click links in text for more info


A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft, modified, or used as a light bomber or attack aircraft. It differs from bomber and attack aircraft in its origins, as a fighter, adapted into other roles, whereas bombers and attack aircraft are developed for bombing and attack roles. Although still used, the term fighter-bomber has less significance since the introduction of rockets and guided missiles into aerial warfare. Modern aircraft with similar duties are now called multirole combat aircraft or strike fighters. Prior to World War II, general limitations in available engine and aeronautical technology required that each proposed military aircraft have its design tailored to a specific prescribed role. Engine power grew during the early period of the war doubling between 1939 and 1943; the Bristol Blenheim, a typical light bomber of the opening stages of the war, was designed in 1934 as a fast civil transport to meet a challenge by Lord Rothermere, owner of the Daily Mail. It had two Bristol Mercury XV radial engines of 920 hp each, a crew of three, its payload was just 1,200 lbs of bombs.

The Blenheim suffered disastrous losses over France in 1939 when it encountered Messerschmitt Bf 109s, light bombers were withdrawn. In contrast, the Vought F4U Corsair fighter—which entered service in December 1942—had in common with its eventual U. S. Navy stablemate, the Grumman F6F Hellcat and the massive, seven-ton USAAF Republic P-47 Thunderbolt—a single Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp radial engine of 2,000 hp in a much smaller and less expensive single-seat aircraft, was the first aircraft design to fly with the Double Wasp engine in May 1940. With less airframe and crew to lift, the Corsair's ordnance load was either four High Velocity Aircraft Rockets or 2,000 lbs of bombs; the massive, powerful 18-cylinder Double Wasp engine weighed a ton—half as much again as the V12 Rolls-Royce Merlin and twice as much as the 9-cylinder Bristol Mercury that powered some heavy fighters. Increased engine power meant that many existing fighter designs could carry useful bomb loads, adapt to the fighter-bomber role.

Notable examples include Hawker Typhoon and Republic P-47 Thunderbolt. Various bombing tactics and techniques could be used: some designs were intended for high-level bombing, others for low-level semi-horizontal bombing, or for low-level steep dive bombing as exemplified by the Blackburn Skua and North American A-36 Apache. Larger twin-engined aircraft were used in the fighter-bomber role where longer ranges were needed for naval strikes. Examples include the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, the Bristol Beaufighter, de Havilland Mosquito; the Beaufighter MkV had a Boulton-Paul turret with four 0.303 in machine guns mounted aft of the cockpit but only two were built. Bristol's Blenheim was pushed into service as a fighter during the Battle of Britain but it was not fast enough. Equipped with an early Airborne Interception radar set, however, it proved to be an effective night fighter; the first single seat fighters to drop bombs were on the Western Front, when fighter patrols were issued with bombs and ordered to drop them at random if they met no German fighters.

The Sopwith Camel, the most successful Allied aircraft of the First World War with 1,294 enemy aircraft downed, was losing its edge by 1918 over 12,000 ft. During the final German offensive in March 1918, it dropped 25 lb Cooper bombs on advancing columns: whilst puny by standards, the four fragmentation bombs carried by a Camel could cause serious injuries to exposed troops. Pilot casualties were high; the Royal Aircraft Factory S. E.5. was used in the same role. The Royal Flying Corps received the first purpose-built fighter-bomber, it was not called a fighter bomber at the time, but a Trench Fighter as, what it was designed to attack. The Sopwith Salamander was based on the Sopwith Snipe fighter but had armour plating in the nose to protect the pilot and fuel system from ground fire, it was intended to have two machine guns jutting through the cockpit floor so as to spray trenches with bullets as it passed low overhead. But this did not work and it was fitted with four Cooper bombs, instead.

It was ordered in large numbers, but most were cancelled after the Armistice. In February and April 1918 the Royal Flying Corps conducted bombing tests at Orfordness, Suffolk dropping dummy bombs at various dive angles at a flag stuck into a shingle beach. Both WW1 fighter bombers were used with novice and experienced pilots. Best results were achieved with a vertical dive into the wind using the Aldis Sight to align the aircraft, but they were not considered good enough to justify the expected casualty rate. When war broke out in Europe, Western Allied Air Forces employed light twin-engined bombers in the tactical role for low level attack; these were found to be vulnerable both to ground fire and to single engine fighters. The German and Japanese Air Forces had chosen dive bombers which were vulnerable; the Ilyushin Il-2 is a armoured two seat single-engine ground attack aircraft. It first flew a month although few had reached the Soviet Air Force in time for Operation Barbarossa. Naval forces chose both dive bombers.

