A Room with a View
A Room with a View is a 1908 novel by English writer E. M. Forster, about a young woman in the restrained culture of Edwardian era England. Set in Italy and England, the story is both a romance and a humorous critique of English society at the beginning of the 20th century. Merchant Ivory produced an award-winning film adaptation in 1985; the Modern Library ranked A Room with a View 79th on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. The first part of the novel is set in Florence and describes a young English woman's first visit to Florence, at a time when upper middle class English women were starting to lead more independent, adventurous lives. Miss Lucy Honeychurch is touring Italy with her overly fussy and priggish but ineffective older cousin and chaperone, Miss Charlotte Bartlett; the novel opens with their complaints about the pension where they are staying, the Pension Bertolini, at which rooms with a view of the River Arno had been promised, but which instead overlook a drab courtyard.
One of the guests at the pension, Mr Emerson, interrupts their "peevish wrangling" by spontaneously offering to swap rooms. He and his son George both have rooms with pleasant views of the Arno, argues, "Women like looking at a view. Mr Emerson's offer causes Miss Bartlett some consternation because she looks down on the Emersons because of their unconventional behaviour, because she fears that acceptance would place her and her young cousin under an "unseemly obligation", she decidedly rejects the offer. However, another guest at the pension, an Anglican clergyman named Mr Beebe, assures Miss Bartlett that the Emersons only meant to be kind, persuades the two women to accept the offer, she suggests that the Emersons are socialists. The following day, while Charlotte rests in the pension, Lucy decides to spend a "long morning" in the Basilica of Santa Croce, accompanied by another guest, Miss Eleanor Lavish, a novelist, who promises to lead her on an adventure; the older woman takes away Lucy's Baedeker guidebook, she says, only touches the surface of things.
She will show Lucy the "true Italy". But on the way to Santa Croce, chattering away, the two take a wrong turn and get lost. After drifting for hours through various streets and piazzas, they make it back to the square in front of the church only to have the novelist abandon Lucy in pursuit of an old man who, she says, is her "local colour box". Inside the church, Lucy meets the Emersons again. Although their manners are awkward and they have been treated rather coolly by many of the other guests of the pension, Lucy finds that she likes the Emersons, encounters them in Florence. One afternoon while touring Piazza della Signoria and George Emerson separately witness a murder. George sees that Lucy is overcome, catches her as she faints; when she recovers, she asks him to retrieve some photographs. George finds them, but out of confusion, throws them into the river because they were spotted with blood, confesses why to Lucy; as they stop to look over the River Arno before making their way back to the hotel, they have an intimate conversation.
After this, Lucy decides to avoid George because she is confused by her feelings, to keep her cousin happy. Miss Bartlett is more wary of the eccentric Emersons, since hearing a startling comment made by another clergyman, Mr Eager, who says that Mr Emerson, "murdered his wife in the sight of God". In the week, a party made up of Mr Beebe, Mr Eager, the Emersons, Miss Lavish, Miss Bartlett and Lucy make their way to Fiesole, located on a scenic height above Florence, in carriages driven by Italians. At first the driver is permitted to invite a pretty girl he claims is his sister onto the box of the carriage to accompany them, but when they sit closer and he kisses her, Mr Eager promptly requires that she leave them. In another carriage, Mr Emerson remarks how it is defeat rather than victory to part two people in love. Wandering about in the high fields after abandoning Miss Lavish and Miss Bartlett to their gossip, Lucy searches for Mr Beebe, asks in awkward Italian for the driver to show her where everyone is.
