U.S. Route 101 in California
U. S. Route 101 in the state of California is one of the last remaining and longest U. S. Routes still active in the state, the longest highway of any kind in California. US 101 was one of the original national routes established in 1926. Significant portions of US 101 between the Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area follow El Camino Real, the historic road connecting the former Alta California's 21 missions. Although the highway has been superseded in overall importance for transportation through the state by Interstate 5, US 101 continues to be the major coastal north–south route that links the Greater Los Angeles Area, the Central Coast, the San Francisco Bay Area, the North Coast. Referred to as "101" by residents of Northern California, in Southern California it is called "The 101"; the highway has portions designated as the Santa Ana Freeway, the Hollywood Freeway, the Ventura Freeway, South Valley Freeway, Bayshore Freeway. The Redwood Highway, the 350-mile-long northernmost segment of the highway, begins at the Golden Gate and passes through the world's tallest and only extensive preserves of virgin, old-growth coast redwood trees.
US 101 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. The south terminus of US 101 is in Los Angeles, about one mile east of downtown Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange known as the "Commuters' Complex"; this southernmost portion is named the Santa Ana Freeway, inheriting that title as the northerly extension of the roadway now known as I-5. After merging with westbound traffic from the San Bernardino Freeway, US 101 proceeds northwest via the Downtown Slot under the northern edge of Los Angeles' Civic Center to State Route 110 at the Four Level Interchange. From here, US 101 becomes the Hollywood Freeway, it heads to Hollywood and up through the Cahuenga Pass before reaching the San Fernando Valley. US 101 intersects with SR 134 and SR 170 at the interchange known as the Hollywood Split. Here, the alignment of US 101 shifts to the alignment of SR 134 and thereafter is referred to as the Ventura Freeway until it reaches Ventura.
Though confusing, the "Hollywood Freeway" name continues northward from this interchange on SR 170, the "Ventura Freeway" name continues eastward to SR 134. From the Hollywood Split, US 101 is an east–west highway, it meets with I-405 in Sherman Oaks, an interchange which holds claim to the most traveled intersection in the nation. The east–west geographical alignment of the Ventura Freeway and the north–south designation which appears on the freeway signs can be confusing to visitors. After the Conejo Grade, a 7% grade incline, the freeway enters the Oxnard Plain and runs concurrent with SR 1 for the first time. Upon reaching Ventura, there is an interchange with SR 126. North of Santa Barbara, US 101 switches intermittently between freeway and expressway status, but there are no traffic signals until San Francisco; the last traffic signals along this stretch of the route were removed in 1991 when the section through downtown Santa Barbara was constructed to freeway standards after years of disagreement over the impact that the original elevated design would have on the community.
From Ventura and through Santa Barbara, US 101 follows the Pacific coastline until Gaviota State Park, about 23 miles west of Goleta. At Gaviota State Park, the highway shifts back from an east–west highway to a north–south alignment. About one mile north of this point, US 101 passes through the Gaviota Tunnel. A few miles north of the Gaviota Tunnel, SR 1 splits from US 101 and heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline parallel and to the west of US 101. US 101 passes through Buellton, Los Alamos, Santa Maria, Nipomo. South of Santa Maria, US 101 widens from a four-lane highway to a six-lane freeway. SR 166 joins US 101 for about 3 miles before splitting just north of the city limits, while US 101 continues as a four-lane freeway before reverting to expressway status north of Nipomo. Farther north, SR 1 rejoins US 101 between San Luis Obispo. US 101 takes an inland route through the Salinas Valley, while Highway 1 heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline in California, parallel and to the west of US 101.
