Fifth Avenue

Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem, it is considered one of the most elegant streets in the world. 5th Avenue was only a narrower thoroughfare but the section south of Central Park was widened in 1908, sacrificing its wide sidewalks to accommodate the increasing traffic. The midtown blocks, now famously commercial, were a residential area until the turn of the 20th century; the first commercial building on Fifth Avenue was erected by Benjamin Altman who bought the corner lot on the northeast corner of 34th Street in 1896. In 1906 the B. Altman and Company Building was erected; the result was the creation of a high-end shopping district that attracted fashionable women and the upscale stores that wished to serve them. The Lord & Taylor Building Lord & Taylor's flagship store and now a WeWork office, is located on Fifth Avenue near the Empire State Building and the New York Public Library Main Branch.

In the 1920s, traffic towers controlled important intersections from 14th to 59th Streets. Fifth Avenue originates at Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village and runs northwards through the heart of Midtown, along the eastern side of Central Park, where it forms the boundary of the Upper East Side and through Harlem, where it terminates at the Harlem River at 142nd Street. Traffic crosses the river on the Madison Avenue Bridge. Fifth Avenue serves as the dividing line for house numbering and west-east streets in Manhattan, just as Jerome Avenue does in the Bronx, it separates, for example, East 59th Street from West 59th Street. From this zero point for street addresses, numbers increase in both directions as one moves away from Fifth Avenue, The building lot numbering system worked on the East Side as well, before Madison & Lexington Aves. were retrofitted into the street grid, confusing the building numbers. Confusingly, an address on a cross street cannot be predicted at the intersection of Madison Ave. or Lexington Ave. as these were added decades after the building numbers.

It's. The "most expensive street in the world" moniker changes depending on currency fluctuations and local economic conditions from year to year. For several years starting in the mid-1990s, the shopping district between 49th and 57th Streets was ranked as having the world's most expensive retail spaces on a cost per square foot basis. In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Fifth Avenue as being the most expensive street in the world; some of the most coveted real estate on Fifth Avenue are the penthouses perched atop the buildings. The American Planning Association compiled a list of "2012 Great Places in America" and declared Fifth Avenue to be one of the greatest streets to visit in America; this historic street has many world-renowned museums and stores, luxury apartments, historical landmarks that are reminiscent of its history and vision for the future. By 2018 portions of Fifth Avenue had large numbers of vacant store fronts for long periods, part of a citywide trend of vacant store fronts attributed to high rental costs.

Fifth Avenue from 142nd Street to 135th Street carries two-way traffic. Fifth Avenue carries one-way traffic southbound from 135th Street to Washington Square North; the changeover to one-way traffic south of 135th Street took place on January 14, 1966, at which time Madison Avenue was changed to one way uptown. From 124th Street to 120th Street, Fifth Avenue is cut off by Marcus Garvey Park, with southbound traffic diverted around the park via Mount Morris Park West. Fifth Avenue is the traditional route for many celebratory parades in New York City; the longest running parade is the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. Parades held are distinct from the ticker-tape parades held on the "Canyon of Heroes" on lower Broadway, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade held on Broadway from the Upper West Side downtown to Herald Square. Fifth Avenue parades proceed from south to north, with the exception of the LGBT Pride March, which goes north to south to end in Greenwich Village; the Latino literary classic by New Yorker Giannina Braschi, entitled "Empire of Dreams", takes place on the Puerto Rican Day Parade on Fifth Avenue.

Bicycling on Fifth Avenue ranges from segregated with a bike lane south of 23rd Street, to scenic along Central Park, to dangerous through Midtown with heavy traffic during rush hours. There is no dedicated bike lane along Fifth Avenue. In July 1987 New York City Mayor Edward Koch proposed banning bicycling on Fifth and Madison Avenues during weekdays, but many bicyclists protested and had the ban overturned; when the trial was started on Monday, August 24, 1987 for 90 days to ban bicyclists from these three avenues from 31st Street to 59th Street between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. on weekdays, mopeds would not be banned. On Monday, August 31, 1987, a state appeals court judge halted the ban for at least a week pending a ruling after opponents against the ban brought a lawsuit. Fifth Avenue is one of the few major streets in Manhattan along. Instead, Fifth Avenue Coach offered a service more to the taste of fashionable gentlefolk, at twice the fare. Double-decker buses were operated by the Fifth Avenue Coach Company until 1953, again by MTA Regional Bus Operations from 1976 to 1978.

Today, local bus service along Fifth Avenue is provided by the MTA's M1, M2, M3, M4 buses. The M5 and Q32 run on Fifth Avenue in Midtown, while the M55 runs on Fifth Avenue south of 44th Street. Numerous e

Laboratory rat

A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus domestica, bred and kept for scientific research. While less used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. In 18th century Europe, wild brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching. Rat-catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents, but by selling them for food, or more for rat-baiting. Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all. Over time, breeding the rats for these contests may have produced variations in color, notably the albino and hooded varieties; the first time one of these albino mutants was brought into a laboratory for a study was in 1828, in an experiment on fasting. Over the next 30 years rats were used for several more experiments and the laboratory rat became the first animal domesticated for purely scientific reasons.

In Japan, there was a widespread practice of keeping rats as a domesticated pet during the Edo period and in the 18th century guidebooks on keeping domestic rats were published by Youso Tamanokakehashi and Chingan Sodategusa. Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor; as there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. The rat found early use in laboratory research in five areas: W. S. Small suggested. Watson for his Ph. D. dissertation in 1903. The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition.