Misunderstanding, he leads her to a field. Overcome by Lucy's beauty amongst a field of violets, he takes kisses her. However, they are interrupted by a shocked and upset Charlotte, ruffled because of her explicit failure at her duty as a chaperone. Lucy promises Miss Bartlett; the two women leave for Rome the next day. In Rome, Lucy spends time with Cecil Vyse. Cecil proposes to Lucy twice in Italy; as Part Two begins, Lucy has returned to England, to her family home, Windy Corner. Cecil proposes yet again at Windy Corner, this time she accepts. Cecil is a sophisticated London aesthete, desirable in terms of rank and class though he despises country society; the vicar, Mr Beebe, announces. Cecil brought them to the village as a comeuppance to the villa's landlord, whom Cecil thinks to be a snob. Lucy is angry with Cecil, as she had tentatively arranged for the elderly Misses Alan, other guests from the Pension Bertolini, to take the villa. Fate ta
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Founded in 1789 as Georgetown College, the university has grown to comprise nine undergraduate and graduate schools, among which are the School of Foreign Service, School of Business, Medical School, Law School. Located on a hill above the Potomac River, the school's main campus is identifiable by its flagship Healy Hall, a National Historic Landmark. Georgetown offers degree programs in forty-eight disciplines, enrolling an average of 7,500 undergraduate and 10,000 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries. Georgetown is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit-affiliated institution of higher education in the United States; the Jesuits have participated in the university's academic life, both as scholars and as administrators, since 1805. The majority of Georgetown students are not Catholic. Georgetown's notable alumni include U. S. President Bill Clinton, U. S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, CIA Director George Tenet, King Felipe of Spain, as well as the royalty and heads of state of more than a dozen countries.
In 2015, Georgetown had 1190 alumni working as diplomats for the U. S. Foreign Service, more than any other university. In 2014, Georgetown ranked second in the nation by the average number of graduates serving in the U. S. Congress. Georgetown is a top feeder school for careers in consulting and investment banking on Wall Street. Georgetown is home to the country's largest student-run business, largest student-run financial institution, the oldest continuously running student theatre troupe, one of the oldest debating societies in the United States; the school's athletic teams are nicknamed the Hoyas and include a men's basketball team that has won a record-tying seven Big East championships, appeared in five Final Fours, won a national championship in 1984. The university has a co-ed sailing team that holds thirteen national championships and one world championship title. Jesuit settlers from England founded the Province of Maryland in 1634. However, the 1646 defeat of the Royalists in the English Civil War led to stringent laws against Roman Catholic education and the extradition of known Jesuits from the colony, including missionary Andrew White, the destruction of their school at Calverton Manor.
During most of the remainder of Maryland's colonial period, Jesuits conducted Catholic schools clandestinely. It was not until after the end of the American Revolution that plans to establish a permanent Catholic institution for education in the United States were realized; because of Benjamin Franklin's recommendation, Pope Pius VI appointed former Jesuit John Carroll as the first head of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States though the papal suppression of the Jesuit order was still in effect. Carroll began meetings of local clergy in 1783 near Annapolis, where they orchestrated the development of a new university. On January 23, 1789, Carroll finalized the purchase of the property in Georgetown on which Dahlgren Quadrangle was built. Future Congressman William Gaston was enrolled as the school's first student on November 22, 1791, instruction began on January 2, 1792. During its early years, Georgetown College suffered from considerable financial strain; the Maryland Society of Jesus began its restoration in 1805, Jesuit affiliation, in the form of teachers and administrators, bolstered confidence in the college.
The school relied on private sources of funding and the limited profits from local lands, donated to the Jesuits. To raise money for Georgetown and other schools in 1838, Maryland Jesuits conducted a mass sale of some 272 slaves to two Deep South plantations in Maringouin, Louisiana from their six in Maryland, ending their slaveholding. President James Madison signed into law Georgetown's congressional charter on March 1, 1815, creating the first federal university charter, which allowed it to confer degrees, with the first bachelor's degrees being awarded two years later. In 1844, the school received a corporate charter, under the name "The President and Directors of Georgetown College", affording the growing school additional legal rights. In response to the demand for a local option for Roman Catholic students, the Medical School was founded in 1851; the U. S. Civil War affected Georgetown as 1,141 students and alumni enlisted in one army or the other, the Union Army commandeered university buildings.
By the time of President Abraham Lincoln's May 1861 visit to campus, 1,400 troops were living in temporary quarters there. Due to the number of lives lost in the war, enrollment levels remained low until well after the war. Only seven students graduated in 1869, down from over 300 in the previous decade; when the Georgetown College Boat Club, the school's rowing team, was founded in 1876 it adopted two colors: blue, used for Union uniforms, gray, used for Confederate uniforms. These colors signified the peaceful unity among students. Subsequently, the school adopted these as its official colors. Enrollment did not recover until during the presidency of Patrick Francis Healy from 1873 to 1881. Born in Georgia as a slave by law and mixed-race by ancestry, Healy was the first head of a predominantly white American university of acknowledged African descent, he identified as Irish Catholic, like his father, was educated in Catholic schools in the United States and France. He is credited with reforming the undergraduate curriculum, lengthening the medical and law programs, creating the Alumni Association.
