A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within in favor of an enemy group or nation. The activities of a fifth column can be clandestine. Forces gathered in secret can mobilize to assist an external attack; this term is extended to organised actions by military personnel. Clandestine fifth column activities can involve acts of sabotage, disinformation, or espionage executed within defense lines by secret sympathizers with an external force. During the Siege of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War, Nationalist general Emilio Mola told a journalist in 1936 that as his four columns of troops approached Madrid, a "fifth column" of supporters inside the city would support him and undermine the Republican government from within; the term was widely used in Spain, Ernest Hemingway used it as the title of his only play, which he wrote in Madrid while the city was being bombarded and published in 1938 in his book The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories. Though Mola's 1936 usage is regarded as the origins of the phrase, historian Christopher Clark quotes a February 1906 letter by Austrian military attaché Joseph Pomiankowski using the phrase, "the fifth-column work of the Radicals in peacetime, which systematically poisons the attitude of our South Slav population and could, if the worst came to the worst, create serious difficulties for our army."Some writers, mindful of the origin of the phrase, use it only in reference to military operations rather than the broader and less well defined range of activities that sympathizers might engage in to support an anticipated attack.
By the late 1930s, as American involvement in the war in Europe became more the term "fifth column" was used to warn of potential sedition and disloyalty within the borders of the United States. The fear of betrayal was heightened by the rapid fall of France in 1940, which some blamed on internal weakness and a pro-German "fifth column". A series of photos run in the June 1940 issue of Life magazine warned of "signs of Nazi Fifth Column Everywhere". In a speech to the House of Commons that same month, Winston Churchill reassured MPs that "Parliament has given us the powers to put down Fifth Column activities with a strong hand." In July 1940, Time magazine referred to talk of a fifth column as a "national phenomenon". In August 1940, The New York Times mentioned "the first spasm of fear engendered by the success of fifth columns in less fortunate countries". One report identified participants in Nazi "fifth columns" as "partisans of authoritarian government everywhere," citing Poland, Czechoslovakia and the Netherlands.
During the Nazi invasion of Norway, the head of the Norwegian fascist party, Vidkun Quisling, proclaimed the formation of a new fascist government in control of Norway, with himself as Prime Minister, by the end of the first day of fighting. The word "quisling" soon became a byword for "collaborator" or "traitor"; the New York Times on August 11, 1940 featured three editorial cartoons using the term. John Langdon-Davies, a British journalist who covered the Spanish Civil War, wrote an account called The Fifth Column, published the same year. In November 1940, Ralph Thomson, reviewing Harold Lavine's Fifth Column in America, a study of Communist and fascist groups in the U. S. in The New York Times, questioned his choice of that title: "the phrase has been worked so hard that it no longer means much of anything." Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, U. S. Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox issued a statement that "the most effective Fifth Column work of the entire war was done in Hawaii with the exception of Norway."
In a column published in The Washington Post, dated 12 February 1942, the columnist Walter Lippmann wrote of imminent danger from actions that might be taken by Japanese Americans. Titled "The Fifth Column on the Coast," he wrote of possible attacks that could be made along the West Coast of the United States that would amplify damage inflicted by a potential attack by Japanese naval and air forces. Suspicion about an active fifth column on the coast led to the internment of Japanese Americans. During the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, an article in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette in December 1941 said the indigenous Moro Muslims were "capable of dealing with Japanese fifth columnists and invaders alike". Another in the Vancouver Sun the following month described how the large population of Japanese immigrants in Davao in the Philippines welcomed the invasion: "the first assault on Davao was aided by numbers of Fifth Columnists–residents of the town". German minority organizations in Czechoslovakia formed the Sudeten German Free Corps, which aided the Third Reich.