A steep segment between San Luis Obispo and Atascadero is known as the Cuesta Grade. North of Atascadero, the highway joins SR 46 for about three miles through Paso Robles. From Paso Robles to Salinas, US 101 is an expressway known as the Salinas River Valley Highway, since the Salinas River Valley extends from Santa Margarita to the SR 156 junction in Prunedale. US 101 resumes freeway status between San Miguel and King City, passing through the smaller towns of Camp Roberts and San Ardo, as well as the San Ardo Oil Field about five miles south of San Ardo. Near this point, the wide agricultural bottomlands of the Salinas Valley begins. North of King City, US 101 once again switches intermittently between freeway and
Alta California, known sometimes unofficially as Nueva California, California Septentrional, California del Norte or California Superior, began in 1804 as a province of New Spain. Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had comprised the province of Las Californias, but was split off into a separate province in 1804. Following the Mexican War of Independence, it became a territory of Mexico in April 1822 and was renamed "Alta California" in 1824; the claimed territory included all of the modern US states of California and Utah, parts of Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico. Neither Spain nor Mexico colonized the area beyond the southern and central coastal areas of present-day California, small areas of present-day Arizona, so they exerted no effective control in modern-day California north of the Sonoma area, or east of the California Coast Ranges. Most interior areas such as the Central Valley and the deserts of California remained in de facto possession of indigenous peoples until in the Mexican era when more inland land grants were made, after 1841 when overland immigrants from the United States began to settle inland areas.
Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges were claimed to be part of Alta California, but were never colonized. To the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. Alta California ceased to exist as an administrative division separate from Baja California in 1836, when the Siete Leyes constitutional reforms in Mexico re-established Las Californias as a unified department, granting it more autonomy. Most of the areas comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848. Two years California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the coastal area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century and prospected the area as a domain of the Spanish monarchy. During the following two centuries there were various plans to settle the area, including Sebastián Vizcaíno's expedition in 1602–03 preparatory to colonization planned for 1606–07, canceled in 1608.
Between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of religious outposts from today's Baja California and Baja California Sur into present-day California. Father Eusebio Kino missionized the Pimería Alta from 1687 until his death in 1711. Plans in 1715 by Juan Manuel de Oliván Rebolledo resulted in a 1716 decree for extension of the conquest which came to nothing. Juan Bautista de Anssa proposed an expedition from Sonora in 1737 and the Council of the Indies planned settlements in 1744. Don Fernando Sánchez Salvador researched the earlier proposals and suggested the area of the Gila and Colorado Rivers as the locale for forts or presidios preventing the French or the English from "occupying Monterey and invading the neighboring coasts of California which are at the mouth of the Carmel River." Alta California was not accessible from New Spain: land routes were cut off by deserts and hostile Native populations and sea routes ran counter to the southerly currents of the distant northeastern Pacific.
New Spain did not have the economic resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost. Spanish interest in colonizing Alta California was revived under the visita of José de Gálvez as part of his plans to reorganize the governance of the Interior Provinces and push Spanish settlement further north. In subsequent decades, news of Russian colonization and maritime fur trading in Alaska, the 1768 naval expedition of Pyotr Krenitsyn and Mikhail Levashev, in particular, alarmed the Spanish government and served to justify Gálvez's vision. To ascertain the Russian threat, a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched. In preparation for settlement of Alta California, the northern, mainland region of Las Californias was granted to Franciscan missionaries to convert the Native population to Catholicism, following a model, used for over a century in Baja California; the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule.
The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolá in San Diego in 1769. The following year, 1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu; the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781. By law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents; the Franciscans, prolonged their control over the missions after control of Alta California passed from Spain to independent Mexico, continued to run the missions until they were secularized, beginning in 1833.
The transfer of property never occurr
Florence Nightingale, was an English social reformer and statistician, the founder of modern nursing. Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers, she gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night. Recent commentators have asserted Nightingale's Crimean War achievements were exaggerated by media at the time, but critics agree on the importance of her work in professionalising nursing roles for women. In 1860, Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London, it was the first secular nursing school in the world, is now part of King's College London. In recognition of her pioneering work in nursing, the Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses, the Florence Nightingale Medal, the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve, were named in her honour, the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.