One of his largest undertakings was the construction of a major new building, subsequently named Healy Hall in his honor. For his work, Healy is known as the school's "second fo
Lucius Sergius Catilina, known in English as Catiline, was a Roman Senator of the 1st century BC best known for the second Catilinarian conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic and, in particular, the power of the aristocratic Senate. He is known for several acquittals in court, including one for the charge of adultery with a Vestal Virgin. Catiline was born in 108 BC to one of the oldest patrician families in Rome, gens Sergia, his parents were Belliena. Although his family was of consular heritage, they were declining in both social and financial fortunes. Virgil gave the family an ancestor, who had come with Aeneas to Italy because they were notably ancient; the last Sergius to be consul had been Gnaeus Sergius Fidenas Coxo in 380 BC. His great-grandfather was Marcus Sergius; these factors would shape Catiline's ambitions and goals as he would desire above all else to restore the political heritage of his family along with its financial power. An able commander, Catiline had a distinguished military career.
He served in the Social War with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Cicero, under Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo in 89 BC. During the regime of Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Cinna and Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, Catiline played no major role, but he remained politically secure, married to the niece of Gaius Marius, he supported Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the civil war of 84–81 BC. According to accusations made by Cicero, during Sulla's proscription Catiline helped Quintus Lutatius Catulus avenge himself upon the prosecutor who had caused the death of his father: Catiline's brother-in-law, Marcus Marius Gratidianus. Catiline maimed and killed his brother-in-law at the tomb of Catulus decapitated the corpse. Catiline proceeded to carry the head through the streets of Rome and deposited it at Sulla's feet at the Temple of Apollo. Catiline was accused of murdering his first wife and son so that he could marry the wealthy and beautiful Aurelia Orestilla, daughter of the consul of 71 BC, Gnaeus Aufidius Orestes. In the early 70s BC he served abroad with Publius Servilius Vatia in Cilicia.
In 73 BC, he was brought to trial for adultery with a capital crime. The Vestal, was a half-sister of Cicero's wife, Terentia. Catulus, by the principal leader of the Optimates, testified in his favor. Catiline and Fabia were acquitted, he was praetor in 68 BC, for the following two years was the propraetorian governor for Africa. Upon his return home in 66 BC, he presented himself as a candidate for the consular elections, but a delegation from Africa appealing to the Senate, indicting him for abuses, prevented this as the incumbent consul, Lucius Volcatius Tullus, disallowed the candidacy, he was brought to trial in 65 BC, where he received the support of many distinguished men, including many consulars. One of the consuls for 65 BC, Lucius Manlius Torquatus, demonstrated his support for Catiline. Cicero contemplated defending Catiline in court. Catiline was acquitted; the author of the Commentariolum Petitionis Cicero's brother, Quintus Cicero, suggests that Catiline was only acquitted by the fact that "he left the court as poor as some of his judges had been before the trial," implying that he bribed his judges.
The first Catilinarian conspiracy was a plot to seize power. Historians consider it unlikely that Catiline would have been involved in the First Catilinarian Conspiracy or, that the conspiracy existed at all. During 64 BC, Catiline was accepted as a candidate in the consular election for 63 BC, he ran alongside Gaius Antonius Hybrida. Catiline was defeated by both Cicero and Antonius Hybrida in the consular election because the Roman aristocracy feared Catiline and his economic plan; the Optimates were repulsed because he promoted the plight of the urban plebs along with his economic policy of tabulae novae, the universal cancellation of debts. He was brought to trial that same year, but this time it was for his role in the Sullan proscriptions. At the insistence of Cato the Younger, quaestor, all men who had profited during the proscriptions were brought to trial. For his involvement, Catiline was accused of killing his former brother-in-law Marcus Marius Gratidianus, carrying this man’s severed head through the streets of Rome and having Sulla add him to the proscription to make it legal.
