Filigree is a form of intricate metalwork. It may span from delicate jewellery to cast iron balustrades. In jewellery, it is of gold and silver, made with tiny beads or twisted threads, or both in combination, soldered together or to the surface of an object of the same metal and arranged in artistic motifs, it suggests lace and remains popular in Indian and other Asian metalwork. It was popular as well in Italian and Portuguese metalwork from 1660 to the late 19th century, it should not be confused with ajoure jewellery work, the ajoure technique consisting of drilling holes in objects made of sheet metal. The English word filigree is shortened from the earlier use of filigreen which derives from Latin "filum" meaning thread and "granum" grain, in the sense of small bead; the Latin words gave filigrana in Italian. Though filigree has become a special branch of jewellery in modern times, it was part of the ordinary work of the jeweler. Indeed, all the jewellery of the Etruscans and Greeks was made by soldering together and so building up the gold rather than by chiselling or engraving the material.
Archaeological finds in ancient Mesopotamia indicate that filigree was incorporated into jewellery since 3,000 BC. Specific to the city of Midyat in Mardin Province in upper Mesopotamia, a form of filigree using silver and gold wires, known as "telkari", was developed in the 15th Century. To this day, expert craftsmen in this region continue to produce fine pieces of telkari; the Egyptian jewelers employed wire, both to lay down on a background and to plait or otherwise arranged jour. But, with the exception of chains, it can not be said, their strength lay rather in their molded ornaments. Many examples, remain of round plaited gold chains of fine wire, such as those that are still made by the filigree workers of India, known as trichinopoly chains. From some of these are hung smaller chains of finer wire with minute fishes and other pendants fastened to them. In ornaments derived from Phoenician sites, such as Cyprus and Sardinia, patterns of gold wire are laid down with great delicacy on a gold ground, but the art was advanced to its highest perfection in the Greek and Etruscan filigree of the 6th to the 3rd centuries BC.
A number of earrings and other personal ornaments found in central Italy are preserved in the Louvre and in the British Museum. All of them are made of filigree work; some earrings are in the form of flowers of geometric design, bordered by one or more rims each made up of minute volutes of gold wire, this kind of ornament is varied by slight differences in the way of disposing the number or arrangement of the volutes. But the feathers and petals of modern Italian filigree are not seen in these ancient designs. Instances occur, but only in which filigree devices in wire are self-supporting and not applied to metal plates; the museum of the Hermitage at Saint Petersburg contains a large collection of Scythian jewellery from the tombs of the Crimea. Many bracelets and necklaces in that collection are made of twisted wire, some in as many as seven rows of plaiting, with clasps in the shape of heads of animals of beaten work. Others are strings of large beads of gold, decorated with volutes and other patterns of wire soldered over the surfaces.
In the British Museum a sceptre that of a Greek priestess, is covered with plaited and netted gold wipe, finished with a sort of Corinthian capital and a boss of green glass. It is probable that in India and various parts of central Asia filigree has been worked from the most remote period without any change in the designs. Whether the Asiatic jewellers were influenced by the Greeks who settled on that continent, or trained under traditions held in common with them, it is certain that the Indian filigree workers retain the same patterns as those of the ancient Greeks and work them in the same way, down to the present day. Wandering workmen are given so much gold, coined or rough, weighed, heated in a pan of charcoal, beaten into wire, worked in the courtyard or verandah of the employer's house according to the designs of the artist, who weighs the complete work on restoring it and is paid at a specified rate for his labour. Fine grains or beads and spines of gold, scarcely thicker than coarse hair, projecting from plates of gold are methods of ornamentation still used.
