Figured bass called thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols indicate intervals and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, organ, lute play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below. Figured bass is associated with basso continuo, a improvised accompaniment used in all genres of music in the Baroque period of Classical music, though in modern music. Other systems for denoting or representing chords include plain staff notation, used in classical music. Basso continuo parts universal in the Baroque era, provided the harmonic structure of the music by supplying a bassline and a chord progression; the phrase is shortened to continuo, the instrumentalists playing the continuo part are called the continuo group. The makeup of the continuo group is left to the discretion of the performers, practice varied enormously within the Baroque period. At least one instrument capable of playing chords must be included, such as a piano, organ, theorbo, regal, or harp.
In addition, any number of instruments that play in the bass register may be included, such as cello, double bass, bass viol, or bassoon. The most common combination, at least in modern performances, is harpsichord and cello for instrumental works and secular vocal works, such as operas, organ and cello for sacred music. A double bass may be added when accompanying a lower-pitched solo voice. Performers match the instrument families used in the full ensemble: including bassoon when the work includes oboes or other winds, but restricting it to cello and/or double bass if only strings are involved. Harps and other handheld instruments are more typical of early 17th-century music. Sometimes instruments are specified by the composer: in L'Orfeo Monteverdi calls for an exceptionally varied instrumentation, with multiple harpsichords and lutes with a bass violin in the pastoral scenes followed by lamenting to the accompaniment of organo di legno and chitarrone, while Charon stands watch to the sound of a regal.
The keyboard player realizes a continuo part by playing, in addition to the notated bass line, notes above it to complete chords, either determined ahead of time or improvised in performance. The figured bass notation, described below, is a guide, but performers are expected to use their musical judgment and the other instruments or voices as a guide. Experienced players sometimes incorporate motives found in the other instrumental parts into their improvised chordal accompaniment. Modern editions of such music supply a realized keyboard part written out in staff notation for a player, in place of improvisation. With the rise in informed performance, the number of performers who are able to improvise their parts from the figures, as Baroque players would have done, has increased. Basso continuo, though an essential structural and identifying element of the Baroque period, continued to be used in many works sacred choral works, of the classical period. An example is C. P. E. Bach's Concerto in D minor for flute and basso continuo.
Examples of its use in the 19th century are rarer, but they do exist: masses by Anton Bruckner and Franz Schubert, for example, have a basso continuo part, for an organist. A part notated with figured bass consists of a bass line notated with notes on a musical staff plus added numbers and accidentals beneath the staff to indicate what intervals above the bass notes should be played, therefore which inversions of which chords are to be played; the phrase tasto solo indicates that only the bass line is to be played for a short period until the next figure is encountered. This instructs the chord-playing instrumentalist not to play any improvised chords for a period; the reason tasto solo had to be specified was because it was an accepted convention that if no figures were present in a section of otherwise figured bass line, the chord-playing performer would either assume that it was a root-position triad, or deduce from the harmonic motion that another figure was implied. For example, if a continuo part in the key of C begins with a C bass note in the first measure, which descends to a B♮ in the second measure if there were no figures, the chord-playing instrumentalist would deduce that this was most a first inversion dominant chord.
Composers were inconsistent in the usages described below. In the 17th century, the numbers were omitted whenever the composer thought the chord was obvious. Early composers such as Claudio Monteverdi specified the octave by the use of compound intervals such as 10, 11, 15. Contemporary figured bass abbreviations for triads and seventh chords are shown in the table to the right; the numbers indicate the number of scale steps above the given bass-line that a note should be played. For example: Here, the bass note is a C, the numbers 4 and 6 indicate that notes a fourth and a sixth above it should be pl
James Edward Bond Jr. known as Jimmy Bond, was an American double bass player and composer who performed and recorded with many leading jazz, blues and rock musicians between the 1950s and 1980s. Bond was born in Philadelphia, learned the double bass and tuba as well as studying orchestration and composition, he attended the Juilliard School between 1950 and 1955. He played bass in clubs in Philadelphia, with musicians including Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk and Gene Ammons. After his studies ended, he played with some of the leading jazz musicians of the day, including Chet Baker, Ella Fitzgerald, Sonny Rollins, in 1958 started touring with George Shearing, he moved to Los Angeles in 1959. He became resident bass player at the Renaissance nightclub on Sunset Boulevard, where he played with Ben Webster. Art Pepper, Jim Hall and Jimmy Giuffre, recorded with Paul Horn. From 1962, he became a session musician in Los Angeles. From until the early 1970s – and on a more occasional basis until the 1980s – he played on hundreds of recordings covering not only jazz but rock, pop and gospel.