Other allegations claimed. Despite this, Catiline was acquitted again, though some surmise that it was through the influence of Caesar, who presided over the court. Catiline chose to stand for the consulship again in the following year. However, by the time of the consular election for 62 BC, Catiline had lost much of the political support he had enjoyed during the previous year's election, he was defeated by two other candidates, Decimus Junius Silanus and Lucius Licinius Murena crushing his political ambitions. The only remaining chance of attaining the consulship would be through illegitimate means: conspiracy or revolution; the second Catilinarian conspiracy was a plot, devised by Catiline with the help of a group of aristocrats and disaffected veterans, to overthrow the Roman Republic in 63 BC. Cicero exposed the plot, which forced Catiline to flee from Rome; the failure of the conspiracy in Rome was a massive blow to Catiline. Upon hearing of the death of Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura and the others, many men deserted his army, reducing the size from about 10,000 to a mere 3,000.
He and his ill-equipped army began to march towards Gaul and then
Gothic War (535–554)
The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Sardinia and Corsica. The war had its roots in the ambition of the East Roman Emperor Justinian I to recover the provinces of the former Western Roman Empire, which the Romans had lost to invading barbarian tribes in the previous century; the war followed the Byzantine reconquest of the province of Africa from the Vandals. Historians divide the war into two phases: From 535 to 540: ending with the fall of the Ostrogothic capital Ravenna and the apparent reconquest of Italy by the Byzantines. From 540/541 to 553: a Gothic revival under Totila, suppressed only after a long struggle by the Byzantine general Narses, who repelled an invasion in 554 by the Franks and Alamanni. In 554 Justinian promulgated the Pragmatic sanction. Several cities in northern Italy held out against the Byzantines until 562. By the end of the war Italy had been depopulated.
The Byzantines found themselves incapable of resisting an invasion by the Lombards in 568, which resulted in Constantinople permanently losing control over large parts of the Italian peninsula. In 476 Odoacer deposed Emperor Romulus Augustulus and declared himself rex Italiae, resulting in the final dissolution of the Western Roman Empire in Italy. Although Odoacer recognised the nominal suzerainty of the Eastern Emperor, his independent policies and increasing strength made him a threat in the eyes of Constantinople. To provide a buffer, the Ostrogoths, under their leader, Theodoric the Great, were settled as foederati of the Empire in the western Balkans, but unrest continued. Zeno sent the Ostrogoths to Italy as the representatives of the Empire to remove Odoacer. Theodoric and the Goths defeated Italy came under Gothic rule. In the arrangement between Theodoric and Zeno, his successor Anastasius, the land and its people were regarded as part of the Empire, with Theodoric a viceroy and head of the army.
This arrangement was scrupulously observed by Theodoric. The army, on the other hand, was Gothic, under the authority of their chiefs and courts; the peoples were divided by religion: the Romans were Chalcedonian Christian, while the Goths were Arian Christians. Unlike the Vandals or the early Visigoths the Goths practised considerable religious tolerance; the dual system worked under the capable leadership of Theodoric, who conciliated the Roman aristocracy, but the system began to break down during his years and collapsed under his heirs. With the ascension of Emperor Justin I, the end of the Acacian schism between the Eastern and Western Churches, the return of ecclesiastical unity within the East, several members of the Italian senatorial aristocracy began to favour closer ties to Constantinople to balance Gothic power; the deposition and execution of the distinguished magister officiorum Boethius and his father-in-law in 524 was part of the slow estrangement of their caste from the Gothic regime.
Theodoric was succeeded by his infant grandson Athalaric in August 526, with his mother, Amalasuntha, as regent. This conciliation and Athalaric's Roman education displeased Gothic magnates, who plotted against her. Amalasuntha had three of the leading conspirators killed and wrote to the new Emperor, Justinian I, asking for sanctuary if she was deposed. Amalasuntha remained in Italy. In 533, using a dynastic dispute as a pretext, Justinian had sent his most talented general, Belisarius, to recover the North African provinces held by the Vandals; the Vandalic War produced an unexpectedly swift and decisive victory for the Roman Empire and encouraged Justinian in his ambition to recover the rest of the lost western provinces. As Regent, Amalasuntha had allowed the Roman fleet to use the harbours of Sicily, which belonged to the Ostrogothic Kingdom. After her son's death in 534, Amalasuntha offered the kingship to her cousin Theodahad. Through his agents, Justinian tried to save Amalasuntha's life but to no avail and her death gave him a casus belli to go to war with the Goths.
