure. Editor Schwartz, in one of the company's earliest efforts to provide more than fantasy, worked with the writer-artist team of Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams to spark new interest in the comic book series and address a perceived need for social relevance, they added the character Green Arrow and had the pair travel through America encountering "real world" issues, to which they reacted in different ways — Green Lantern as fundamentally a lawman, Green Arrow as a liberal iconoclast. Additionally during this run, the groundbreaking "Snowbirds Don't Fly" story was published in which Green Arrow's teen sidekick Speedy developed a heroin addiction that he was forcibly made to quit; the stories were critically acclaimed, with publications such as The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Newsweek citing it as an example of how comic books were "growing up".
However, the O'Neil/Adams run was not a commercial success, the series was cancelled after only 14 issues, though an additional unpublished three installments were published as backups in The Flash #217-219. The title would know a number of cancellations, its title would change to Green Lantern Corps at one point as the popularity waned. During a time there were two regular titles, each with a Green Lantern, a third member in the Justice League. A new character, Kyle Rayner, was created to become the feature while Hal Jordan first became the villain Parallax died and came back as the Spectre. In the wake of The New Frontier, writer Geoff Johns returned Hal Jordan as Green Lantern in Green Lantern: Rebirth. Johns began to lay groundwork for "Blackest Night", viewing it as the third part of the trilogy started by Rebirth. Expanding on the Green Lantern mythology in the second part, "Sinestro Corps War", with artist Ethan van Sciver, found wide critical acclaim and commercial success with the series, which promised the introduction of a spectrum of colored "lanterns".
The series and its creators have received several awards over the years, including the 1961 Alley Award for Best Adventure Hero/Heroine with Own Book and the Academy of Comic Book Arts Shazam Award for Best Conti
Fiction broadly refers to any narrative, derived from the imagination—in other words, not based on history or fact. It can refer, more narrowly, to narratives written only in prose, is used as a synonym for the novel. In its most narrow usage fiction refers to novels, but it may denote any "literary narrative", including novels and short stories. More broadly, fiction has come to encompass imaginative storytelling in any format, including writings, theatrical performances, films, television programs, games, so on. A work of fiction implies the inventive act of constructing an imaginary world, so its audience does not expect it to be faithful to the real world in presenting only characters who are actual people or descriptions that are factually true. Instead, the context of fiction understood as not adhering to the real world, is more open to interpretation. Characters and events within a fictional work may be set in their own context separate from the known universe: an independent fictional universe.
Fiction's traditional opposite is non-fiction, a narrative work whose creator assumes responsibility for presenting only the historical and factual truth. The distinction between fiction and non-fiction however can be unclear in some recent artistic and literary movements, such as postmodern literature. Traditionally, fiction includes novels, short stories, legends, fairy tales and narrative poetry, plays. However, fiction may encompass comic books, many animated cartoons, stop motions, manga, video games, radio programs, television programs, etc; the Internet has had a major impact on the creation and distribution of fiction, calling into question the feasibility of copyright as a means to ensure royalties are paid to copyright holders. Digital libraries such as Project Gutenberg make public domain texts more available; the combination of inexpensive home computers, the Internet and the creativity of its users has led to new forms of fiction, such as interactive computer games or computer-generated comics.
Countless forums for fan fiction can be found online, where loyal followers of specific fictional realms create and distribute derivative stories. The Internet is used for the development of blog fiction, where a story is delivered through a blog either as flash fiction or serial blog, collaborative fiction, where a story is written sequentially by different authors, or the entire text can be revised by anyone using a wiki. Types of literary fiction in prose include: Short story: A work of at least 2,000 words but under 7,500 words; the boundary between a long short story and a novella is vague. Novella: A work of at least 7,500 words but under 50,000 words. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness is an example of a novella. Novel: A work of 50,000 words or more. Fiction is broken down into a variety of genres: subsets of fiction, each differentiated by a particular unifying tone or style, narrative technique, media content, or popularly defined criterion. Science fiction, for example, predicts or supposes technologies that are not realities at the time of the work's creation: Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon was published in 1865 and only in 1969 did astronaut Neil Armstrong first land on the moon.
Historical fiction places imaginary characters into real historical events. In the early historical novel Waverley, Sir Walter Scott's fictional character Edward Waverley meets a figure from history, Bonnie Prince Charlie, takes part in the Battle of Prestonpans; some works of fiction are or re-imagined based on some true story, or a reconstructed biography. When the fictional story is based on fact, there may be additions and subtractions from the true story to make it more interesting. An example is Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried, a series of short stories about the Vietnam War. Fictional works that explicitly involve supernatural, magical, or scientifically impossible elements are classified under the genre of fantasy, including Lewis Carroll's Alice In Wonderland, J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Creators of fantasy sometimes introduce imaginary beings such as dragons and fairies. Literary fiction is a term used in the book-trade to distinguish novels that are regarded as having literary merit, from most commercial or "genre" fiction.