He became one of the members of the Wrecking Crew, a group of session musicians associated with work for Phil Spector. Other musicians with whom he recorded included Randy Newman, Frank Zappa, Tim Buckley, The Jazz Crusaders, Nina Simone, Lightnin' Hopkins, Jimmy Witherspoon, Linda Ronstadt, Henry Mancini, Lou Rawls, Tony Bennett, B. B. King, he worked as an arranger, with producers Nik Venet, David Axelrod and others, as well as composing and arranging advertising jingles. He died in 2012, aged 79, as a result of complications from cardiopulmonary disease. With Curtis Amy Groovin' Blue with Frank ButlerWith Earl Anderza Outa Sight With Louis Bellson Big Band Jazz from the Summit With Tim Buckley Goodbye and Hello With Terry GibbsThat Swing Thing! With Joe Gordon Lookin' Good! With Lightnin' Hopkins Lightnin' Strikes Something Blue With Paul Horn Something Blue The Sound of Paul Horn With The Jazz Crusaders Freedom Sound Lookin' Ahead The Festival Album With Irene Kral Wonderful Life With Julie London Feeling Good With Brownie McGhee and Sonny Terry Down South Summit Meetin' with Lightnin' Hopkins and Big Joe Williams A Long Way from Home I Couldn't Believe My Eyes With Frank Morgan Frank Morgan With Gerry Mulligan If You Can't Beat'Em, Join'Em!
The M4 carbine is a shorter and lighter variant of the M16A2 assault rifle. The M4 is a 5.56 × 45 mm air-cooled, gas-operated, magazine-fed carbine. It has a 14.5 in a telescoping stock. The M4 carbine is extensively used by the United States Armed Forces and is replacing the M16 rifle in United States Army and United States Marine Corps combat units as the primary infantry weapon and service rifle; the M4 is capable of mounting the M203 and M320 grenade launchers. The distinctive step in its barrel is for mounting the M203 with the standard hardware; the M4 has semi-automatic and three-round burst firing modes, while the M4A1 has semi-automatic and automatic firing modes. Following the adoption of the M16 rifle, carbine variants were adopted for close quarters operations; the CAR-15 family of weapons served through the Vietnam War. However, these rifles had design issues, as "the barrel length was halved" to 10 inches, which "upset the ballistics", reducing its range and accuracy and leading "to considerable muzzle flash and blast, so that a large flash suppressor had to be fitted".
"Nevertheless, as a short-range weapon it is quite adequate and thus, its caliber, is classed as a submachine gun." In 1983, the US Government requested Colt make a carbine version of the M16A2. In 1984, Colt began work on a new carbine design called the XM4, as an improved variant of the XM177E2, combining the best features of the older XM177E2, Colt AR-15 Sporter Carbine, the M16A2 rifles. In 1984, the first model was built, it was tested in May 1985; the first models had an upper receiver with an A1 sight, were given a longer 14.5-inch barrel for the bayonet and the M203 Grenade Launcher. The second model was made in May 1986, it was tested from May 1986 through May 1987; the extended barrel improved the XM4's ballistics, reduced muzzle blast and gave the XM4 the ability to mount a bayonet and the M203 grenade launcher. The XM4 was given the cartridge deflector, as well as other minor refinements. In May 1991, the XM4 was renamed to the M4, Colt made a manual; the M4 was accepted into service by the U.
S. military in 1994, first saw action in the hands of U. S. troops deployed to Kosovo in 1999 in support of the NATO-led KFOR peacekeeping force. It would subsequently be used by U. S. forces during the Global War on Terrorism, including Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. In the U. S. Army, the M4 had replaced M16A2s as the primary weapon of forward deployed personnel by 2005; the M4 carbine replaced most submachine guns and selected handguns in U. S. military service, as it fires more effective rifle ammunition that offers superior stopping power and is better able to penetrate modern body armor. In 2007, the United States Marine Corps ordered its officers and staff non-commissioned officers to carry the M4 carbine instead of the M9 handgun; this is in keeping with the Marine Corps doctrine, "Every Marine a rifleman". The Marine Corps, chose the full-sized M16A4 over the M4 as its standard infantry rifle. United States Navy corpsmen E5 and below are issued M4s instead of the M9.