Procopius wrote that "as soon as he learned what had happened to Amalasuntha, being in the ninth year of his reign, he entered upon war". Belisarius was appointed commander in chief for the expedition against Italy with 7,500 men. Mundus, the magister militum per Illyricum, was ordered to occupy the Gothic province of Dalmatia; the forces made available to Belisarius were small when compared to the much larger army he had fielded against the Vandals, an enemy much weaker than the Ostrogoths. The preparations for the operation were carried out in secret, while Justinian tried to secure the neutrality of the Franks by gifts of gold. Belisarius landed at Sicily, between Roman Africa and Italy, whose population was well disposed toward the Empire; the island was captured, with the only determined resistance, at Panormus, overcome by late December. Belisarius prepared to cross to Italy and Theodahad sent envoys to Justinian, proposing at first to cede Sicily and recognise his overlordship but to cede all of Italy.
In March 536 Mundus overran Dalmatia and captured its capital, but a large Gothic army arrived and Mundus' son Mauricius died in a skirmish. Mundus was himself mortally wounded in the pursuit; the R
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding to Tuscany, south of the Arno river, western Umbria and central Lazio, with offshoots to the north in the Po Valley, in the current Emilia-Romagna, south-eastern Lombardy and southern Veneto, to the south, in some areas of Campania. As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions until its assimilation into the Roman Republic, beginning in the late 4th century BC with the Roman–Etruscan Wars. Culture, identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 900 BC with the Iron Age Villanovan culture, regarded as the oldest phase of Etruscan civilization; the latter gave way in the 7th century BCE to a culture, influenced by Ancient Greek culture, during the Archaic and the Hellenistic period. At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman Kingdom, Etruscan civilization flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po Valley with the eastern Alps, of Campania.
The league in northern Italy is mentioned in Livy. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BCE the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands; the last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BCE. Although the Etruscans developed a system of writing, the Etruscan language remains only understood, only a handful of texts of any length survive, making modern understanding of their society and culture dependent on much and disapproving Roman and Greek sources. Politics was based on the small city and the family unit. In their heyday, the Etruscan elite grew rich through trade with the Celtic world to the north and the Greeks to the south and filled their large family tombs with imported luxuries. Archaic Greece had a huge influence on their art and architecture, Greek mythology was evidently familiar to them; the Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, syncopated to Rasna or Raśna, while the ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the Tuscī or Etruscī. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms "Toscana", which refers to their heartland, "Etruria", which can refer to their wider region.
In Attic Greek, the Etruscans were known as Tyrrhenians, from which the Romans derived the names Tyrrhēnī, Tyrrhēnia, Mare Tyrrhēnum, prompting some to associate them with the Teresh. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory, although Greek historians as early as the 5th century BC associated the Tyrrhenians with Pelasgians, which could both be broad descriptive terms. Strabo and the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus make mention of the Tyrrhenians as pirates. Thucydides and Strabo all denote Lemnos as settled by Pelasgians, whom Thucydides identifies as "belonging to the Tyrrhenians". Although both Strabo and Herodotus agree that Tyrrhenus / Tyrsenos, son of Atys, king of Lydia, led the migration, Strabo specifies that it was the Pelasgians of Lemnos and Imbros who followed Tyrrhenus to the Italian Peninsula. A link between Lemnos and the Tyrrhenians was further manifested by the discovery of the Lemnos Stele, whose inscriptions were written in a language which shows strong structural resemblances to the language of the Etruscans.