None of these could be considered as fighter bombers. During the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe conducted fighter-bomber attacks on the United Kingdom from September to December 1940. A larger fighter-bomber campaign was conducted ag

All Mon Region Democracy Party

The All Mon Region Democracy Party is a political party in Myanmar, representing the interests of the Mon people. In the 2010 Myanmar general election, boycotted by both the main opposition National League for Democracy and the other main Mon party, the Mon National Party, the AMRDP won 16 total seats, 3 in the Pyithu Hluttaw, 4 in the Amyotha Hluttaw and 9 in regional hluttaws. In 2013, there were reports that the party agreed to merge with the MNP. However, a party called the AMRDP contested the 2015 general election, where it won no seats in the national parliament and just one seat in the Mon State Hluttaw; the party's former chairperson Nai Ngwe Thein died on October 2, 2018

2016 Scottish National Party depute leadership election

There was a Scottish National Party leadership election to choose the new Depute leader of the Scottish National Party at the SNP's conference on 14–15 October 2016. The SNP's Westminster Group Leader Angus Robertson MP won the election; the election followed the resignation of the incumbent Depute Leader Stewart Hosie. Hosie, the partner of Scottish Government cabinet member Shona Robison, announced his intention to step down at the party conference in May 2016 after it emerged he was engaged in an affair with a freelance journalist, involved in an affair with the SNP MP Angus MacNeil. Four candidates took part in the election: Angus Robertson MP Alyn Smith MEP Tommy Sheppard MP Inverclyde Councillor Chris McElenyAlyn Smith's campaign focused on the dual issues of strengthening Scotland's relationship with the European Union following the Brexit vote, the need for a new Yes movement centred around the SNP. Angus Robertson's campaign focused on the issues of Brexit and the European Union, on preserving Scotland's place in Europe.

Chris McEleny's campaign focused on the importance of local government in light of the upcoming 2017 Scottish local elections. Tommy Sheppard focused his campaign on revamping internal SNP policy making, with the intention of making policy decision making more open to the SNP party membership. Existing policy decisions are taken by the leadership, with minimal input from the SNP grassroots membership, he has been described as Robertson's "left-wing challenger". Both McEleny and Sheppard are members of the SNP Socialists group, which said it was "challenging for leadership" of the SNP. Other individuals suggested as potential candidates included Mhairi Black, Humza Yousaf, Tasmina Ahmed-Sheikh. Humza Yousaf ruled out running for the position, instead stating his support for Robertson; the election used the single transferable vote system

Dirk Poot

Dirk Poot is a Dutch programmer and politician, the current lijsttrekker and spokesperson for the board of the Pirate Party of the Netherlands. Poot was the lijsttrekker of the Dutch Pirate Party for the Dutch parliamentary elections in 2012 and fourth on the list for the Pirate Party in the 2010 Dutch parliamentary elections. Poot studied business administration in medicine in Sint Eustatius, he resides close to Breda in the Netherlands. Poot is a self-employed computer programmer, he has worked as a physician. When he was younger, Poot was a member of the Jongerenorganisatie Vrijheid en Democratie, the youth organization of the main Dutch conservative party, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, he has been blogging about democracy and medical issues since 2005. He has written about collection and storage of sensitive information in government databases, in particular the Electronic Patient Record. Poot has been active with the Pirate Party since late 2009, he joined the party after discovering it through IRC while blogging about Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement.

He was fourth on the list for the Pirate Party in the 2010 Dutch parliamentary elections. Since 2011, he has been a member of the board of the Dutch Pirate Party, the board's spokesperson since December 2011. In the 2012 parliamentary elections in the Netherlands, he was the first candidate of the Dutch Pirate Party. Dirk Poot's bio on Dutch Pirate Party website

Anne Linehan

Anne Margaret Linehan is a former Irish international cricketer whose career for the Irish national side spanned from 1989 to 2008. Only two women, England's Jan Brittin and New Zealand's Debbie Hockley, have had a longer career in One Day International matches. Linehan was born in Downpatrick, Northern Ireland, played most of her club cricket for Downpatrick Cricket Club, she made her international debut at the 1989 European Cup in Denmark, took four wickets at the tournament, including 2/28 against England. Linehan played as an all-rounder, bowling right-arm medium pace, but after the 1990 European Cup did not bowl again at international level. At the 1991 edition of the tournament, hosted by the Netherlands, she made her debut as Ireland's wicket-keeper. However, after that she did not again appear for the national team until 1995, missing the opportunity to play at the 1993 World Cup. At the 1995 European Cup, Linehan scored two half-centuries – 74 against Denmark and 56 against the Netherlands – with only her teammate Mary-Pat Moore scoring more runs.

