Filipinos are the people who are native to or citizens of the country of the Philippines. Filipinos come from various Austronesian ethnolinguistic groups. There are more than 185 ethnolinguistic groups, each with its own language, identity and history; the number of individual languages listed for Philippines is 185. Of these, 183 are living and 2 are extinct. Of the living languages, 175 are indigenous and 8 are non-indigenous. Furthermore, 39 are institutional, 67 are developing, 38 are vigorous, 28 are in trouble, 11 are dying; the name Filipino was derived from the term las Islas Filipinas, the name given to the archipelago in 1543 by the Spanish explorer and Dominican priest Ruy López de Villalobos, in honour of Philip II of Spain. During the Spanish colonial period the term Filipino was used for the Spaniards born in the archipelago when it was necessary to distinguish the indios of the Philippines from the indios of the Spanish colonies in the New World. In the latter half of the 19th century, an educated class of indios arose whose writings are credited with building Philippine nationalism.
These writings are credited with transforming the term Filipino from a reference to Spaniards born in the Philippines to refer to everyone born in the Philippines. The usage of the word Filipino to refer to the natives in many Spanish-era works and writings, such as in the Relación de las Islas Filipinas of Pedro Chirino, in which he wrote chapters entitled "Of the civilities, terms of courtesy, good breeding among the Filipinos", "Of the Letters of the Filipinos", "Concerning the false heathen religion and superstitions of the Filipinos", "Of marriages and divorces among the Filipinos", while using the term "Filipino" to refer unequivocally to the non-Spaniard natives of the archipelago like in the following sentence: The first and last concern of the Filipinos in cases of sickness was, as we have stated, to offer some sacrifice to their anitos, or diwatas, which were their gods. In the Crónicas of Juan Francisco de San Antonio, the author devoted a chapter to "The Letters and politeness of the Philippinos", while Francisco Antolín argued in 1789 that "the ancient wealth of the Philippinos is much like that which the Igorots have at present".
These examples prompted the historian William Henry Scott to conclude that during the Spanish colonial period: the people of the Philippines were called Filipinos when they were practicing their own culture — or, to put it another way, before they became indios. While the Philippine-born Spaniards during the 19th century began to be called españoles filipinos, logically contracted to just Filipino, to distinguish them from the Spaniards born in Spain, they themselves resented the term, preferring to identify themselves as hijos del país. Historian Ambeth Ocampo has suggested that the first documented use of the word Filipino to refer to Indios was the Spanish-language poem A la juventud filipina, published in 1879 by José Rizal. Writer and publisher Nick Joaquin has asserted that Luis Rodríguez Varela was the first to describe himself as Filipino in print. Apolinario Mabini used the term Filipino to refer to all inhabitants of the Philippines. Father Jose Burgos earlier called all natives of the archipelago as Filipinos.
The lack of the letter "F" in the pre-1987 Tagalog alphabet caused the letter "P" to be substituted for "F", though the alphabets and/or writing scripts of some non-Tagalog ethnic groups included the letter "F". Upon official adoption of the modern, 28-letter Filipino alphabet in 1987, the term Filipino was preferred over Pilipino. Locally, some still use "Pilipino" to refer to the people and "Filipino" to refer to the language, but in international use "Filipino" is the usual form for both. A number of Filipinos refer to themselves colloquially as "Pinoy", a slang word formed by taking the last four letters of "Filipino" and adding the diminutive suffix "-y". Other collective endonyms for the Filipino people include: "Patria Adorada" as popularized by Jose Rizal through his poem "Mi último adiós", "Bayang Pilipino" or the more poetic "Sambayanáng Pilipino". In 2010, a metatarsal from "Callao Man", discovered in 2007, was dated through uranium-series dating as being 67,000 years old. Prior to that, the earliest human remains found in the Philippines were thought to be the fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone, discovered in the 1960s by Dr. Robert B.
Fox, an anthropologist from the National Museum. Anthropologists who examined these remains agreed; these include the Homo sapiens. The "Tabon Man" fossils are considered to have come from a third group of inhabitants, who worked the cave between 22,000 and 20,000 BCE. An earlier cave level lies so far below the level containing cooking fire assemblages that it must represent Upper Pleistocene dates like 45 or 50 thousand years ago. Researchers say this indicates that the human remains were pre-Mongoloid, from about 40,000 years ago. Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the Holocene period and evolved into the Austronesian people, a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malagasy, the non-Chinese Taiwan Aboriginals or Rhea's. Fluctuations in ancient shorelines between 1
Aaron Skonnard is an American businessman and the co-founder and CEO of Pluralsight. Skonnard founded the company in 2004 with Keith Brown, Fritz Onion, Bill Williams, to provide online video training courses for software developers, IT administrators, creative professionals. Since its founding, the company has developed a full enterprise platform, as of November, 2017, has received over $192 million in venture funding, made several acquisitions. Skonnard says he first began learning to code as a child, when his father brought home an Apple II computer, he graduated from Brigham Young University in 1996 with a degree in Computer Science. After college, prior to founding Pluralsight, he worked at 3M, Axiom Technologies. During this time, he published three books: Essential WinInet, in 1999. Skonnard, along with Keith Brown, Fritz Onion, Bill Williams, founded Pluralsight in 2004; the company focused on classroom training courses for businesses. In 2007, they began to focus on online video training.