This has led to the suggestion of a "Tyrrhenian language group" comprising Etruscan and the Raetic spoken in the Alps. Hellanicus of Lesbos records a Pelasgian migration from Thessaly to the Italian peninsula, noting that "the Pelasgi made themselves masters of some of the lands belonging to the Umbri". By contrast, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a Greek writer living in Rome, dismisses many of the ancient theories of the other Greek historians and postulates that the Etruscans were indigenous people who had always lived in Etruria. For this reason, therefore, I am persuaded that the Pelasgians are a different people from the Tyrrhenians, and I do not believe, that the Tyrrhenians were a colony of the Lydians. For they neither worship the same gods as the Lydians nor make use of similar laws or institutions, but in these respects they differ more from the Lydians than from the Pelasgians. Indeed, those come nearest to the truth who declare that the nation migrated from nowhere else, but was native to the country, since it is found to be a ancient nation and to agree with no other either in its language or in its manner of living.
Furthermore, Dionysius of Halicarnassus is the first ancient writer who reports the endonym of the Etruscans: Rasenna. The Romans, give them other names: from the country they once inhabited, named Etruria, they call them Etruscans, from their knowledge of the ceremonies relating to divine worship, in which they excel others, they now call them, rather inaccurately, but with the same accuracy as the Greeks, they called them Thyoscoï, their own name for themselves, however, is the same as that of one of Rasenna. Livy in his Ab Urbe Condita Libri says the Rhaetians were Etruscans driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls, asserts that the inhabitants of Raetia were of Etruscan origin; the Alpine tribes have no doubt, the same origin the Raetians.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, known as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman and one of the canonical figures of Roman history. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was a skillful general, achieving numerous successes in wars against different opponents, both foreign and Roman, he was awarded the most prestigious Roman military honor, during the Social War. Sulla's dictatorship came during a high point in the struggle between optimates and populares, the former seeking to maintain the Senate's oligarchy, the latter espousing populism. In a dispute over the eastern army command, Sulla marched on Rome in an unprecedented act and defeated Marius in battle. In 81 BC, after his second march on Rome, he revived the office of dictator, inactive since the Second Punic War over a century before, used his powers to enact a series of reforms to the Roman Constitution, meant to restore the primacy of the Senate and limit the power of the tribunes.
Sulla's ascension was marked by political purges in proscriptions. After seeking election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after. Sulla's decision to seize power – enabled by his rival's military reforms that bound the army's loyalty with the general rather than to Rome – permanently destabilized the Roman power structure. Leaders like Julius Caesar would follow his precedent in attaining political power through force. Sulla's life was habitually included in the ancient biographical collections of leading generals and politicians, originating in the biographical compendium of famous Romans published by Marcus Terentius Varro. In Plutarch's Parallel Lives Sulla is paired with the Spartan strategist Lysander. In older sources, his name may be found as Sylla; this is a Hellenism, like sylva for classical Latin silva, reinforced by the fact that two major ancient sources and Appian, wrote in Greek, call him Σύλλα. Sulla, the son of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the grandson of Publius Cornelius Sulla, was born into a branch of the patrician gens Cornelia, but his family had fallen to an impoverished condition at the time of his birth.
Lacking ready money, Sulla spent his youth amongst Rome’s comics, lute-players, dancers. He retained an attachment to the debauched nature of his youth until the end of his life, it seems certain. Sallust declares him well-read and intelligent, he was fluent in Greek, a sign of education in Rome; the means by which Sulla attained the fortune which would enable him to ascend the ladder of Roman politics, the Cursus honorum, are not clear, although Plutarch refers to two inheritances. The Jugurthine War had started in 112 BC when Jugurtha, grandson of Massinissa of Numidia, claimed the entire kingdom of Numidia in defiance of Roman decrees that divided it between several members of the royal family. Rome declared war on Jugurtha in 111 BC, but for five years Roman legions under Quintus Caecilius Metellus were unsuccessful. Gaius Marius, a lieutenant of Metellus, saw an opportunity to usurp his commander and fed rumors of incompetence and delay to the publicani in the region; these machinations caused calls for Metellus's removal.