While ordinary riflemen in the Marine Corps were armed with M16A4s, M4s were fielded by troops in positions where a full-length rifle would be too bulky, including vehicle operators, fireteam and squad leaders. As of 2013, the U. S. Marine Corps had 80,000 M4 carbines in their inventory. By July 2015, major Marine Corps commands were endorsing switching to the M4 over the M16A4 as the standard infantry rifle, just as the Army had done; this is because of the carbine's lighter weight, compact length, ability to address modern combat situations that happen within close quarters. Approval of the change would move the M16 to support personnel, while armories had the 17,000 M4s in the inventory needed to outfit all infantrymen who needed one. In October 2015, Commandant Robert Neller formally approved of making the M4 carbine the primary weapon for all infantry battalions, security forces, supporting schools in the U. S. Marine Corps; the switch was to begin in early 2016 and be completed by September 2016.
In December 2017, the Marine Corps revealed a decision to equip every Marine in an infantry squad with the M27, replacing the M4 in that part of the service. MARSOC will retain the M4, as its shorter barrel is more suited to how they operate in confined spaces. On 1 July 2009, the U. S. Army took complete ownership of the M4 design; this allowed companies other than Colt to compete with their own M4 designs. The Army planned on fielding the last of its M4 requirement in 2010. On 30 October 2009, Army weapons officials proposed a series of changes to the M4 to Congress. Requested changes included an electronic round counter that records the number of shots fired, a heavier barrel, replacing the Stoner expanding gas system with a gas piston system; the benefits of this, have come under scrutiny from both the military and civilian firearms community. According to a PDF detailing the M4 Carbine improvement plans released by PEO Soldier, the direct impingement system would be replaced only after reviews were done comparing the direct impingement system to commercial gas piston operating system to find out and use the best available operating system in the U.
S. Army's improved M4A1. In September 2010, the Army announced it would buy 12,000 M4A1s from Colt Firearms by the end of 2010, would
Together for Šumadija is a political party in Serbia. Founded on May 2, 2009 by the Together for Kragujevac movement and by a series of citizen advocacy groups and political parties in Central Serbia; the party's primary goals are decentralization, equal regional development and Euro-Atlantic integration of Serbia. Its leader Veroljub Stevanović is the former mayor of Kragujevac; the party merged into the United Regions of Serbia on 10 June 2013. However, Veroljub Stevanović announced his plan to revive the party in late 2014, the necessary signatures were collected by 20 February 2015. Veroljub Stevanović, Together for Kragujevac Branko Lazović, Deputy President, Together for Čačak Saša Milenić, Deputy President, Together for Kragujevac Nebojša Vasiljević, Deputy President, Together for Kragujevac Goran Jovanović, Smederevska Palanka Miladin Lazović, Čačak Zoran Đokić, Kruševac Dragan Gačić, Gornji Milanovac Željko Kušić, Topola Aleksandar Živanović, Kragujevac Slavica Saveljić, Kragujevac Srđan Biorac, Batočina Nada Milićević, Kragujevac Milan Marković, Kragujevac Ivica Samailović, Kragujevac Zlatko Milić, Director Zoran Palčić, Head of Information Center Veroljub Stevanović, Together for Kragujevac, Kragujevac Branko Lazović, Together for Čačak, Čačak Saša Milenić, Together for Kragujevac, Kragujevac Nebojša Vasiljević, Together for Kragujevac, Kragujevac Gradimir Jovanović - Together for Trstenik, Trstenik Danijel Jovanović - Together for Aleksandrovac, Aleksandrovac Adam Đokić - Together for Varvarin, Varvarin Dragan Mišović - Together for Knić and Gruža, Knić Dragan Gačić - Together for Gornji Milanovac, Gornji Milanovac Milan Ivković - Together for Topola, Topola Elena Milivojević - Together for Aranđelovac, Aranđelovac Milan Mitrović - Together for Levač, Rekovac Goran Jovanović - Together for Palanka, Smederevska Palanka Srđan Biorac - Together for Batočina, Batočina Slobodan Jakšić - Together for Čačak, Čačak Dejan Ivanović - Together for Sokobanja, Sokobanja Srđan Vidojević- Together for Rača, Rača Official website
