Field Museum of Natural History

The Field Museum of Natural History known as The Field Museum, is a natural history museum in Chicago, is one of the largest such museums in the world. The museum maintains its status as a premier natural-history museum through the size and quality of its educational and scientific programs, as well as due to its extensive scientific-specimen and artifact collections; the diverse, high-quality permanent exhibitions, which attract up to two million visitors annually, range from the earliest fossils to past and current cultures from around the world to interactive programming demonstrating today's urgent conservation needs. The museum is named in honor of its first major benefactor, the department-store magnate Marshall Field; the museum and its collections originated from the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition and the artifacts displayed at the fair. The museum maintains a temporary exhibition program of traveling shows as well as in-house produced topical exhibitions; the professional staff maintains collections of over 24 million specimens and objects that provide the basis for the museum’s scientific-research programs.

These collections include the full range of existing biodiversity, meteorites and rich anthropological collections and cultural artifacts from around the globe. The museum's library, which contains over 275,000 books and photo archives focused on biological systematics, evolutionary biology, archaeology and material culture, supports the museum’s academic-research faculty and exhibit development; the academic faculty and scientific staff engage in field expeditions, in biodiversity and cultural research on every continent, in local and foreign student training, in stewardship of the rich specimen and artifact collections. They work in close collaboration with public programming exhibitions and education initiatives; the Field Museum and its collections originated from the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition and the artifacts displayed at the fair. In order to house for future generations the exhibits and collections assembled for the Exposition, Edward Ayer convinced the merchant Marshall Field to fund the establishment of a museum.

Titled the Columbian Museum of Chicago in honor of its origins, the Field Museum was incorporated by the State of Illinois on September 16, 1893, for the purpose of the "accumulation and dissemination of knowledge, the preservation and exhibition of artifacts illustrating art, archaeology and history." The Columbian Museum of Chicago occupied the only building remaining from the World's Columbian Exposition in Jackson Park, the Palace of Fine Arts. It is now home to the Chicago Museum of Industry. In 1905, the museum's name was changed to the Field Museum of Natural History to honor its first major benefactor and to reflect its focus on the natural sciences. During the period from 1943 to 1966, the museum was known as the Chicago Natural History Museum. In 1921, the Museum moved from its original location in Jackson Park to its present site on Chicago Park District property near downtown. By the late 1930s the Field had emerged as one of the three premier museums in the United States, the other two being the American Museum of Natural History in New York and the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC.

The museum has maintained its reputation through continuous growth, expanding the scope of collections and its scientific research output, in addition to its award-winning exhibitions, outreach publications, programs. The Field Museum is part of Chicago’s lakefront Museum Campus that includes the John G. Shedd Aquarium and the Adler Planetarium. In 2015, it was reported that an employee had defrauded the museum of $900,000 over a seven-year period to 2014. Animal exhibitions and dioramas such as Nature Walk, Mammals of Asia, Mammals of Africa that allow visitors an up-close look at the diverse habitats that animals inhabit. Most notably featured are the infamous man-eating lions of Tsavo; the Mfuwe man eating lion is on display. Evolving Planet follows the evolution of life on Earth over 4 billion years; the exhibit showcases fossils of single-celled organisms, Permian synapsids, extinct mammals, early hominoids. The Field Museum's non-mammalian synapsid collection consists of over 1100 catalogued specimens, including 46 holotypes.

The collection of basal synapsids includes 29 holotypes of caseid, edaphosaurid and sphenacodontid species - 88% of catalogued specimens. Inside Ancient Egypt offers a glimpse into. Twenty-three human mummies are on display as well as many mummified animals; the exhibit features a three-story replica of the mastaba tomb of the son of Unas. Displayed are an ancient marketplace showing artifacts of everyday life, a shrine to the cat goddess Bastet, dioramas showing the afterlife preparation process for the dead; the Ancient Americas displays 13,000 years of human ingenuity and achievement in the Western Hemisphere, where hundreds of diverse societies thrived long before the arrival of Europeans. In this large permanent exhibition visitors can learn the epic story of the peopling of these continents, from the Arctic to the tip of South America. Cultural exhibitions include sections on Tibet and China, where visitors can view traditional clothing. There is an exhibit on life in Africa, where visitors can learn about the many different cultures on the continent, an exhibit where visitors may "visit" several Pacific Islands.

The museum houses an authentic 19th-century Māori Meeting House, Ruatepupuke II, from Tokomaru Bay, New Zealand


In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system to behave like another computer system. An emulator enables the host system to run software or use peripheral devices designed for the guest system. Emulation refers to the ability of a computer program in an electronic device to emulate another program or device. Many printers, for example, are designed to emulate Hewlett-Packard LaserJet printers because so much software is written for HP printers. If a non-HP printer emulates an HP printer, any software written for a real HP printer will run in the non-HP printer emulation and produce equivalent printing. Since at least the 1990s, many video game enthusiasts have used emulators to play classic arcade games from the 1980s using the games' original 1980s machine code and data, interpreted by a current-era system. A hardware emulator is an emulator. Examples include the DOS-compatible card installed in some 1990s-era Macintosh computers like the Centris 610 or Performa 630 that allowed them to run personal computer software programs and FPGA-based hardware emulators.