As the company grew, they expanded into enterprise subscriptions. Skonnard says that as of 2019 70% of Fortune 500 companies have Pluralsight enterprise licenses. Since 2012, the company has raised over $190 million in venture funding, with a Series A in 2012–2013, a Series B in 2014. Following their Series B, Skonnard announced the company's valuation neared $1 billion, up from less than $100 million in 2012. Pluralsight has been listed as an Inc. 5000 company since 2013, ranking at 1155 in 2017. In 2018, the company held its IPO on the NASDAQ, opening at a $15 share price, closed its first day of trading at $20, which carried a market cap of over $2.5 billion. Skonnard has been recognized for his leadership as Pluralsight's CEO. In 2013, he received an Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award. In 2016, he was announced as one of Utah Business's CEO of the Year honorees. MountainWest Capital Network named Skonnard their Entrepreneur of the Year for 2016. Skonnard was awarded Utah CEO of the Year at the inaugural Utah Startup Awards in 2016.
In November 2015, Skonnard helped launch the Start Foundation, a 501 organization hoping to improve Utah's tech industry. At launch, Skonnard was named the foundation's chairman. In December 2016, the organizations Silicon Slopes and Beehive Startups formed a new nonprofit together. Skonnard explained on Twitter. Skonnard serves on the organization's board, whose mission statement seeks to increase diversity and provide resources for startups and entrepreneurs in Utah. Skonnard has invested in various tech startups in the Utah area, including Bevy, Divvy and Grow. Skonnard graduated from Brigham Young University in 1996, he lives in Utah with his wife and their five children
Although Internet censorship in Germany has traditionally been rated as low, it is practised directly and indirectly through various laws and court decisions. German law provides for freedom of speech and press with several exceptions, including what The Guardian has called "some of the world's toughest laws around hate speech". An example of content censored by law is the removal of web sites from Google search results that deny the holocaust, a felony under German law. According to the Google Transparency Report, the German government is one of the most active in requesting user data after the United States. Most cases of Internet censorship in Germany occur after state court rulings. One example is a 2009 court order, forbidding German Wikipedia to disclose the identity of Wolfgang Werlé and Manfred Lauber, two criminals convicted of the murder of the Bavarian actor Walter Sedlmayr. In another case, Wikipedia.de was prohibited from pointing to the actual Wikipedia content. The court order was as a temporary injunction in a case filed by politician Lutz Heilmann over claims in a German Wikipedia article regarding his past involvement with the former German Democratic Republic's intelligence service Stasi.
The first known case of Internet censorship in Germany occurred in 1996, when the Verein zur Förderung eines Deutschen Forschungsnetzes banned some IP addresses from Internet access. In June 2009, the Bundestag passed the Access Impediment Act or Zugangserschwerungsgesetz that introduced Internet blocking of sites found to distribute child pornography. Against the backdrop of an intense political debate, the law did not come into force until federal elections in September 2009 changed the setup of the governing coalition. In talks between the new governing parties CDU and FDP, it was agreed that no blocking would be implemented for one year, focusing on take-down efforts instead. After one year the success of the deletion policy would be reviewed; the governing parties decided in April 2011 to repeal the law altogether. After lobbying efforts by news publishers which began in 2009, the Bundesrat considered a law preventing search results from returning excerpts from news sites unless the search engine has paid a license for them.
It passed in 2013 and was interpreted as an attempt to have Google subsidize German news. In response, Google modified search to only display headlines for certain sites; the publishing collective VG Media claimed in an unsuccessful lawsuit that removing the snippets rather than licensing them was an antitrust violation. Other supporters of the bill, including Axel Springer, saw an overall decrease in their readership following its passage; the Netzwerkdurchsetzungsgesetz or NetzDG was passed in June 2017 as a measure to require social media companies in Germany to censor extremism online, with significant hate speech provisions as well. The law, which applies to for-profit websites with over 2 million users, demands the removal of offensive illegal content within 24 hours and allows for one week to review "more ambiguous content", it was authored by Heiko Maas and went into full effect in January 2018. Critics have questioned the feasibility of fining companies €50 million for failing to comply, pointed to hundreds of new German content moderators hired by Facebook.
A report testing the amount of illegal content that could be removed within 24 hours found figures of 90% for YouTube, 39% for Facebook and 1% for Twitter. Purveyors of satire criticized the law after the magazine Titanic and the comedian Sophie Passmann were both suspended from Twitter after attempting to mock anti-Muslim rhetoric; the United Nations special rapporteur on freedom of expression David Kaye expressed a fear that NetzDG would lead to overly restrictive blocking and Cathleen Berger of Mozilla found evidence that it was inspiring other countries to do the same. Some victims of harassment campaigns have supported increased restrictions and stated "I don't mind if other comments get deleted along with the bad ones."Opposition politicians including Nicola Beer of the FDP, Simone Peter of the Green Party and Sahra Wagenknecht of The Left, have criticized the idea of putting decisions about online discourse in the hands of American companies, with the latter calling it "a slap in the face of all democratic principles".
In what has been called the "first test case" of NetzDG, a German Internet user sued Facebook for deleting a post, critical of Germany. In April 2018, the court obtained an injunction ordering. Internet in Germany