Strombolicchio is a sea stack of volcanic origin 2 km to the northeast of the island of Stromboli in the Aeolian Islands of Italy. Its name in the Sicilian language means Little Stromboli, the island is a tourist attraction in Stromboli. Eruptions at this site ceased approximately 200,000 years ago, since the volcanic activity has moved about 3 km to the southwest. It is the only part of a submarine platform that extends between it and the main island. Strombolicchio hosts some very rare species of flora and fauna and has declared a natural reserve. Bassia saxicola, for example, a flower at risk of extinction, is otherwise present only in a few hundred specimens on the island of Capri. List of lighthouses in Italy A lighthouse is located on its summit, it can be reached by a stairway of over 200 steps
Alicudi is the westernmost of the eight islands that make up the Aeolian archipelago, a volcanic island chain north of Sicily. The island is about 40 km west of Lipari, has an area of 5.2 km2. It is located at 38°32′45″N 14°21′00″E, the island was formed by the long-extinct Montagnola volcano, roughly 150,000 years ago. It has been suggested that the last evolutive act of the island took place only 27,000 years ago, the island was first populated as long ago as 17th century BC, as some archaeological evidence from this period has been found. Roman ceramic fragments, dating from many centuries later, can be found on the eastern coast of the island, for many centuries, Alicudi was the target of frequent incursions by pirates. Today there are around 120 inhabitants who live off fishing. There is only one restaurant on the island and the menu depends greatly on what fish the fishermen have caught. List of volcanoes in Italy Giunta, estateolie 2005 - The Essential Guide, 98–99. About Alicudi Aeolian Island tourism website Topographic Map of the Island Alicudi web
Stromboli is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy. It is one of the eight Aeolian Islands, a volcanic arc north of Sicily and this name is derived from the Ancient Greek name Strongulē which was given to it because of its round swelling form. The islands population is about 500, the most recent major eruption was on 13 April 2009. Stromboli stands 926 m above sea level, and over 2,700 m on average above the sea floor, there are three active craters at the peak. Two kilometers to the northeast lies Strombolicchio, the volcanic plug remnant of the original volcano, mt. Stromboli has been in almost continuous eruption for the past 2,000 years. A pattern of eruption is maintained in which occur at the summit craters, with mild to moderate eruptions of incandescent volcanic bombs. This Strombolian eruption, as it is known, is observed at other volcanoes worldwide. Volcanic gas emissions from this volcano are measured by a Multi-Component Gas Analyzer System, the two villages San Bartolo and San Vincenzo lie in the northeast while the smaller village Ginostra lies in the southwest.
Administratively, they are one of the frazione of Lipari, in the early 1900s a few thousand people inhabited the island, but after several emigrations the population numbered a few hundred by the mid-1950s. In Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne, tolkien identified his fictional volcano Mount Doom in Mordor with the volcano of Stromboli, according to scholar Clyde S. Kilby. Stromboli, known as, land of God, is an Italian-American film set on Stromboli, directed by Roberto Rossellini and starring Ingrid Bergman. The climax of the 2007 novel The Book of the Dead, by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child, in 2013 Geir Jenssen released an album entitled Stromboli, consisting of field recordings made at edge of Strombolis crater on 19 July 2012. List of volcanoes in Italy Stromboli Stromboli travel guide from Wikivoyage Information about Stromboli and on its seismic monitoring network
Lipari is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy, it is the name of the islands main town. Its population is 11,231, but during the May to September tourist season, Lipari is the largest of a chain of islands in a volcanic archipelago situated in between Vesuvius and Etna. The island has an area of 37.6 square kilometres and is 30 kilometres from Sicily. Geologists agree on the fact that Lipari was created by a succession of four volcanic movements, a further important phenomenon should have happened around 9000 BC. The last recorded eruptions occurred in the fifth century CE when airborne pumice, together with volcanic ash, the volcanoes are considered active, and steaming fumaroles and hydrothermal activity may still be seen. As a result of its origin, the island is covered with pumice. Pumice mining has become an industry on Lipari, and the pale pumice from Lipari is shipped worldwide. Liparis history is rich in incidents as witnessed by the recent retrievals of several necropolis, humans seem to have inhabited the island already in 5000 BC, though a local legend gives the eponymous name Liparus to the leader of a people coming from Campania.