Her social reforms included improving healthcare for all sections of British society, advocating better hunger relief in India, helping to abolish prostitution laws that were harsh for women, expanding the acceptable forms of female participation in the workforce. Nightingale was a versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her published work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge; some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could be understood by those with poor literary skills. She was a pioneer in the use of infographics using graphical presentations of statistical data. Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously. Florence Nightingale was born on 12 May 1820 into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia, in Florence, Tuscany and was named after the city of her birth. Florence's older sister Frances Parthenope had been named after her place of birth, Parthenope, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.
The family moved back to England in 1821, with Nightingale being brought up in the family's homes at Embley and Lea Hurst, Derbyshire. Florence inherited a liberal-humanitarian outlook from both sides of her family, her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore and Frances Nightingale née Smith. William's mother Mary née Evans was the niece of Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate at Lea Hurst, assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fanny's father was Unitarian William Smith. Nightingale's father educated her. In 1838, her father took the family on a tour in Europe where he was introduced to the English-born Parisian hostess Mary Clarke, with whom Florence bonded, she recorded that "Clarkey" was a stimulating hostess who did not care for her appearance, while her ideas did not always agree with those of her guests, "she was incapable of boring anyone." Her behaviour was said to be exasperating and eccentric and she had no respect for upper-class British women, whom she regarded as inconsequential.
She said that if given the choice between being a woman or a galley slave she would choose the freedom of the galleys. She rejected female company and spent her time with male intellectuals. However, Clarkey made an exception in the case of Florence in particular, she and Florence were to remain close friends for 40 years despite their 27-year age difference. Clarke demonstrated that women could be equals to men, an idea that Florence had not obtained from her mother. Nightingale underwent the first of several experiences that she believed were calls from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, prompting a strong desire to devote her life to the service of others. In her youth she was respectful of her family's opposition to her working as a nurse, only announcing her decision to enter the field in 1844. Despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in the face of opposition from her family and the restrictive social code for affluent young English women.
As a young woman, Nightingale was described as attractive and graceful. While her demeanour was severe, she was said to be charming and to possess a radiant smile, her most persistent suitor was the politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, but after a nine-year courtship she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing. In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a politician, Secretary at War, on his honeymoon, he and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Herbert would be Secretary of War again during the Crimean War, when he and his wife would be instrumental in facilitating Nightingale's nursing work in the Crimea, she became Herbert's key adviser throughout his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert's death from Bright's Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him. Nightingale much had strong relations with academic Benjamin Jowett, who may have wanted to marry her.
Nightingale continued her travels as far as Egypt. Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learn
Interstate 10 in California
Interstate 10, a major east–west Interstate Highway, runs in the U. S. state of California east from Santa Monica, on the Pacific Ocean, through Los Angeles and San Bernardino to the border with Arizona. In the Greater Los Angeles area, it is known as the Santa Monica Freeway and the San Bernardino Freeway, linked by a short concurrency on Interstate 5 at the East Los Angeles Interchange. Interstate 10 has portions designated as either the Rosa Parks Freeway, the Redlands Freeway, or the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway; the California Streets and Highways Code defines Route 10 from Route 1 in Santa Monica to Route 5 near Seventh Street in Los Angeles. Route 101 near Mission Road in Los Angeles to the Arizona state line at the Colorado River via the vicinity of Monterey Park, Colton and Chiriaco Summit and via Blythe. Despite the legislative definition, Caltrans connects the two sections of the route by cosigning I-10 down Interstate 5 between the East LA Interchange and the Santa Monica Freeway, negating a section of the San Bernardino Freeway west of I-5.
This short section of Route 10 between Route 5 and Route 101, defined as Route 110 until 1968, is signed overhead for I-10 eastbound and for U. S. 101 westbound. This I-5/I-10 cosigning is consistent with the Federal Highway Administration's Interstate Highway route logs that such an overlap exists for the segment of I-10 in California. I-10 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-10 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation; the Santa Monica Freeway is Route 10 from Route 1 to Route 5, as named by the State Highway Commission on April 25, 1957. The section between the Harbor and San Diego freeways is signed as the Rosa Parks Freeway, after the African American civil rights activist; the I-10 freeway is signed as the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway in Santa Monica.