Cuttack, of the eastern Indian state Odisha, features traditional filigree work Known as tarakasi in the Odia language, most filigree work revolves around images of deities, though due to lack of patronage and modern design ideas, it is a dying art. Noted is silver filigree of Karimnagar in Telangana state. Passing to times, there are in many collections of medieval jewel work reliquaries, covers for Gospel books, etc. made either in Constantinople from the 6th to the 12th centuries, or in monasteries in Europe, in which studied and imitated Byzantine goldsmiths' work. These objects, besides being enriched with precious stones, but not cut into facets, with enamels, are decorated with filigree. Large surfaces of gold are sometimes covered with scrolls of filigree soldered on, corner pieces of the borders of book covers, or the panels of reliquaries, are made up of complicated pieces of plaited work alternating with spaces encrusted with enamel. Byzantine filigree work has small stones set amongst the curves or knots.
Examples of such decoration ca
The Moscow School of Painting and Architecture was one of the largest educational institutions in Russia. The school was formed by the 1865 merger of a private art college, established in Moscow in 1832, the Palace School of Architecture, established in 1749 by Dmitry Ukhtomsky. By the end of the 19th century, it vied with the state-run St. Petersburg Academy of Arts for the title of the largest art school in the country. In the 20th century and architecture separated again, into the Surikov Art Institute in Moscow and the Moscow Architectural Institute; the Palace School of Architecture goes back to the classes of Dmitry Ukhtomsky that operated in 1749-1764. Twenty years, the classes were reinstated by Matvey Kazakov, in 1804 acquired the title of Kremlin College Palace School of Architecture. Graduates were awarded the title of Architect's Assistant and had to earn their own licenses through work. Art Classes; the private art college was established in 1832 by Egor Makovsky and A. S. Yastrebilov as Classes of Nature, renamed Art Classes in 1833.
In 1843 the classes were incorporated as the School of Painting and Sculpture of the Moscow Art Society. In 1865, the Palace School was incorporated into School of Sculpture; the School was unique in Imperial Russia, being a private college in a country were education was state-managed. Its diplomas were ranked inferior to those of the Academy of Arts; the School failed. After the October Revolution of 1917, the school was transformed in 1918 into the Second Free State Art Workshop. Art workshops disintegrated. In 1939, Igor Grabar launched the new college of fine arts, which acquired the name of Surikov Institute in 1948. Architectural education concentrated around VKhUTEMAS and MVTU and was organized into the Moscow Architectural Institute in 1933. More democratic in comparison with the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, the school played an important role in developing Russian national realistic art in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Admissions were based on artistic merits, allowing students without formal high school diplomas.
For example, Konstantin Melnikov joined the School at the age of 15, having only two years of primary education. Melnikov completed a diploma in Arts after 9 years of training and a diploma in Architecture three years later. One of the leader instructors of sculpture was Sergei Volnukhin. Notable alumni of the school include Léopold Survage, Igor Babailov, Vasily Perov, Alexei Savrasov, Illarion Pryanishnikov, Vladimir Makovsky, Isaac Levitan, Alexei Stepanov and Konstantin Korovin, Abram Arkhipov, Mikhail Nesterov, Anna Golubkina, Sergey Konenkov, Boris Korolev, Feodor Rojankovsky, Aleksey Korin and Alexandru Plămădeală. A study of 100 architects working in Moscow in 1890s-1910s by Maria Naschokina shows that more than half of them graduated from the School; the fact that most School graduates lacked a full state diploma was a major drawback in state employment, but irrelevant for the private clients that dominated construction market in Moscow. Thus, architectural profession in Moscow and Saint Petersburg were divided between graduates of the Moscow School and the Saint Petersburg schools.
The students had to demonstrate professional achievement during their education and were rated according to their graduate assignment. The best, earning a Large Silver medal, were rewarded with an official title of an Architect, sufficient for private order and state employment; the next tier, with a Small Silver medal, received a construction management license, sufficient for taking private orders but not state jobs. The rest had to return with new graduate projects; as an alternative, they could apply to the Imperial Academy and complete the courses at Saint Petersburg. There were few moves in the opposite direction. Some, like Ilya Bondarenko, completed training overseas. Fyodor Schechtel was expelled from the School in 1878 and acquired the license only in 1894; these difficulties extended architectural training, from admission to professional license, to 10–15 years and more. There were, rare exceptions like Ivan Mashkov, who earned a license at the age of 19 and completed his first projects at the age of 23.