In the Mycenaean Period, Lipari has yielded pottery from LHI to LHIII, liparis continuous occupation may have been interrupted violently when in the late 9th century an Ausonian civilization site was burned and apparently not rebuilt. Many household objects have been retrieved from the charred site, Greek colonists from Knidos arrived at Lipara ~580 BC after their first colonization attempt in Sicily failed and their leader, was killed. They settled on the site of the now known as Castello. The colony successfully fought the Etruscans for control of the Tyrrhenian Sea, Lipara prospered, but in 304 Agathokles took the town by treachery and is said to have lost all of his pillage from it in a storm at sea. Many objects recovered from old wrecks are now in the Aeolian Museum of Lipari, Lipara became a Carthaginian naval base during the first Punic War, but fell to Roman forces in 252–251 BC, and was occupied by Agrippa in Octavians campaign against Pompei. Under the Roman Empire, it was a place of retreat, the presence of the relics has been attested since at least 546.
In the 9th century, Sicily was conquered by the Arabs, in 839 the Saracens slaughtered much of the population, the relics of St. Bartholomew were moved to Benevento, and Lipari was eventually almost totally abandoned. The Normans conquered the Arabs throughout Sicily between 1060 and 1090, and repopulated the island once their rule was secure, the Lipari episcopal seat was reinstated in 1131. Though still plagued by raids, the island was continually populated from this time onward. In 1544, Hayreddin Barbarossa, together with the French fleet of Captain Polin under a Franco-Ottoman alliance, ransacked Lipari and he mentioned the tears and cries of these poor Lipariotes, the father regarding his son and the mother her daughter
Vulcano is a small volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 25 km north of Sicily and the southernmost of the eight Aeolian Islands. It is 21 km2 in area, rises to 499 m above sea level, the Romans used the island mainly for raw materials, harvesting wood and mining alum and sulfur. This was the activity on the island until the end of the 19th Century. Stevenson lived on Vulcano until the last major eruption on the island, the eruption lasted the better part of two years, by which time Stevenson had sold all of his property to the local populace, and never returned to the island. The volcanic activity in the region is largely the result of the northward-moving African Plate meeting the Eurasian Plate, at the north of the island is Vulcanello, connected to the rest of it by an isthmus which is flooded in bad weather. It emerged from the sea during an eruption in 183 BC as a separate islet, occasional eruptions from its three cones with both pyroclastic flow deposits and lavas occurred from until 1550, the last eruption creating a narrow isthmus connecting it to Vulcano.
Vulcano has been quiet since the eruption of the Fossa cone on 3 August 1888 to 1890 and this eruption of Vulcano was carefully documented at the time by Giuseppe Mercalli. Mercalli described the eruptions as. Explosions sounding like a cannon at irregular intervals, as a result, vulcanian eruptions are based on this description. A typical vulcanian eruption can hurl blocks of solid material several hundreds of metres from the vent, Mercalli reported blocks from the 1888-1890 eruption fell in the sea between Vulcano and Lipari, several were photographed by him or his assistants that had fallen on the island of Vulcano. The Ancient Greeks named the island Therassía and Thérmessa, the island appeared in their myths as the private workshop of the Olympian god Hephaestus, protector of the blacksmiths, he owned another two at Etna and Olympus. Strabo mentions Thermessa as sacred place of Hephaestus, but it is not clear if it was a name for the island. Similarly the Romans believed that Vulcano was the chimney of the god Vulcans workshop, the island had grown due to his periodic clearing of cinders and ashes from his forge.
