Fifth Dynasty of Egypt

The Fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is combined with Dynasties III, IV and VI under the group title the Old Kingdom. The Fifth Dynasty pharaohs reigned for 150 years, from the early 25th century BC until the mid 24th century BC; the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt is a group of nine kings ruling Egypt for circa 150 years in the 25th and 24th centuries BC. The relative succession of kings is not secured as there are contradictions between historical sources and archaeological evidences regarding the reign of the shadowy Shepseskare. Known rulers in the Fifth Dynasty are listed below. Manetho assigns 248 years of rule to the Fifth Dynasty; this estimate varies between both source. The Horus names and most names of the queens are taken from Hilton. Manetho writes that the Dynasty V kings ruled from Elephantine, but archeologists have found evidence showing that their palaces were still located at Ineb-hedj; as before, expeditions were sent to Wadi Maghareh and Wadi Kharit in the Sinai to mine for turquoise and copper, to quarries northwest of Abu Simbel for gneiss.

Trade expeditions were sent south to Punt to obtain malachite and electrum, archeological finds at Byblos attest to diplomatic expeditions sent to that Phoenician city. Finds bearing the names of several Dynasty V kings at the site of Dorak, near the Sea of Marmara, may be evidence of trade but remain a mystery. How Pharaoh Userkaf founded this dynasty is not known for certain; the Papyrus Westcar, written during the Middle Kingdom, tells a story of how king Khufu of Dynasty IV was given a prophecy that triplets born to the wife of the priest of Ra in Sakhbu would overthrow him and his heirs, how he attempted to put these children – named Userkaf and Neferirkare – to death. During this dynasty, Egyptian religion made several important changes; the earliest known copies of funerary prayers inscribed on royal tombs appear. The cult of the god Ra gains added importance, kings from Userkaf through Menkauhor Kaiu built temples dedicated to Ra at or near Abusir. Late in this dynasty, the cult of the deity Osiris assumes importance, most notably in the inscriptions found in the tomb of Unas.

Amongst non-royal Egyptians of this time, vizier to Djedkare Isesi, won fame for his wisdom. Non-royal tombs were decorated with inscriptions, like the royal ones, but instead of prayers or incantations, biographies of the deceased were written on the walls

Global Sprint Challenge

The Global Sprint Challenge is a Thoroughbred horse racing series inaugurated in 2005 as a series of six sprint races run across three racing jurisdictions in Australia and Japan. In 2006 the series expanded to seven races across four racing jurisdictions with the inclusion of a race in Hong Kong. In 2008 the series expanded to eight races when an additional race in England became part of the series and in 2011 the series expands to nine races with the inclusion of a race in Singapore; the Champion Sprinter trophy is awarded to the connections of the horse that accumulates 42 points or more in a single season, participates in challenge races in at least three countries. The Global Sprint Challenge Champion is eligible to win a $US1,000,000 bonus for connections, provided the champion wins a minimum of three Group 1 races in the series in three countries other than their own racing jurisdiction. Important changes to the series for 2009 will see the $US1,000,000 bonus being split $US750,000 to the owner and $US250,000 to the trainer and there is now no necessity to race in all four countries to be eligible for the bonus.

2005 – Inauguration of six race series 2006 – Series expanded to seven races with the inclusion of the Hong Kong International Sprint 2006 – $US1,000,000 bonus incentive added to series 2008 – King's Stand Stakes upgraded to Group 1 from Group 2 2008 – Series expanded to eight races with the inclusion of the July Cup 2008 – The Age Classic replaces the Australia Stakes as the second Australian leg of the series 2011 – Series expanded to nine races with the inclusion of the KrisFlyer International Sprint 2011 – The Takamatsunomiya Kinen replaces the Centaur Stakes as the first Japanese leg of the series 2012 – Series expanded to ten races with the inclusion of the Dubai Golden Shaheen 2016 – Series expanded to ten races with the inclusion of the Chairman's Sprint Prize 2017 - Al Quoz Sprint replaced the Dubai Golden Shaheen, meaning that all ten races will be run on turf The 2018 series was suspended due to an ongoing dispute between the racing authorities in Australia and Hong Kong over quarantine arrangements.