The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by Herbert McLean Evans and Joseph A. Long; the genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. And rats have long been used in cancer research; the historical importance of this species to scientific research is reflected by the amount of literature on it: 50% more than that on laboratory mice. Laboratory rats are subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. Laboratory rats not sacrificed may be euthanized or, in some cases, become pets. Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and less to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, their brains, kidneys, adrenal glands, hearts are smaller. Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats for experimentation.

Most are derived from the albino Wistar rat, still used. Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long–Evans, Lister black hooded rats. Inbred strains are available but are not as used as inbred mice. Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been sequenced. In October 2003, researchers succeeded in cloning two laboratory rats by nuclear transfer; this was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques used for genetic manipulation. Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. A 1972 study compared neoplasms in Sprague Dawley rats from six different commercial suppliers and found significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors.

There were significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in different laboratories. All but one of the testicular tumors occurred in the rats from a single supplier; the researchers found that the incidence of tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats from different commercial sources varied as much from each other as from the other strains of rats. The authors of the study "stressed the need for extreme caution in evaluation of carcinogenicity studies conducted at different laboratories and/or on rats from different sources."During food rationing due to World War II, British biologists ate laboratory rat, creamed. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in which all members are as nearly as possible genetically identical. In rats, this is accomplished through inbreeding. By having this kind of population, it is possible to conduct experiments on the roles of genes, or conduct experiments that exclude variations in genetics as a factor. By contrast, outbred populations are used when identical genotypes are unnecessary or a population with genetic variation is required, are referred to as stocks rather than strains.

The Wistar rat is an outbred albino rat. This breed was developed at

Stuart Beavon (footballer, born 1984)

Stuart Leigh Beavon is an English professional footballer who plays as a forward for Mickleover Sports. Born in Reading, Beavon started his career playing Hellenic League football for Ardley United as a 16-year-old when he was transferred to Combined Counties side AFC Wallingford in 2004. Beavon, along with a number of his Wallingford teammates, transferred to local rivals Didcot Town for the start of season 2004–05 and it was during his time with the Railwaymen that he began to attract the attention of numerous professional clubs, he scored two goals in Didcot's FA Vase triumph at White Hart Lane against AFC Sudbury in May 2005. He scored 40 goals the following season, his fine form continued in the Southern League South & West Division and in January 2007 he was signed by Conference Weymouth on a free transfer. Beavon signed for League Two team Wycombe Wanderers on loan until the end of the 2008–09 season on 19 February 2009, with the option of him signing permanently at the end of the season.

Wycombe took this option up after their promotion to League One, Beavon scored his first goal for the club in his first league start as part of a 1–1 away draw with Hartlepool United. He proceeded to score a further 2 goals making 14 starts and 11 substitute appearances in a season that ended in relegation for Wycombe, his contract was extended by for a further year and played a key role in Wycombe's promotion in the 2010–11 season, by supporting top goal-scorer Scott Rendell. Again his contract was renewed and he was the only player to be offered a two-year deal seeing him through to the end of the 2012–13 season. After a slow start to the season, scoring a hat-trick in the Football League Trophy but none in the league he gathered goalscoring momentum with his first league goal in a 1–0 win over Sheffield United; this was part of a run of four goals in seven games. He took another month to get his next goal however managed to score three in two against Milton Keynes Dons and Chesterfield. Two goals against Rochdale took him to nine league goals for the season.

After another three games without a goal he scored his 10th of the season against Yeovil Town before notching his 11th and 12th in a 5–0 win over Hartlepool United. He finished the season with 21 league goals, putting him fourth in the League One top goalscorers table, he scored his final goal for Wycombe Wanderers on 18 August 2012, in a 3–1 victory away at York City. During the summer, there was much transfer speculation about a possible move to Preston North End for Beavon; when the season began, interest in the striker died down because Wycombe felt their valuation of the player was not being met by Preston's offers. Westley succeeded in signing Beavon on 31 August 2012 and Beavon agreed a two-year contract, he made an instant impact at the club by scoring in his first match for Preston, a 4–1 win over Swindon Town. On 17 December 2013, Beavon extended his contract with Preston for a further twelve months, thus keeping him at the club until the summer of 2015. On 30 June 2014, Beavon joined Burton Albion in League Two on a season-long loan, which subsequently became a permanent deal on transfer deadline day.

On 1 January 2017, Beavon joined Coventry City as part of the deal that saw Marvin Sordell go in the other direction. He made his debut for the club a day and scored Coventry's second goal in a 2–2 draw with Bolton Wanderers, his second goal for the club was an important one as it was the first in a 2–1 win against Wycombe Wanderers in the EFL Trophy Semi Final. This win sent Coventry to their first Wembley final in 30 years, he was released by Coventry following the announcement of their retained list on 9 May 2019. On 27 July 2018 Beavon joined Wrexham on a season long loan. On 12 June 2019, Beavon signed for Nuneaton Borough. On 21 September 2019, he joined Mickleover Sports F. C. on a season-long loan deal. However, on 14 January 2020 it was reported; as of match played 2 May 2019 He is the son of former Reading midfielder Stuart Beavon, grandson of former Oxford United defender Cyril Beavon. Didcot TownFA Vase champion: 2004–05Wycombe WanderersFootball League Two – Promoted EFL Trophy: 2016-17 Stuart Beavon at Soccerbase