Marius took over the campaign while Sulla was nominated quaestor to him. Under Marius, the Roman forces followed a similar plan as under Metellus and defeated the Numidians in 106 BC, thanks in large part to Sulla's initiative in capturing the Numidian king, he had persuaded Jugurtha's father-in-law, King Bocchus I of Mauretania, to betray Jugurtha who had fled to Mauretania for refuge. It was a dangerous operation from the first, with King Bocchus weighing up the advantages of handing Jugurtha over to Sulla or Sulla over to Jugurtha; the publicity attracted by this feat boosted Sulla's political career. A gilded equestrian statue of Sulla donated by King Bocchus was erected in the Forum to commemorate his accomplishment. Although Sulla had engineered this move, as Sulla was serving under Marius at the time, Marius took credit for this feat. In 104 BC, the migrating Germanic-Celtic alliance headed by the Cimbri and the Teutones seemed to be heading for Italy; as Marius was the best general Rome had, the Senate allowed him to lead the campaign against them.
Sulla served on Marius' staff as tribunus militum during the first half of this campaign. With those of his colleague, proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus, Marius' forces faced the enemy tribes at the Battle of Vercellae in 101 BC. Sulla had by this time transferred to the army of Catulus to serve as his legatus, is credited as being the prime mover in the defeat of the tribes. Victorious at Vercellae and Catulus were both granted triumphs as the co-commanding generals. Returning to Rome, Sulla was Praetor urbanus for 97 BC. In c. 95 BC he was appointed pro consule to the province of Cilicia. While in the East, Sulla was the first Roman magistrate to meet a Parthian ambassador, by taking the seat between the Parthian ambassador and the ambassador from Cappadocia he unintentionally, slighted the Parthian
Romulus of Fiesole
Saint Romulus of Fiesole is venerated as the patron saint of Fiesole, Italy. Romulus was a local deacon, priest, or bishop of the 1st century. According to tradition, he was a disciple of Saint Peter and had been converted to Christianity by the apostle; this tradition states that Romulus became the first bishop of Fiesole and was martyred during the reign of Domitian along with four companions: Carissimus, Dulcissimus and Crescentius. He was not named as a bishop or martyr in documents dating from 966. From on, Romulus was considered a martyred bishop of Fiesole, his companions were named as Carissimus, Dulcissimus and Crescentius, their feast day was listed as July 6 in the 1468 Florentine edition of the Martyrology of Usuard, in the 16th century, his name began to appear in the Roman Martyrology, where he was named as a disciple of Saint Peter. As Antonio Borrelli remarks, sometime between the end of the 10th century and the beginning of the eleventh, Romulus was "upgraded" from being considered a Confessor of the Faith to a martyr by a local abbot named Teuzo.
An 11th-century legend associated with him, considered "worthless", makes him an illegitimate son of a woman named Lucerna, who had a child with her father's slave, named Cyrus. Like the Romulus of ancient Roman legend, this Romulus was abandoned and suckled by a she-wolf, he was captured and raised by Saint Peter and Peter's companion Justin. Romulus evangelized much of central Italy and was put to death by the governor Repertian; the most ancient image depicting Romulus is the 1440 polyptych in Fiesole Cathedral, where he is represented with Saints Alexander and Donatus. Gattolini, Jacopo. Documenti per la vera istoria di San Romolo Vescovo, Martire e Protettore della Città di Fiesole. Venezia: Giambattista Pasquali. Gattolini, Jacopo Nicola. Dissertazione seconda con nuovi documenti per la vera istoria di santo Romolo vescovo, martire, e protettore della città di Fiesole data nuovamente in luce da Jacopo Niccola Gattolini fiorentino accademico colombario. Per Bartolomeo Soliani stampator ducale.
Rauty, Natale. Il culto dei santi a Pistoia nel Medioevo. Tavarnuzze: SISMEL edizioni del Galluzzo. P. 298. Soldani, Fedele. Terza lettera del m. r. p. maestro don Fedele Soldani vallombrosano scritta ad un suo amico in risposta alla scrittura intitolata La vera istoria di s. Romolo vescovo e protettore della città di Fiesole liberata dal dottore Pier Francesco Foggini dalle calunnie appostele in una scrittura pubblicata per difesa degli atti di detto santo apocrifi e alla gloriosa memoria di lui ingiuriosissimi. Verrando, Giovanni Nino. "I due leggendari di Fiesole". Aevum. 74: 443–491. JSTOR 20861081.. San Romolo di Fiesole Cattedrale di San Romolo