In a theoretical sense, the Church-Turing thesis implies that any operating environment can be emulated within any other environment. However, in practice, it can be quite difficult when the exact behavior of the system to be emulated is not documented and has to be deduced through reverse engineering, it says nothing about timing constraints. Emulation is a strategy in digital preservation to combat obsolescence. Emulation focuses on recreating an original computer environment, which can be time-consuming and difficult to achieve, but valuable because of its ability to maintain a closer connection to the authenticity of the digital object. Emulation addresses the original hardware and software environment of the digital object, recreates it on a current machine; the emulator allows the user to have access to any kind of application or operating system on a current platform, while the software runs as it did in its original environment. Jeffery Rothenberg, an early proponent of emulation as a digital preservation strategy states, "the ideal approach would provide a single extensible, long-term solution that can be designed once and for all and applied uniformly, in synchrony to all types of documents and media".

He further states that this should not only apply to out of date systems, but be upwardly mobile to future unknown systems. Speaking, when a certain application is released in a new version, rather than address compatibility issues and migration for every digital object created in the previous version of that application, one could create an emulator for the application, allowing access to all of said digital objects. Better graphics quality than original hardware. Additional features original hardware didn't have. Emulators maintain the original look and behavior of the digital object, just as important as the digital data itself. Despite the original cost of developing an emulator, it may prove to be the more cost efficient solution over time. Reduces labor hours, because rather than continuing an ongoing task of continual data migration for every digital object, once the library of past and present operating systems and application software is established in an emulator, these same technologies are used for every document using those platforms.

Many emulators have been developed and released under the GNU General Public License through the open source environment, allowing for wide scale collaboration. Emulators allow software exclusive to one system to be used on another. For example, a PlayStation 2 exclusive video game could be played on a PC using an emulator; this is useful when the original system is difficult to obtain, or incompatible with modern equipment. Intellectual property - Many technology vendors implemented non-standard features during program development in order to establish their niche in the market, while applying ongoing upgrades to remain competitive. While this may have advanced the technology industry and increased vendor's market share, it has left users lost in a preservation nightmare with little supporting documentation due to the proprietary nature of the hardware and software. Copyright laws are not yet in effect to address saving the documentation and specifications of proprietary software and hardware in an emulator module.

Emulators are used as a copyright infringement tool, since they allow users to play video games without having to buy the console, make any attempt to prevent the use of illegal copies. This leads to a number of legal uncertainties regarding emulation, leads to software being programmed to refuse to work if it can tell the host is an emulator; these protections make it more difficult to design emulators, since they must be accurate enough to avoid triggering the protections, whose effects may not be obvious. Emulators require better hardware; because of its primary use of digital formats

Lausanne Covenant

The Lausanne Covenant is a July 1974 religious manifesto promoting active worldwide Christian evangelism. One of the most influential documents in modern evangelicalism, it was written at the First International Congress on World Evangelization in Lausanne, where it was adopted by 2,300 evangelicals in attendance. In July 1974, the original Lausanne conference brought together 2,700 Christian religious leaders from over 150 countries and was called by a committee headed by the American evangelist Billy Graham; the drafting committee for the 15-point document was chaired by John Stott of the United Kingdom. In addition to the signing of the covenant, the conference created the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization; the covenant is in the form of an ecumenical confession, in which the signatories profess their shame at having failed to spread the Gospel of Jesus. The covenant affirms the beliefs in the Nicene Creed; the signatories express their intention to be more committed to spreading Christianity throughout the world.

The original document is in English and has been translated into at least twenty different languages. In 1989, fifteen years after the original Lausanne conference, the Second International Congress on World Evangelization convened in Manila and adopted the Manila Manifesto, an elaboration of the Lausanne Covenant; the introduction of the covenant is: We, members of the Church of Jesus Christ, from more than 150 nations, participants in the International Congress on World Evangelization at Lausanne, praise God for his great salvation and rejoice in the fellowship he has given us with himself and with each other. We are stirred by what God is doing in our day, moved to penitence by our failures, challenged by the unfinished task of evangelization. We believe the gospel is God's good news for the whole world, we are determined, by his grace, to obey Christ's commission to proclaim it to all mankind and to make disciples of every nation. We desire, therefore, to affirm our faith and our resolve, to make public our covenant.

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Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59856-874-5. Gros, Jeffrey. "Review of Making Christ Known: Historic Mission Documents from the Lausanne Movement, 1974–1989, Edited by John Stott". International Review of Mission. 88: 313. Doi:10.1111/j.1758-6631.1999.tb00161.x. Hunt, Robert A.. "The History of the Lausanne Movement, 1974–2010". International Bulletin of Missionary Research. 35: 81–85. Doi:10.1177/239693931103500203. Padilla, C. René. "Evangelism and Social Responsibility: From Wheaton'66 to Wheaton'83". Transformation. 2: 27–34. Doi:10.1177/026537888500200311. Padilla, René. How Evangelicals Endorsed Social Responsibility. Cambridge, England: Grove Books. ISBN 978-1-85174-009-3. Stott, John. "Evangelism Plus". Christianity Today. Vol. 50 no. 10. Interviewed by Stafford, Tim. Archived from the original on 15 October 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2018. Steuernagel, Valdir R.. "Social Concern and Evangelization Our Journey Since Lausanne I". Transformation. 7: 12–16. Doi:10.1177/026537889000700105.

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