Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice. It was the first winter sport to be included in the Olympic Games, when it was contested at the 1908 Olympics in London; the four Olympic disciplines are men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dance. Non-Olympic disciplines include synchronized skating, Theater on Ice, four skating. From intermediate through senior-level competition, skaters perform two programs, which may include spins, moves in the field, throw jumps, death spirals, other elements or moves, depending on the discipline; the blade has a groove on the bottom creating two distinct edges: outside. Judges prefer that skaters glide on one edge of the blade and not on both at the same time, referred to as a flat edge. During a spin, skaters use the "sweet spot" of the blade, formally called a rocker, the roundest portion of the blade, just behind the toe pick and near the middle of the blade. Skates used in singles and pair skating have a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks on the front of the blade.
Toe picks are used for the take-off on jumps. Ice dance blades have smaller toe picks. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level at local, sectional and international competitions; the International Skating Union competitions. These include the Winter Olympics, the World Championships, the World Junior Championships, the European Championships, the Four Continents Championships, the Grand Prix series, the ISU Challenger Series; the sport is associated with show business. Major competitions conclude with exhibition galas, in which the top skaters from each discipline perform non-competitive programs. Many skaters, both during and after their competitive careers skate in ice shows, which run during the competitive season and the off-season; the term "professional" in skating refers not to skill competitive status. Figure skaters competing at the highest levels of international competition are not "professional" skaters, they are sometimes referred to as amateurs.
Professional skaters include those who have lost their ISU eligibility and those who perform only in shows. They may include former Olympic and World champions who have ended their competitive career as well as skaters with little or no international competitive experience. In languages other than English, Korean, Italian and Russian, figure skating is referred to by a name that translates as "artistic skating." The most visible difference in relation to ice hockey skates is that figure skates have a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks on the front part of the blade. These are used in jumping and should not be used for stroking or spins. If used during a spin, the toe pick will cause the skater to lose momentum, or move away from the center of the spin. Blades are mounted to the heel of the boot with screws. High-level figure skaters are professionally fitted for their boots and blades at a reputable skate shop. Professionals are employed to sharpen blades to individual requirements. Blades are about 4.7 millimetres thick.
When viewed from the side, the blade of a figure skate is not flat, but curved forming an arc of a circle with a radius of 180–220 centimetres. This curvature is referred to as the rocker of the blade; the "sweet spot" is the part of the blade on which all spins are rotated. The blade is "hollow ground"; the inside edge of the blade is on the side closest to the skater. In figure skating, it is always desirable to skate on only one edge of the blade. Skating on both at the same time may result in lower skating skills scores; the effortless power and glide across the ice exhibited by elite figure skaters fundamentally derives from efficient use of the edges to generate speed. During a spin, skaters use the "sweet spot" of the blade, one of two rockers to be found on a blade and is the roundest portion of the blade; the sweet spot is located just near the middle of the blade. The other rocker is the more general curvature of the blade when gliding. Ice dancers' blades are about an inch shorter in the rear than those used by skaters in other disciplines, to accommodate the intricate footwork and close partnering in dance.
Dancers' blades have a smaller toe pick as they do not require the large toe pick used for jumping in the other disciplines. Hard plastic skate guards are used when the skater must walk in his or her skates when not on the ice, to protect the blade from dirt or material on the ground that may dull the blade. Soft blade covers called soakers are used to absorb condensation and protect the blades from rust when the skates are not being worn. In competition, skaters are allowed three minutes to make repairs to their skates. There are many different types of blades to suit different disciplines and abilities. For example athletes who are performing advanced multi-rotational jumps need a stiffer boot, higher and gives more support. Athletes working on single or double jumps may use a less stiff boot. Ice dancers may prefer a lower cut boot, designed to enable more knee bend. Blades designed for free and pairs skating have a longe
Go proverbs are traditional proverbs relating to the game of Go used to help one find good moves in various situations during a game. They are generalisations and thus a particular proverb will have specific situations where it is not applicable. Knowing when a proverb is inapplicable is part of the process of getting stronger as a Go player. Indeed, several proverbs contradict each other—however they agree in as much as they are advising the player to pay attention to the stated situation. Go proverbs, life-or-death problems, compilations of go games are the three major traditional teaching resources for the game of go. Several books relating to Go proverbs have been written, for example Go Proverbs illustrated by Kensaku Segoe was published in 1960; such books do not just quote the proverb but spend their pages explaining the meaning and application of the proverbs. Some proverbs have a more general applicability. For example, one famous proverb is to move; this may be used as a heuristic in games such as Scrabble.
Add a second stone to one on the third line abandon both. An eye of six points in a rectangle is alive. Don't make dangos. Don't make empty triangles. Don't peep at a cutting point. Don't peep at both sides of a bamboo joint. A moron connects against a peep. Do not be greedy! Chinese: 贪不得胜. Don't play 1, 2, 3–just play 3. For rectangular six in the corner to live, liberties are necessary. Hane at the head of three stones. Hane at the head of two stones. If you don't understand ladders don't play Go. If you have lost all four corners you have lost. If you have secured all four corners you have lost. In a fight, contact plays strengthen the underdog. In a semeai capture the ko on the final play. In the corner six stones live. Keep your stones connected. Learn the eye-stealing tesuji. Lose your first 50 games as as possible. Never try to cut bamboo joints. On the second line eight stones live. On the third line, four will die. Play in the centre of a symmetrical formation. Ponnuki is worth 30 points. Separate your opponent's stones.
Strange things happen at the 1–2 points. Strike at the waist of the knight's move; the carpenter's square becomes ko. The comb formation is alive; the monkey jump is worth 8 points. The weak carpenter's square is dead. There is death in the hane. You only have one weak group. Your other weak groups are dead. Your enemy's key point is your own key point. Go Proverbs at Sensei's Library
Christopher Carlile was an Anglican clergyman. Born around 1530, he studied at Clare College University of Cambridge, MA 1541, elected proctor 1548, BD 1552 fellow of Clare College and DD. By 1563 he was at Monk's Horton, Kent, 1571 rectory of Hackney, vacant by his death 2 August 1588. Carlisle studied under Immanuel Tremellius and was an "excellent Hebrew scholar". In the year of his graduation, 1552 as many emboldened by the tolerant climate under the young Edward VI's regent John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, Carlile held a debate with Sir John Cheke in which Carlisle denied the Christ's descent into hell. Carlile's denial of the descent into Hell had been anticipated by William Tyndale, within his own lifetime was shared by Wouter Deelen pastor of the Dutch church at Austin Friars, another Hebrew scholar. Since Wouter Deelen had been first Hebrew professor at Amsterdam, Tremellius was, at the time of the debate, professor of Hebrew at Cambridge, it is probable that both men were among Carlile's audience on the occasion.
Tremellius and Deelen both left England when the young Edward VI aged 15, the next summer. They may have taken notes of the debate with them and published them in some form, or at least evidently some form of transcript of the debate must have found its way to Europe since ten years Carlile found himself the joint target of a refutation by former Oxford scholar Richard Smyth, in a second section of a tract where Carlile had the honour of sharing the title with non other than Jean Calvin. 1552-1562 1572 Discourse proving that Peter was never at Rome. 1582 Discourse on two divine positions - Concerning the immediate going to heaven of souls of the faithful fathers before Christ and concerning his descent into hell 1573 manuscript translation of the Psalms from Hebrew into English. Letter to Sebastian Castellio Various Latin verses prefixed to various publications of other writers