Fiji the Republic of Fiji is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres; the most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 883,483; the capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount.
Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited. The majority of Fiji's islands formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago; some geothermal activity still occurs today, on the islands of Vanua Taveuni. The geothermal systems on Viti Levu are non-volcanic in origin, with low-temperature surface discharges. Sabeto Hot Springs near Nadi is a good example. Humans have lived in Fiji since the second millennium BC—first Austronesians and Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century onwards, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji operated as a Crown colony until 1970. A military government declared a Republic in 1987 following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power; when the High Court ruled the military leadership unlawful in 2009, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama as interim Prime Minister.
In 2009, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as President. After years of delays, a democratic election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won 59.2% of the vote, international observers deemed the election credible. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific due to abundant forest and fish resources; the currency is the Fijian dollar with the main sources of foreign exchange being the tourist industry, remittances from Fijians working abroad, bottled water exports. The Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development supervises Fiji's local government, which takes the form of city and town councils. Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga, its emergence can be described as follows: Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga.
They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, all their Manufactures bark cloth and clubs, were valued and much in demand, they called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, it was by this foreign pronunciation, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. "Feejee", the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Located in the central Pacific Ocean, Fiji's geography has made it both a destination and a crossroads for migrations for many centuries. According to oral tradition, the indigenous Fijians of today are descendants of the chief Lutunasobasoba and those who arrived with him on the Kaunitoni canoe. Landing at what is now Vuda, the settlers moved inland to the Nakauvadra mountains. Though this oral tradition has not been independently substantiated, the Fijian government promotes it, many tribes today claim to be descended from the children of Lutunasobasoba.
Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled by Austronesian peoples before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, with Melanesians following around a thousand years although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived. Archeological evidence shows signs of settlement on Moturiki Island from 600 BC and as far back as 900 BC. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between Fiji and neighbouring archipelagos long before European contact is testified by the canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and the Marquesas Islands. In the 10th century, the Tu'i Tonga Empire was established in Tonga, Fiji came within its sphere of influence.
The Tongan influence brought Polynesian customs and language into Fiji. The empire began to decli
Kutumba Gowravam is a 1957 Telugu-language drama film and directed by B. S. Ranga under the Vikram Studios banner, it stars Savitri in the lead roles and music composed by Viswanathan -- Ramamoorthy. The film was remade in Tamil under same name and director; the film was recorded a commercial success. Gopalam, son of a Zamindar, leads a happy family life with a compassionate wife, wife Satya, stepmother Rangamma, younger brother Pratap and a little sister Bala. Rangamma's distant relative Shankariah a crooked & cruel person lives with them. Once Zamindar becomes sick when Shankaraiah forces Zamindar to write a will where he cheats and makes him sign before the villagers. Meanwhile, Pratap becomes a spoiled brat, he tries to make a theft when his father obstructs his way and dies in the mishap. After his death, Shankaraiah poisons Rangamma's mind when misunderstandings arise in the family and they decide to divide the property. Here Shankariah's mischief makes Gopalam get a wasteland and he leaves the house.
Now Shankariah shifts them to the city. On the other side, Gopalam & Satya struggle a lot in tilling the wasteland to bring out the water and succeed in cultivating it into a fertile. Parallelly, in the city, Shankaraiah steals the money. Moreover, he implicates Pratap in a murder case when Gopalam comes to the rescue, saves his brother, sees the end of Shankaraiah and protects their family prestige. At last, Rangamma realizes her mistake and says sorry to Gopalam & Satya; the movie ends on a happy note with the reunion of the family. N. T. Rama Rao as Gopalam Savitri as Satya Rajanala as Shankaraiah Padmanabham as Pratap Vangara as Marvadi Raghuramaiah as Giri Balakrishna as Pichodu Doraiswamy as Zamindar Kannamba as Rangamma E. V. Saroja as Mohana Baby Uma as Bala Art: Thota Choreography: A. K. Chopra Stills: R. Venkatachary Fights: Raghavulu Dialogues- Lyrics: Anishetty Playback: Ghantasala, P. Leela, S. Janaki, Jamuna Rani, Madhavapeddi Satyam, D. L. Rajeswari, Satyavathi Music: Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy Editing: P. G. Mohan, M. Devendranath Cinematography: B. N. Hari Producer - Director: B. S. Ranga Banner: Vikram Studios Release Date: 7 November 1957 Music composed by Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy.
Lyrics were written by Anishetty. Music released on Audio Company
Adversarial information retrieval is a topic in information retrieval related to strategies for working with a data source where some portion of it has been manipulated maliciously. Tasks can include gathering, filtering and ranking information from such a data source. Adversarial IR includes the study of methods to detect and defeat such manipulation. On the Web, the predominant form of such manipulation is search engine spamming, which involves employing various techniques to disrupt the activity of web search engines for financial gain. Examples of spamdexing are spam blogs, malicious tagging. Reverse engineering of ranking algorithms, advertisement blocking, click fraud, web content filtering may be considered forms of adversarial data manipulation. Topics related to Web spam: Link spam Keyword spamming Cloaking Malicious tagging Spam related to blogs, including comment spam and ping spamOther topics: Click fraud detection Reverse engineering of search engine's ranking algorithm Web content filtering Advertisement blocking Stealth crawling Troll Malicious tagging or voting in social networks Astroturfing Sockpuppetry The term "adversarial information retrieval" was first coined in 2000 by Andrei Broder during the Web plenary session at the TREC-9 conference.
Information retrieval Spamdexing AIRWeb: series of workshops on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web Web Spam Challenge: competition for researchers on Web Spam Detection Web Spam Datasets: datasets for research on Web Spam Detection