The earthquakes that either preceded or accompanied the explosions of ash were considered to be due to Vulcan making weapons for Mars, since Vulcano island has volcanic activity, this island is a place where thermophiles and hyperthermophiles are likely to be found. In fact, the hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus furiosus was described for the first time when it was isolated from sediments of this island by Gerhard Fiala and Karl Stetter. Volcanic gas emissions from this volcano are measured by a Multi-Component Gas Analyzer System, list of volcanoes in Italy Vulcan Vulcano a 1950 Italian drama film supposedly set on the island
The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, southern Albania, Sicily, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world, many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Alexandria, most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor, other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church, the Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic.
They are part of a group of ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an archetypal diaspora people. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age, the Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus, the Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as an era of heroes, closeness of the gods. The Homeric Epics were especially and generally accepted as part of the Greek past, as part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of antiquity. The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC, the works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos and mythology.
The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period, the classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in eras, the Peloponnesian War, the large scale civil war between the two most powerful Greek city-states Athens and Sparta and their allies, left both greatly weakened. Many Greeks settled in Hellenistic cities like Alexandria and Seleucia, two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan and Afghanistan, like the Kalash, who claim to be descended from Greek settlers. The Hellenistic civilization was the period of Greek civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at Alexanders death. This Hellenistic age, so called because it saw the partial Hellenization of many non-Greek cultures and this age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state.
These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi, however, remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works of Homer and the classical authors. An important factor in maintaining Greek identity was contact with barbarian peoples and this led to a strong desire among Greeks to organize the transmission of the Hellenic paideia to the next generation
The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i. e. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles, the Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. The sea was known as Archipelago, but in English this words meaning has changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and, generally. In ancient times, there were various explanations for the name Aegean, a possible etymology is a derivation from the Greek word αἶγες – aiges = waves, hence wavy sea, cf. αἰγιαλός, hence meaning sea-shore. The Venetians, who ruled many Greek islands in the High and Late Middle Ages, popularized the name Archipelago, in some South Slavic languages the Aegean is often called White Sea. The Aegean Sea covers about 214,000 square kilometres in area, the seas maximum depth is 3,543 metres, east of Crete. The Aegean Islands are found within its waters, with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south, Antikythera, Kasos, many of the Aegean Islands, or chains of islands, are actually extensions of the mountains on the mainland.
One chain extends across the sea to Chios, another extends across Euboea to Samos, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Aegean Sea as follows, On the South. In the Dardanelles. A line joining Kum Kale and Cape Helles, the dense Mediterranean water sinks below the Black Sea inflow to a depth of 23–30 metres, flows through the Dardanelles Strait and into the Sea of Marmara at velocities of 5–15 cm/s. The Black Sea outflow moves westward along the northern Aegean Sea, Aegean Sea Intermediate Water – Aegean Sea Intermediate Water extends from 40–50 m to 200–300 metres with temperatures ranging from 11–18 °C. Aegean Sea Bottom Water – occurring at depths below 500–1000 m with a uniform temperature. The current coastline dates back to about 4000 BC, before that time, at the peak of the last ice age sea levels everywhere were 130 metres lower, and there were large well-watered coastal plains instead of much of the northern Aegean. When they were first occupied, the islands including Milos with its important obsidian production were probably still connected to the mainland.
The present coastal arrangement appeared c.7000 BC, with post-ice age sea levels continuing to rise for another 3,000 years after that, the subsequent Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean Sea have given rise to the general term Aegean civilization. In ancient times, the sea was the birthplace of two ancient civilizations – the Minoans of Crete and the Mycenean Civilization of the Peloponnese, arose the city-states of Athens and Sparta among many others that constituted the Athenian Empire and Hellenic Civilization. Plato described the Greeks living round the Aegean like frogs around a pond, the Aegean Sea was invaded by the Persians and the Romans, and inhabited by the Byzantine Empire, the Bulgarians, the Venetians, the Genoese, the Seljuq Turks, and the Ottoman Empire. The Aegean was the site of the democracies, and its seaways were the means of contact among several diverse civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean. Many of the islands in the Aegean have safe harbours and bays, in ancient times, navigation through the sea was easier than travelling across the rough terrain of the Greek mainland
According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, international relations, warfare and it laid the groundwork for the Classical period, both politically and culturally. The word archaic derives from the Greek word archaios, which means old and it refers to the period in ancient Greek history before the classical. The Archaic period was considered to have been less important and historically interesting than the classical period. More recently, Archaic Greece has come to be studied for its own achievements, with this reassessment of the significance of the Archaic period, some scholars have objected to the term archaic, due to its connotations in English of being primitive and outdated. No term which has suggested to replace it has gained widespread currency, however. Much of our evidence about the period of ancient Greece comes from written histories. By contrast, we have no evidence from the Archaic period.