Some claimed they were "self-defense formations" created in the aftermath of World War I and unrelated to the German invasion two decades later. More their origins were discounted and they were defined by the role they played in 1938–39: "The same pattern was repeated in Czechoslovakia. Henlein's Free Corps played in that country the part of fifth column". In 1945, a document produced by the U. S. Department of State compared the earlier efforts of Nazi Germany to mobilize the support of sympathizers in foreign nations to the superior efforts of the international communist movement at the end of World War II: "a communist party was in fact a fifth column as much as any Bund group, except that the latter were crude and ineffective in comparison with the Communists". Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. wrote in 1949: "the special Soviet advantage—the warhead—lies in the
Sir Daniel Wilson FSA FRSE LLD was a Scottish-born Canadian archaeologist and author. Wilson was born at 55 Potterow in Edinburgh on 3 January 1816, the son of Archibald Wilson and his wife, Janet Aitken, his father is listed in directories as a book-binder. He was educated at the Royal High School, he was apprenticed as an engraver around 1830 went to London, worked in the studio of J. M. W. Turner, his skills as a water-colour painter came back into play much in his career. Wilson returned to Edinburgh in 1842, was appointed Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 1845, he corresponded with Christian Jürgensen Thomsen and J. J. A. Worsaae, who had established the exhibition of the prehistoric material in the Danish national museum in Copenhagen in terms of the Three-age system – the succession of a Stone Age by a Bronze Age and an Iron Age, he organized the display of the Society's museum after the same chronological scheme, the first to emulate the Copenhagen museum. In 1845 he is listed as a "printseller and artist's colourman" with premises at 25 Hanover Street and living at 32 Broughton Place.
In 1848 Wilson published Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time, of which the chief value lies in the numerous illustrations, done by himself It was an important record of the many historic buildings that were at risk or were being lost in the rapid development of central Edinburgh. In 1851 he published The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, which introduced the word prehistoric into the English archaeological vocabulary – he translated it from the Danish word "forhistorie" as used by Thomsen and Worsaae, his final years in Edinburgh were spent at 17 Archibald Place, near George Heriot's School. In 1853 Wilson left Scotland to take up the post of Professor of History and English Literature in Toronto. In addition to his teaching duties, he kept up his interests in natural history and was interested in the ethnography of the indigenous groups that he encountered on his vacation treks. Many of his watercolour sketches of landscapes and encampments of hunter-gatherer groups are now in the Canadian national archives in Ottawa.
His brother George Wilson had become the first director of a new national museum in Edinburgh, Daniel Wilson collected ethnographic material for the museum by means of an extensive network of contacts. He was the author of Civilisation in the Old and the New World, a number of other books, for example, a study on Thomas Chatterton, Caliban, the Missing Link, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1861. In 1875 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were Sir George Frederick Harvey, John Hutton Balfour, Sir Andrew Douglas Maclagan and Sir Robert Christison. He served as president of the Canadian Institute from 1878-1881. Daniel Wilson served as president of University College, Toronto from 1880 to 1892, as the first president of the federated University of Toronto from 1890–1892, he asserted their claims against the sectarian universities of the province which denounced the provincial university as godless, against the private medical schools in Toronto.
He advocated what he called "the maintenance of a national system of university education in opposition to sectarian or denominational colleges". He opposed the federation of colleges that of Victoria College, as a "Methodist plot". In 1888 Wilson was knighted by Queen Victoria for his services to education in Canada, in 1891 given the Freedom of the City of Edinburgh, he died in Toronto on August 6, 1892. He is buried in St James Cemetery in Toronto, his older brother was George Wilson FRSE. In 1840 he married Margaret Mackay, his sister Jessie Aitken Wilson married the biologist James Sime. The Sir Daniel J. Wilson Residence at the University College in University of Toronto is named in his honour. Memorials of Edinburgh in Olden Times Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland Prehistoric Man The Archæology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland William Nelson: A Memoir The Lost Atlantis and Other Ethnographic Studies Halpenny, Francess G, ed.. "Wilson, Sir Daniel". Dictionary of Canadian Biography.