All races are Group / Grade One events run on turf. Lightning Stakes at Flemington Racecourse Takamatsunomiya Kinen at Chukyo Racecourse Al Quoz Sprint at Meydan Racecourse Chairman's Sprint Prize at Sha Tin Racecourse King's Stand Stakes at Royal Ascot Diamond Jubilee Stakes at Royal Ascot July Cup at Newmarket Racecourse Sprinters Stakes at Nakayama Racecourse The Age Classic at Flemington Racecourse Hong Kong Sprint at Sha Tin Racecourse * Champion Sprinter trophy not awarded Global Sprint Challenge, official web site of series

Eye Castle

Eye Castle is a motte and bailey medieval castle with a prominent Victorian addition in the town of Eye, Suffolk. Built shortly after the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the castle was sacked and destroyed in 1265. Sir Edward Kerrison built a stone house on the motte in 1844: the house decayed into ruin, becoming known as Kerrison's Folly in subsequent years. Eye Castle is a motte and bailey castle, built during the reign of William I by William Malet, who died fighting Hereward the Wake in 1071; the Malet family controlled the surrounding Honour of Eye, a significant collection of estates centering on the castle, the park of Eye. The castle motte is 160 feet in diameter and 40 feet high, with the bailey 400 feet by 250 feet wide; the castle is unusual in being only of two castles mentioned in the Domesday book on 1086 as a source of income for their owners, due to the presence of a market within the castle, from which the owner drew revenue. William Malet's son, was exiled and after his death at the battle of Tinchebrai in 1106, Eye was confiscated by Henry I and became a royal castle for a period.

Henry gave Eye to his favoured nephew, Stephen of Blois in 1113. Stephen succeeded to the English throne in 1135 and he gave the honour of Eye first to one of his lieutenants, William of Ypres and later to Hervey Brito, his son-in-law. At some point during the 1140s, Stephen transferred the lands to his second son, William. William was still young at the time, it appears that until he came of age these lands were managed by Stephen's trusted Royal Steward, William Martel. Meanwhile, the civil war known as the Anarchy had broken out between Stephen and the Empress Matilda between 1138 and 1154. Eye Castle did not play a major role in the war as, despite some skirmishing occurring in the region, most of the campaigning was conducted to the west. After coming to power in 1154, Henry II attempted to re-establish royal influence across the region; as a result of the civil war, Hugh Bigod had come to dominate East Anglia by the late 12th century, holding the title of the Earl of Norfolk and owning the four major castles in the region, Bungay and Thetford.

As part of this effort, Henry confiscated the Bigod castles, from Hugh in 1157. Despite having made earlier promises to protect him, Henry still saw Stephen's son, William, as a potential claimant to the throne, the king confiscated the castle of Eye as well at the same time. William died in 1159, allowing Henry to formally acquire and thereby legitimise his control of Eye Castle. Hugh joined the revolt by Henry's sons in 1173. Eye was attacked by Hugh Bigod in 1173. Although the attack failed, the castle had to be rebuilt. Two square towers were built on the north side of the inner bailey in the late 12th century contemporaneously with Framlingham; the castle was protected using the castle-guard system, under which local lands were granted to minor lords in exchange for the contribution of knights and soldiers for the defence of the castle. The castle sacked in 1265 during the Second Barons' War. By the 14th century, Eye Castle lay in ruins, although parts of the castle continued to be maintained as a prison.

Despite the ruined nature of the castle, the local estates subject to the castle-guard system continued to return their dues, now converted into monetary rents, to the owners of Eye Castle for many years. A windmill was built on top of the motte between 1561-2. In the early 17th century, like many other medieval Suffolk parks, the park of Eye around the castle was broken up and turned into fields. In the 1830s a workhouse and a school were built inside the castle bailey. In 1844 the owner, Sir Edward Kerrison, demolished a windmill, built on the motte, replaced it with a domestic house. Kerrison had the dwelling built for his batman, who had saved his life at the battle of Waterloo in 1815; the house resembled a shell keep, was built of flint and had living quarters built into the walls on the south and west. The building fell into ruins, being damaged in high winds during 1965 and collapsing further in 1965, it is now sometimes now referred to as Kerrison's Folly. The mound and some stone fragments of the original castle still remain intact, the site is a scheduled monument and a Grade 1 listed building.

Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Brown, R. Allen. English Castles. London: Batsford. OCLC 1392314. Brown, Vivien. Eye Priory Cartulary and Charters, Part 2. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-347-6. Creighton, Oliver Hamilton. Castles and Landscapes: Power and Fortification in Medieval England. London: Equinox. ISBN 978-1-904768-67-8. Davis, R. H. C. King Stephen. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-48727-7. Hoppitt, Rosemary. "Hunting Suffolk's Parks: Towards a Reliable Chronology of Imparkment," in Liddiard Kenyon, John R. Medieval Fortifications. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-7886-3. King, D. J. Cathcart; the Castle in England and Wales: An Interpretative History. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00350-4. King, Edmumd. King Stephen. New Haven, US: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11223-8. Liddiard, Robert; the Medieval Park: New Perspectives. Bollington, UK: Windgather Press. ISBN 978-1-905119-16-5. Page, William; the Victoria History of Suffolk, Vol. 1. London: University of London.

Pettifer, Adrian. English