We have written accounts of life in the period in the form of poetry, and epigraphical evidence, including parts of law codes, inscriptions on votive offerings, none of this evidence is in the quantity for which we have it in the classical period. What is lacking in evidence, however, is made up for in the rich archaeological evidence from the Archaic Greek world. Indeed, where much of our knowledge of classical Greek art comes from Roman copies, other sources for the period are the traditions recorded by Greek writers such as Herodotus. However, these traditions are not part of any form of history as we would recognise it today, Herodotus does not even record any dates before 480 BC. Politically, the Archaic period saw the development of the polis as the predominant unit of political organisation, many cities throughout Greece came under the rule of autocratic leaders, called tyrants. The period saw the development of law and systems of communal decision-making, with the earliest evidence for law codes, by the end of the Archaic period, both the Athenian and Spartan constitutions seem to have developed into their classical forms.
The Archaic period saw significant urbanisation, and the development of the concept of the polis as it was used in classical Greece. The urbanisation process in Archaic Greece known as synoecism – the amalgamation of small settlements into a single urban centre – took place in much of Greece in the eighth century BC. Both Athens and Argos, for instance, began to coalesce into single settlements around the end of that century and these two factors created a need for a new form of political organisation, as the political systems in place at the beginning of the Archaic period quickly became unworkable. Though in the part of the classical period the city of Athens was both culturally and politically dominant, it was not until the late sixth century that it became a leading power in Greece
The Aeolian Islands are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The islands inhabitants are known as Aeolians, the Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist destination in the summer and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually. The largest island is Lipari and the islands are referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group. The other islands include Vulcano, Stromboli, Alicudi, the present shape of the Aeolian Islands is the result of volcanic activity over a period of 260,000 years. There are two active volcanoes – Stromboli and Vulcano, the volcanic activity of steaming fumaroles and thermal waters are on most of the islands. The volcanic activity has left the islands with very fertile soil that is conductive to the growth of natural flora. Geologically the archipelago is defined as a volcanic arc, the origin of the Aeolian Islands is due to movement of the Earths crust as a result of plate tectonics. The African continental shelf is in constant movement towards Europe, the resulting collision has created a volcanic area with ruptures in the Earths crust with consequent eruptions of lava.
The Aeolian Arc extends for more than 140 km, but the area of instability caused by the collision of Africa. It includes Sicily and Campania together with Greece, the complex of the eight Aeolian Islands, covering an area of 1,600 km2, originated in the Tyrrhenian Basin, a great plain at the bottom of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Curbing urban development has been a key to preserving the Aeolian islands in a natural state, existing residences can be bought and restored but must be constructed to resemble its whitewashed houses. Traditional houses consist of modular cubes constructed from indigenous building materials—stone, pumice, almost all houses have a large outdoor terrace, usually shaded by grape-vines and flowering vines. The houses and terraces are decorated with brightly patterned terra-cotta tiles. The first evidence of Sicilian migration was in Lipari, a manufacture and commerce of obsidian objects was highly developed until the introduction of metals. During the Bronze Age, the Aeolians prospered by means of commerce in an area which extended from Mycenae to the British Isles.