The Santa Monica Freeway is the westernmost segment of Interstate 10 and a small section of State Route 1, beginning at the McClure Tunnel in Santa Monica and ending southeast of downtown Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange. Interstate 10 begins in the city of Santa Monica when State Route 1 turns into a freeway and heads east. SR heads south while I-10 continues east. Soon after it enters the city of Los Angeles, I-10 has a four-level interchange with Interstate 405. Interstate 10 continues through Sawtelle, Rancho Park, Cheviot Hills and Crestview in West Los Angeles, Lafayette Square and Wellington Square in Mid-City, Arlington Heights, West Adams and Jefferson Park into downtown Los Angeles. On the western edge of downtown, I-10 has an interchange with Interstate 110 to the south and State Route 110 to the north. I-10 travels along the southern edge of downtown to the East Los Angeles Interchange. At the East Los Angeles Interchange, State Route 60 diverges east towards Pomona.
I-10 turns north, running concurrently with Interstate 5 for one mile. Interstate 10 heads east and merges with the traffic from the spur to US 101 onto the San Bernardino Freeway; the freeway is 14 lanes wide from the Harbor Freeway interchange to the Arlington Avenue off-ramp. Most of these lanes are full at peak travel times; the remainder of the freeway varies between 10 lanes in width. The whole freeway opened in 1965, with a formal dedication held in 1966. While the construction of the Century Freeway several miles to the south reduced traffic congestion to a considerable amount by creating an alternate route from downtown to the Los Angeles International Airport, the Santa Monica Freeway is still one of the busiest freeways in the world. All three freeway-to-freeway interchanges along its length are notorious for their congestion, are ranked among the top 10 most congested spots in the United States. Due to the high traffic volume, car accidents are so common that Caltrans has constructed special Accident Investigation Sites separated from the freeway by fences.
These enable the California Highway Patrol to clear accidents from the through traffic lanes, the fences reduce congestion by preventing rubbernecking. The Santa Monica Freeway is considered the border between South Los Angeles. Part of the freeway skims the Byzantine-Latino quarter, home to many immigrants affiliated with the Eastern Orthodox Church. Interstate 10 heads east from the Downtown Los Angeles Eastside Los Angeles region, with two HOV lanes paralleling it on the north side called the El Monte Busway; these roadways extend to Alameda Street on US 101, following the spur west to where I-10 passes California State University Los Angeles. However, after the Interstate 710 interchange, these lanes merge back into the typical left lanes of each roadway. East of Interstate 710, I-10 continues through Monterey Park, Rosemead, San Gabriel, El Monte, Baldwin Park before intersecting with Interstate 605, it travels through West Covina and Covina before heading up Kellogg Hill into San Dimas, where I-10 intersects with State Route 57 and State Route 71 at the Kellogg Interchange.
I-10 heads east through Pomona and Clare
Staples Center stylized as STAPLES Center, is a multi-purpose arena in Downtown Los Angeles. Adjacent to the L. A. Live development, it is located next to the Los Angeles Convention Center complex along Figueroa Street; the arena opened on October 17, 1999, is one of the major sporting facilities in the Greater Los Angeles Area. It is owned and operated by the Arturo L. A. Arena Company and Anschutz Entertainment Group; the arena is home to the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League, the Los Angeles Lakers and the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association. The Los Angeles Avengers of the Arena Football League and the Los Angeles D-Fenders of the NBA D-League were tenants. Staples Center is host to over 250 events and nearly 4 million guests each year, it is the only arena in the NBA shared by two teams, as well as one of only two North American professional sports venues to host two teams from the same league.
The Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park will host both the Los Angeles Chargers and Los Angeles Rams beginning in 2020. Staples Center is the venue of the Grammy Awards ceremony and will host the basketball competition during the 2028 Summer Olympics. Staples Center measures 950,000 square feet of total space, with a 94-foot by 200-foot arena floor, it stands 150 feet tall. The arena seats up to 19,067 for basketball, 18,340 for ice hockey, around 20,000 for concerts or other sporting events. Two-thirds of the arena's seating, including 2,500 club seats, are in the lower bowl. There are 160 luxury suites, including 15 event suites, on three levels between the lower and upper bowls; the arena's attendance record is held by the fight between World WBA Welterweight Champion, Antonio Margarito and Shane Mosley with a crowd of 20,820 set on January 25, 2009. Star PlazaOutside the arena at the Star Plaza are statues of Wayne Gretzky and Magic Johnson, although both played at The Forum, where the Kings and Sparks played.
A third statue of boxer Oscar De La Hoya was unveiled outside Staples Center on December 1, 2008. On April 20, 2010 a fourth statue of the late long time Lakers broadcaster Chick Hearn, behind a Laker desk with a chair for fans to sit down for a picture, was unveiled. A fifth statue of the Laker legend Jerry West dribbling was unveiled on February 17, 2011. A sixth statue of Lakers player Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was unveiled on November 16, 2012. A seventh statue of former Kings' Hall of Fame left wing Luc Robitaille was unveiled on March 7, 2015. An eighth statue of Lakers center Shaquille O'Neal was unveiled on March 24, 2017. On January 13, 2018 a ninth statue, of legendary Kings announcer Bob Miller, was unveiled. A tenth statue of Laker legend Elgin Baylor was unveiled on April 6, 2018. Secret tunnelOn January 15, 2018, in the aftermath of an NBA basketball game between the Houston Rockets and the Los Angeles Clippers, point guard Chris Paul made the best of playing in Staples Center for 6 years by utilizing a secret tunnel to confront former Clipper teammates Austin Rivers and Blake Griffin.
The final score of the game was 102-113. He was joined with teammates such as Trevor Ariza, James Harden, Gerald Green to confront the opponents, which only resulted in verbal altercations; the Staples Center has been referred to as "the deal that wasn't " Long before construction of the Staples Center broke ground, plans for the arena were negotiated between elected city officials, real estate developers Ed Roski of Majestic Realty and Philip Anschutz. They had acquired the hockey team the Los Angeles Kings in 1995 and were in the beginning of 1996 looking for a new home for their team, which played at the Forum in Inglewood. Majestic Realty Co. in conjunction with AEG were scouring the Los Angeles area for available land to develop an arena when they were approached by Steve Soboroff president of LA Recreation and Parks Commission. Mr. Soboroff requested that they consider building the arena in downtown Los Angeles adjacent to the convention center; the proposal intrigued Roski and Anschutz and soon a plan to develop the arena, the current Staples Center, was devised.
Months of negotiations ensued between Philip Anschutz and city officials with Ed Roski and John Semcken of Majestic Realty Co. spearheading the negotiations for the real estate developers. The negotiations grew contentious at times and the real estate developers threatened to pull out altogether on more than one occasion; the main opposition came from Councilman Joel Wachs, opposed utilizing public funds to subsidizing the proposed project and councilwoman Rita Walters, who objected parts of it. The developers and city leaders reached an agreement and in 1997, construction broke ground and Staples Center opened a year later, it was financed at a cost of US$375 million and is named for the office-supply company Staples, Inc., one of the center's corporate sponsors that paid for naming rights. The arena opened on October 17, 1999, with a Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band concert as its inaugural event. On October 21, 2009, Staples Center celebrated its 10th anniversary. To commemorate the occasion, the venue's official web site nominated 25 of the arena's greatest moments from its first ten years with fans voting on the top ten.
During the late summer of 2010, modifications were made to
Green Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Green Line is a 20-mile light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk within Los Angeles County. It is one of six lines forming the Los Angeles Metro Rail system; the line opened on August 12, 1995. It became the third line in the Metro Rail system after the opening of the Blue Red Line; the line was delayed due to a change of the line's route from Los Angeles International Airport to El Segundo. In addition to Redondo Beach and Norwalk, the route serves El Segundo, South Los Angeles, Lynwood and Willowbrook, it serves the Plaza Mexico shopping center at the Long Beach Boulevard station in the city of Lynwood. A free shuttle bus to Los Angeles International Airport is available at the line's Aviation/LAX Station; the line is suburb-to-suburb service, so it is the only one in the entire Metro Rail system not to serve Downtown Los Angeles but passengers can reach it by connecting with the Metro Silver Line busway at the Harbor Freeway Station, the Metro Blue Line light rail at Willowbrook Station or Metro Express 460 at Norwalk Station.