XII. University of Toronto Press. Grant, William Lawson. "Wilson, Sir Daniel". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. P. 691. Hulse, Thinking with both hands: Sir Daniel Wilson in the old world and the new. Toronto & London, University of Toronto Press, 1999. "Wilson, Sir Daniel", A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, 1910 – via Wikisource "Wilson, Sir Daniel". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. Works written by or about Daniel Wilson at Wikisource Works by Daniel Wilson at Faded Page Works by Daniel Wilson at Project Gutenberg Works by Daniel Wilson at Open Library Online version of Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time with searchable text and images
The Rifle Bridge, over the Colorado River in Rifle, was built in 1909. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985, it is a two-span steel through truss bridge, with one 12-panel Pennsylvania truss span and one 10-panel Parker truss span. It was assessed to be "situated poorly on a tight bend in the river and has required periodical maintenance to keep it in place. Despite construction of a concrete jetty in 1922 to divert the main channel, the Colorado continues to work against the pier and north abutment." In a 1983 survey of Colorado's historic bridges, it was assessed thatThe Rifle Bridge is significant as a regionally important crossing of the Colorado River - the most expensive contracted for by Garfield County. Its Pennsylvania through span is the longest among the pinned trusses left in the state and is one of only two of its type in the survey. Erected by important Colorado bridge contractor C. G. Sheely, the Rifle Bridge is a visually striking long-span truss - one of Colorado's most significant vehicular bridges.
By it was no longer in use for vehicular transportation. It is located between what is now U. S. Highway 6 on the north side of the river, Interstate 70 on the south
John Edward Robinson was an American professional baseball player, a right-handed pitcher whose career lasted eleven seasons, including three games played in the Major Leagues for the Boston Red Sox in 1949. He served in the United States Navy during World War II. A native of Orange, New Jersey, he was raised in Bloomfield, New Jersey and graduated from Bloomfield High School in 1939 before attending Bordentown Military Institute, he weighed 175 pounds. He appeared in three games pitched, all in relief, during May for the 1949 Boston Red Sox. In those appearances, Robinson posted a 2.25 ERA in four full innings of work, giving up one run on four hits and one walk while striking out one. He did not save. Robinson died in Ormond Beach, Florida, at the age of 79. 1949 Boston Red Sox season Baseball Reference Retrosheet
Skyline College is a public community college in San Bruno, California. It is one of three comprehensive community colleges in the San Mateo County Community College District, it was opened in 1969. Skyline College claims an annual population of over 17,000 students. Students can choose from more than 100 certificate programs. With a full schedule of courses leading to over 100 Associate Degrees and Certificates, a Bachelor's Degree, Skyline College's academic programs aim to prepare students for transfer to a four-year university or to directly enter the workforce. Skyline College has key transfer agreements with a wide range of public and private colleges and offers 18 Associate Degrees for Transfer; these degrees offer a streamlined pathway to transfer, securing guaranteed admission with junior standing to the California State University system. The students of Skyline College have established a student body association named Associated Students of Skyline College; the association is required by law to "encourage students to participate in the governance of the college".
The ASSC periodically participates in meetings sponsored by a statewide community college student organization named Student Senate for California Community Colleges. The statewide Student Senate is authorized by law "to advocate before the Legislature and other state and local governmental entities". California Community Colleges system Cañada College, a community college located in Redwood City College of San Mateo, a community college located in San Mateo San Mateo County Community College District Official website
Two Feet Stand is the debut album by Swedish melodic death metal band Gardenian. It would be the only album they would record for Listenable Records before procuring a deal with Nuclear Blast. "Two Feet Stand" - 3:13 "Flipside of Reality" - 3:49 "The Downfall" - 4:07 "Awake of Abuse" - 3:50 "Netherworld 3:51 "Do Me Now" - 4:07 "Murder..." - 3:27 "Freedom" - 3:45 "Mindless Domination" - 4:03 "The Silent Fall" - 3:30 "Ecstasy of Life" - 3:43 Jim Kjell - vocals, guitars Niklas Engelin - guitars Håkan Skoger - bass Thim Blom - drums