Other notable alumni include: Ivan Bogdanov and Panteleimon Golosov, Roman Klein, Nikolai Ladovsky, Alexander Pomerantsev, Maral Rahmanzadeh, Vagif Rakhmanov, Vardges Sureniants, Anatoli Efimoff, Teresa Feoderovna Ries, Nikolay Krasnov, Nikolai Nevrev and Vladimir Sherwood Jr. Russian: Нащокина, М. B. "Архитекторы московского модерна", М, "Жираф", 2005, ISBN 5-89832-043-1 стр.236-253 Russian: Konstantin Melnikov biography: Хан-Магомедов, С.О. "Константин Мельников", М, 2006 ISBN 5-9647-0095-
Candelario Mancilla is a small settlement in the Aysén Region of southern Chile, located at the shores of the lake O'Higgins/San Martín. It is 16 kilometers to the north from the border with Argentina, is a key point on the tourist route Villa O'Higgins - El Chaltén; the settlement is connected to the rest of Chile via ferry to Villa O'Higgins where Carretera Austral ends. In the place lives only a family of Chilean settlers and a some of Carabineros that are border guards; the town receives its name from the pioneer José Candelario Mancilla Uribe, who came to settle the lake O'Higgins in 1927. This settlement received several expeditions of climbers and scientists who roamed the area or moved towards the great glaciers of the lake. In November 2001, the border crossing "Dos Lagunas" was opened between Chile and Argentina, which has increased tourism progressively in the area. Around 2,000 tourists pass through the settlement each year; the place is near the Del Desierto Lake, a place where Chile & Argentina had a border dispute until 1994.
In 1965 an incident occurred where the Chilean Carabinero, Hernán Merino Correa, died after a battle with the Argentine Gendarmerie. José Candelario Mancilla Uribe was a Chilean inhabitant of Lake O'Higgins who arrived in the area in 1927 together with his wife, Teresa Mancilla Oyarzún. Both had emigrated from the city of Puerto Montt to Punta Arenas. After their marriage in 1921, they worked in estancias of the Argentine province of Santa Cruz, until arriving at Lake O'Higgins/San Martín in 1927; the couple had six children, all born in Lake O'Higgins and one in Comandante Luis Piedrabuena, Argentina. The place where Candelario Mancilla is located was first populated by british immigrants, since 1933 by the family of Mancilla, who carried out a hard work of colonization, along with dozens of families scattered by other sectors of Lake O'Higgins. José Candelario Mancilla, like the inhabitants of the lake, demanded from the first years of the settlement state support for their families, however this was always null, having to get ahead with their own effort.
One action that has received national recognition was the construction of the landing track in the sector of Ventisquero Chico, in 1956, which allowed the arrival of flights of sovereignty of the Chilean Air Force, the first support from the state to the pioneer settlement of the lake. In 1961, a detachment of Carabineros de Chile was installed on lands ceded by Mancilla, years serious border incidents took place between the Chilean and Argentine police forces due to the sovereignty of the area of Laguna del Desierto, where Mancilla makes an active support to the Chilean units that are worth the recognition of the presidential authority of the time, it was Candelario Mancilla's own family who gave the name to the place, recognized for the first time with the construction of the wharf in 1992. Subsequently, travel guides and tourism have given it recognition, as a must for travelers and adventurers from all over the world. Today, the only settlers in the place are the descendants of Candelario Mancilla who reside in the cattle ranch and tourist "Santa Teresita", the police endowment of the Carabineros de Chile settlement called "Hernán Merino Correa".
The Regional Government of Aysén preliminarily projected the year 2012 the idea of expanding the settlement of Candelario Mancilla by including it in the Regional Policy of Isolated Areas. Laguna del Desierto incident