Red Annihilation was a Quake competitive eSport event held in May 1997, one of the first nationwide video game competition held in the United States. In the final match of the tournament, Dennis "Thresh" Fong defeated Tom "Entropy" Kimzey of Impulse 9 on the map Castle of the Damned. For winning the event, Fong was awarded John D. Carmack's 1987 Ferrari 328 GTS cabriolet as the grand prize; the tournament was created first as Kings of Capture Quake Tournament started by Michael "Hawthorne" Shearon, after contacting Intergraph for possible sponsorship the tournament was folded into what became Red Annihilation. The tournament was developed and organized by Rob Esterling, executive director overseeing Intergraph Computer Systems's commercial and consumer graphics group, his Intergraph team including Jim Terzian, the tournament's director and Victor Johnson, the team's Art Director. In 1996, Microsoft's DirectX group hosted game competitions, first at the Computer Game Developers Conference as a separate event, selecting the players and flying them in to compete.
When a further Microsoft DirectX-organized event, intended to be held at Naval Air Station Alameda, was cancelled, Intergraph announced it would host a tournament that would be an open, national computer game competition and chose Quake as the game to be played. Intergraph brought in Quake developer id Software, 3D computer graphics chipset maker Rendition, online gaming company Mpath Interactive as partners in Red Annihilation. Will Bryant and Frank Cabanski of the Quake ClanRing were selected to operate the game competition because of their prior pioneering experience running large scale gaming tournaments; the initial phase of the tournament was held on Mpath's MPlayer network with over 2000 participants from across the United States competing online in one-on-one matches. The top 16 players were flown to Atlanta, Georgia for the concluding phase of the tournament, where they competed inside the World Congress Center in a gaming arena Intergraph built on the floor of the Electronic Entertainment Expo.
This phase of the competition used vQuake, the hardware accelerated version of the game, played on Intergraph PC computers equipped with Rendition V1000-based Intense3D graphics accelerators. Players were able to use their own keyboards and other pointing devices if they wished; as E3 was at the time an industry exhibition open to the trade only, most spectators watched the final competitions online via in-game cameras orchestrated by Bryant and Cabanski. The final morning of the tournament was covered from the show floor by NBC's Today and The Wall Street Journal, it was discovered during the award ceremony that tournament winner Fong, a student at De Anza College, would not be able to drive his prize as he was not insured for such a vehicle. Carmack agreed to underwrite Fong's insurance for a year so the latter could enjoy his new car
Irishtown is an inner suburb of Dublin, Ireland. It is situated on the southside of the River Liffey, between Ringsend to the north and Sandymount to the south, is to the east of the River Dodder. Irishtown grew outside of Dublin, about 2,000 metres west of the medieval city walls. Dublin was a Viking city and after 1171, when an Anglo-Norman army seized it, Dublin became the centre of English rule in Ireland; the native Gaelic Irish were therefore viewed as an alien force in the city, suspicion of them was deepened by continual raids on Dublin and its environs by the O'Byrne and O'Toole clans from the nearby Wicklow Mountains. By the 15th century, Gaelic migration to the city had made the English authorities fearful that English language and culture would become a minority there; as a result, the Irish inhabitants of Dublin were expelled from the city proper in about 1454, in line with the Statutes of Kilkenny. The Irish population were only allowed to trade inside the city limits by daylight.
At the end of the day's trading they would leave and set up camp in what was to become known as "the Irishtown". Irishtown formed part of the Pembroke Urban District. At the end of the 19th century and into the early 20th century, Irishtown was the location of the Waxies' Dargle, an annual outing by Dublin cobblers, which a well-known folk song recalls. Irishtown Nature Park is a small park with a walkway which offers several kilometres of walking trails along the Poolbeg Peninsula. History of Dublin List of towns and villages in Ireland