Villages on the Aeolian islands flourished on Capo Graziano, Serro dei Cianfi, Capo Milazzese, all these settlements were destroyed by new Italic invasions in 1250 BC. The Aeolian Islands were occupied by the Ausonians led by Liparus, Liparus was succeeded by Aeolus whose house, according to the Odyssey by Homer, gave hospitality to Odysseus. In 580 BC, Greeks exiled from Rhodes and Knidos landed at Lipari and began a period of Greek domination, there was production of vases and other ceramics
Salina is one of the Aeolian Islands north of Sicily, southern Italy. It is the second largest island in the archipelago, Salina is divided between three comuni, Santa Marina on the eastern coast, Malfa to the north, and Leni to the south-west. From Leni down towards the sea is the village of Rinella, above the village of Leni is Valdichiesa in the center of the island. The other smaller villages are Capo Faro and Lingua, there are currently approximately 4,000 residents living on the island. Salina has a surface area of 27 km2. It is included on the World Heritage List especially because of its worth for vulcanology, a lower crater lies just above sea level near the small village of Pollara, on the north west corner of the island, half of which has fallen into the sea. All that remains of the activities are some post-volcanic phenomena called “gurgling”. The gurgling phenomena are at Rinella and are caused by the emission of underwater gas. When this phenomenon is at its most active it can lift the sea-bed, from a distance Salina looks entirely green with two rounded high mountains and a smooth coastline.
More than 400 different types of plants grow on the island and grapes, Salina was the first among the Aeolian islands to protect its environment with a natural preserve, known as the Riserva Naturale del Fossa delle Felci e dei Porri. The island is notable for Malvasia, a famous white wine that is only produced on Salina. It is golden in colour and has an intense, delicately sweet bouquet, there has been a local revival of the production of superior-quality low-acid olive oil. It is claimed that Salina produces the best capers in the world, a Greek settlement, from the fourth century BC through to the times of Imperial Rome, once lay on the modern-day site of the small town of Santa Marina. A number of tombs from this era have been discovered further inland, several traces of Greek and Roman culture have been found on the island. In the Hellenic Age the island was named Didyme, a Greek name which refers to the two mountains as twins, the island was inhabited as far back as the Bronze Age and has been developed and abandoned many times over the subsequent millennia.
Areas on the island, including the two peaks, were designated as a natural reserve in 1981. The salt lake in Lingua was once a site for production of sea salt, on the slopes of the Fossa, several Roman tombs have been excavated. Sanctuary of the Madonna del Terzito, located between Malfa and Leni in the known as Valdichiesa between the twin volcanoes, and built in 1630
Cycladic civilization is an Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades, Greece, in the Aegean Sea, spanning the period from approximately 3200–2000 BC. These figures have been stolen from burials to satisfy the Cycladic antiquities market since the early 20th century, only about 40% of the 1,400 figurines found are of known origin, since looters destroyed evidence of the rest. Excavated sites include Saliagos and Kephala, which showed signs of copper-working, each of the small Cycladic islands could support no more than a few thousand people, though Late Cycladic boat models show that fifty oarsmen could be assembled from the scattered communities. The chronology of Cycladic civilization is divided into three sequences, Early and Late Cycladic. The early period, beginning c.3000 BC segued into the archaeologically murkier Middle Cycladic c.2500 BC, by the end of the Late Cycladic sequence there was essential convergence between Cycladic and Minoan civilization. There is some tension between the systems used for Cycladic civilization, one cultural and one chronological.
Interest lagged, but picked up in the mid-20th century, sites were looted and a brisk trade in forgeries arose. The context for many of these Cycladic Figurines has thus been mostly destroyed, another intriguing and mysterious object is that of the Cycladic frying pans. Early Cycladic culture evolved in three phases, between c.3300 and 2000 BC, when it was submerged in the rising influence of Minoan Crete. Excavations at Knossos on Crete reveal an influence of Cycladic civilization upon Knossos in the period 3400 to 2000 BC as evidenced from pottery finds at Knossos, Cycladic art Goulandris Museum of Cycladic Art History of the Cyclades