Against Denmark and Moore put on 181 runs for the opening wicket, an Irish record. Although by a regular in Ireland's team, Linehan did not play at the 1997 World Cup in India. During the late 1990s, she played as a batsman, with Sandra Dawson taking on the wicket-keeping duties. In July 2000, Linehan was selected in Ireland's squad for its inaugural Test match, against Pakistan, she made 27 not out batting fifth in Ireland's only innings, as her team won by an innings and 54 runs. Linehan made her World Cup debut at the 2000 event in New Zealand, playing in all seven of her team's matches. Against the Netherlands, she scored the third and final half-century of her ODI career, 54 runs from 68 balls. Linehan was appointed Ireland's captain for the 2002 season, during that time skippered the side in five ODIs – three against New Zealand and two against India, she played a second World Cup for Ireland in 2005, finished her international career at the 2008 World Cup Qualifier, aged 34. Linehan played 60 ODIs during her career, ranking her fifth for her country, scored 699 runs, ranking her seventh.

Anne Linehan at CricketArchive Anne Linehan at ESPNcricinfo

Twenty-one (basketball)

Twenty-one called 33, Cali, 35, cutthroat, hustle, "tip-it", scutter, rebound or scramble is a popular variation of street basketball. The game is played with any number of players on a half court, but when not enough players are available to at least play three-on-three. Twenty-one is an individual game. In some settings, it is considered a brutal game, as fouling is legal and thus some games can become violent and full-contact. However, the game's basic rules can be enjoyed by anyone; the rules and game play may vary regionally, by specific court. Basic rules are as follow:Typically play begins with one player shooting the ball from a significant distance; this shot can not go through the basket. If either of these violations occur, the ball must be re-shot. Once the ball is shot, all players fight over the rebound; this is meant to mimic the "tip-off" of a standard game. Once the ball is in play, there are technically no rules, but due to peer pressure most players abide by all rules with the exception of out of bounds violations and personal fouls.

Shots made. After each made field goal, the player making the field goal shoots up to three free throws in a row, until he misses. All free throws count as one point towards a player's count. If three free throws are made in a row, the free throw shooter is handed the ball back at the top of the key and play is live again; the game is won by the player who accumulates 21 points. If a player goes over 21 points, his score is reduced to 11 points. To avoid going over 21, players may choose to miss a free throw intentionally. In this instance, a free throw must hit the rim to be legal. If it does not, the player must shoot again. Sometimes this results in the player accidentally making the shot. Common additional rules include: Allowing the starting shot to score points for the shooter if it goes in If a player is shooting for the win and misses, their score is reduced to 15. Inverting scoring values such that a field goal is worth 1 and a free throw worth 2 Forcing a player to take a fourth free throw and intentionally miss if he has made all 3 free throws, instead of just returning the ball to him A player can attempt a 3-pointer instead of attempting three free throws Variations on what a score is reset to if 21 is exceeded "Taps" or "Tips": With these rules, if a player jumps up, gets a rebound in the air and makes a shot before touching the ground, the player who shot the ball is said to have been "tapped," or "tipped,".

This can result in their score being reset to zero or 11, or the tapper "stealing" 5 points from shooter. In some games, if a player gets tapped 3 times, or if their score is zero, they are out of the game. In another variation, if a player is tapped using only one hand, they are eliminated. If three-pointers are used instead of free-throws and the player is on 20 and shooting for the win, the player must make an extra long three-pointer to win the game. If a player who has 11 points misses the next shot, regardless of whether it is a free throw that player's points revert to 0; this is referred to as "poison points". Players with fewer than 11 points at the end of a game keep their points into the next game. After 21 points are reached, the player must make a final 3-pointer; when a player makes his 21st point and is playing with "tips" or "taps" the shooter must miss his free throw but hit the rim. This gives the other players a chance to steal points from the shooter. If the game was started without a traditional jump ball the player who did not receive the ball first receive 1 chance to the game "Breaking the ice": There is no penalty for going over 21, but if a player scores 21 or more with a two or three-point shot, the player must first hit a free throw successfully.

If he does so, he shoots a 3-pointer to win the game. If he misses the free throw, he does not lose any points, the game continues. If he makes the free throw but misses the 3-pointer, his score is reset to a lower value and the game continues. Players on 19, shooting at the foul line, must hit rim or be forced back to 11. (This prevents a player on 19 from slamming the ball off the backboard to himself, thereby regaining possession without having to rebound normally. If the score is tied at 19, one of the tied players must first reach 21 score 2 additional points to win. Once you get to 21 you shoot one free throw to win or go back down to 11. After the death of basketball legend, Kobe Bryant, the basketball community on Twitter rallied support around a variation in honor of Kobe; the game is played to 24 and the score is reset to 8 if a player exceeds 24. During his NBA career Kobe wore the jersey numbers 8 and 24. Twenty-one is used in physical education classes and by basketball team coaches as skill development.

Because only one player is on offense at any given time against several defenders and shooting skills are essential to successful play. Variations of basketball