Neal Stephenson has suggested that while any definition will be simplistic there is today a general cultural difference between literary and genre fiction. On the one hand literary authors nowadays are supported by patronage, with employment at a university or a similar institution, with the continuation of such positions determined not by book sales but by critical acclaim by other established literary authors and critics. On the other hand, he suggests, genre fiction writers tend to support themselves by book sales. However, in an interview, John Updike lamented that "the category of'literary fiction' has sprung up to torment people like me who just set out to write books, if anybody wanted to read them, the more the merrier.... I'm a genre writer of a sort. I write literary fiction, like spy fiction or chick lit". On The Charlie Rose Show, he argued that this term, when applied to his work limited him and his expectations of what might come of his writing, so he does not like it, he suggested that all his works are literary be
Grant Morrison, MBE is a Scottish comic book writer and playwright. He is known for his nonlinear narratives and countercultural leanings in his runs on titles including DC Comics's Animal Man, Batman, JLA, Action Comics, All-Star Superman, Vertigo's The Invisibles, Fleetway's 2000 AD, he is the current editor-in-chief of Heavy Metal. He is the co-creator of the Syfy TV series Happy! starring Christopher Meloni and Patton Oswalt. Grant Morrison was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1960, he was educated at Allan Glen's School where his first portfolio of art was rejected by his careers guidance teacher, who encouraged him to work in a bank. His first published works were Gideon Stargrave strips for Near Myths in 1978, one of the first British alternative comics, his work appeared in four of the five issues of Near Myths and he was suitably encouraged to find more comic work. This included a weekly comic strip, Captain Clyde, an unemployed superhero based in Glasgow, for The Govan Press, a local newspaper, plus various issues of DC Thomson's Starblazer, a science fiction version of that company's Commando title.
Morrison spent much of the early 1980s touring and recording with his band The Mixers writing Starblazer for D. C. Thomson and contributing to various UK indie titles. In 1982 he submitted a proposal involving the Justice League of America and Jack Kirby's New Gods entitled Second Coming to DC Comics, but it was not commissioned. After writing The Liberators for Dez Skinn's Warrior in 1985, he started work for Marvel UK the following year. There he wrote a number of comic strips for Doctor Who Magazine, his final one a collaboration with a then-teenage Bryan Hitch, as well as a run on the Zoids strip in Spider-Man and Zoids. 1986 saw publication of Morrison's first of several two- or three-page Future Shocks for 2000AD. Morrison's first continuing serial began in 2000 AD in 1987, when he and Steve Yeowell created Zenith. Morrison's work on Zenith brought him to the attention of DC Comics, they accepted his proposals for Animal Man, a little-known character from DC's past whose most notable recent appearance was a cameo in the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series, for a 48-page Batman one-shot that would become Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth.
Animal Man put Morrison in line with the so-called "British Invasion" of American comics, along with such writers as Neil Gaiman, Peter Milligan, Jamie Delano and Alan Moore, who had launched the "invasion" with his work on Swamp Thing. After impressing with Animal Man, Morrison was asked to take over Doom Patrol, starting his surreal take on the superhero genre with issue No. 19 in 1989. Morrison's Doom Patrol introduced concepts such as dadaism and the writings of Jorge Luis Borges into his first several issues. DC published Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth in 1989 as a 128-page graphic novel painted by Dave McKean. Comics historian Les Daniels observed in 1995 that "Arkham Asylum was an unprecedented success, selling 182,166 copies in hardcover and another 85,047 in paperback."While working for DC Comics in America, Morrison kept contributing to British indie titles, writing St. Swithin's Day for Trident Comics. St. Swithin's Day's anti-Margaret Thatcher themes proved controversial, provoking a small tabloid press reaction and a complaint from Conservative MP Teddy Taylor.
The controversy continued with the publication of The New Adventures of Hitler in Scottish music and lifestyle magazine Cut in 1989, due to its use of Adolf Hitler as its lead character. The strip was unfinished when Cut folded, was reprinted and completed in Fleetway's 2000 AD spin-off title Crisis. Morrison returned to Batman with the "Gothic" story arc in issues 6–10 of the Batman title Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight; the early 1990s saw Morrison revamping Kid Eternity for DC with artist Duncan Fegredo, Dan Dare, with artist Rian Hughes. Morrison coloured Dare's bright future with Thatcherism in Fleetway's Revolver. In 1991 Morrison wrote Bible John-A Forensic Meditation for Fleetway's Crisis, based on an analysis of possible motivations for the crimes of the serial killer Bible John. Covering similar themes to Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell's From Hell, the work utilised cut-up techniques, a Ouija board and collage rather than conventional panels to tell the story. In 1993 Morrison, fellow Glaswegian comic writer Mark Millar and John Smith were asked to reinvigorate 2000 AD for an eight-week run called "The Summer Offensive".
Morrison wrote Judge Dredd and Really and Truly, co-wrote the controversial Big Dave with Millar. DC Comics launched its Vertigo imprint in 1993, publishing several of Morrison's creator-owned projects, such as the steampunk mini-series Sebastian O and the graphic novel The Mystery Play. 1995 saw the release of Kill Your Boyfriend, with artist Philip Bond published as a Vertigo Voices one-shot. In 1996 Morrison wrote Flex Mentallo, a Doom Patrol spin-off with art by Frank Quitely, returned to DC Universe superheroics with the short-lived Aztek, co-written with Mark Millar. In 1996, Morrison was given the Justice League of America to revamp as JLA, a comic book that gathered the "Big Seven" superheroes of the DC universe into one team; this run returned the title back to best-selling status. Morrison wrote several issues of The Flash with Mark Millar, as well as DC's crossover event of 1998, the four-issue mini-series DC One Million, in addition to plotting many of the multiple crossovers. With the three volumes of the creator-owned The Invisibles, Morrison started his largest and most important work.
The Invisibles combined political, pop- and sub-cultural references. Tapping into pre-millennial tension, the work was influenced