The grade-separated route runs in the median of the Century Freeway with a elevated section to the west. The line is maintained by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Green Line is internally known as Line 803: this designation appears on internal operating schedules, as well as in the hyperlink on Metro's timetable website. The Green Line is the fastest light rail line in the Metro light rail network. Green Line trains operate at 55–65 mph on the I-105 freeway portion and around 40 mph on the elevated portion west of Aviation/LAX Station; when the Green Line began service in 1995, it operated with only one-car trains. As ridership increased, two-car trains were used. Ridership on the Green Line has not been as high as the Blue Line, although it did have a higher ridership than the Gold Line until 2013. Additionally, the Green Line runs with one-car trains in the early mornings and late evenings on weekdays, on weekends. Although nearly all of the Green Line stations were built to accommodate three-car trains, the Green Line has never used trains consisting of more than two cars.
The stations west of Aviation/LAX Station were not built to accommodate three-car trains. However, it is possible that the Green Line would use three-car trains when the Crenshaw/LAX Line is complete. Beginning in 2019, Metro will rename all of their BRT lines from colors to letters; as such, the bulk of the current Green Line, combined with the soon-to-open Crenshaw/LAX Line project, will be renamed as C Line while retaining the current green coloring on maps. The entire route of the Green Line is grade-separated, with its tracks following a elevated route, either on a guideway or in the median of the Century Freeway; the line begins in the west at Redondo Beach station heads north through El Segundo. At Aviation/LAX, passengers can transfer to any one of several bus lines from different operators Shuttle Bus "G", a shuttle bus from the Green Line to LAX. From here, the Green Line heads east in the median of the Century Freeway, with a connection to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line at the Harbor Freeway Station.
It continues to a major transfer connection at the Willowbrook Station. The line terminates in the city of Norwalk, just east of the 605 Freeway. Metro Green Line trains run between 3:36 a.m. and 11:55 p.m. daily. Service on Friday and Saturday nights continues until 2:15 a.m. First and last train times are as follows: To Norwalk Station Eastbound First Train to Norwalk from Willowbrook/Rosa Parks Station: 3:33 a.m. First Train to Norwalk from Douglas Station: 3:41 a.m. Last Train to Norwalk: 11:59 p.m. To Redondo Beach Station Westbound First Train to Redondo Beach Station: 4:04 a.m. Last Train to Redondo Beach Station: 12:50 a.m. Trains on the Green Line operate every seven to eight minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every 15 minutes during the midday and all day on the weekends, with night service running every 20 minutes. As part of the consent decree signed by Caltrans in 1972 to allow construction of the fiercely opposed Century Freeway, provisions were made for a transit corridor in the freeway's median.
Construction began in 1987 on the line as a light rail line, with a route following I-105 but a short section in the South Bay following the Harbor Subdivision. This western alignment was planned and constructed to connect with LAX, but the airport was planning a major renovation during the line's construction. Los Angeles World Airports wanted the connection to LAX to be integrated with this construction, but there were concerns from the Federal Aviation Administration that the overhead lines of the rail line would interfere with the landing paths of airplanes. Various studies have suggested extending the Green Line north to LAX, Loyola Marymount University, Santa Monica. A possible southern extension could take the Green Line's southern terminus farther southeast, to the South Bay Galleria or beyond, and on the line's east end, the line may one day be extended from its current terminus at Norwalk station to Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs station. The Crenshaw/LAX Line project extends from the existing Green Line, the question of how the new segment would be integrated into the Metro Rail system was the subject of some controversy in 2018 as completion of the project loomed.
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were