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Film colorization

Film colorization is any process that adds color to black-and-white, sepia, or other monochrome moving-picture images. It may be done as a special effect, to restore color films; the first examples date from the early 20th century, but colorization has become common with the advent of digital image processing. The first film colorization methods were hand done by individuals. For example, at least 4% of George Méliès's output, including some prints of A Trip to the Moon from 1902 and other major films such as The Kingdom of the Fairies, The Impossible Voyage, The Barber of Seville were individually hand-colored by Elisabeth Thuillier's coloring lab in Paris. Thuillier, a former colorist of glass and celluloid products, directed a studio of two hundred people painting directly on film stock with brushes, in the colors she chose and specified. Thuillier's lab produced about sixty hand-colored copies of A Trip to the Moon, but only one copy is known to exist; the first full-length feature film made by a hand-colored process was The Miracle of 1912.

The process was always done by hand, sometimes using a stencil cut from a second print of the film, such as the Pathécolor process. As late as the 1920s, hand coloring processes were used for individual shots in Greed and The Phantom of the Opera; these colorization methods were employed. During the late 1960s and the early 1970s, black-and-white Betty Boop, Mickey Mouse, Looney Tunes cartoons were redistributed in color. Supervised by Fred Ladd, color was added by tracing the original black-and-white frames onto new animation cels, adding color to the new cels in South Korea. To cut time and expense, Ladd's process skipped every other frame; the most recent redrawn colorized black-and-white cartoons are the Fleischer Studios/Famous Studios' Popeye cartoons, the Harman-Ising Merrie Melodies, MGM's The Captain and the Kids cartoons, which were colorized in 1987 for airing on the Turner networks. With computer technology, studios were able to add color to black-and-white films by digitally tinting single objects in each frame of the film until it was colorized.

The initial process was invented by Canadian Wilson Markle and was first used in 1970 to add color to monochrome footage of the moon from the Apollo program missions. Computerized colorization began in the 1970s using the technique invented by Wilson Markle; these early attempts at colorization have soft contrast and pale, washed-out color. To perform digital colorization, a digitized copy of the best black and white film print available is used. With the aid of computer software, technicians associate a range of gray levels to each object and indicate to the computer any movement of the objects within a shot; the software is capable of sensing variations in the light level from frame-to-frame and correcting it if necessary. The technician selects a color for each object based on common "memory" colors—such as blue sky, white clouds, flesh tones and green grass—and on any information about colors used in the movie. If color publicity stills or props are available to examine, authentic colors may be applied.

In the absence of any better information, technicians may choose colors that fit the gray level and are consistent with what a director might have wanted for the scene. The software associates a variation of the basic color with each gray level in the object, while keeping intensity levels the same as in the monochrome original; the software follows each object from frame to frame, applying the same color until the object leaves the frame. As new objects come into the frame, the technician must associate colors to each new object in the same way as described above; this technique was patented in 1991. In order to colorize a still image, an artist begins by dividing the image into regions, assigning a color to each region; this approach known as the segmentation method, is laborious and time-consuming in the absence of automatic algorithms to identify fuzzy or complex region boundaries, such as those between a subject's hair and face. Colorization of moving images requires motion compensation, tracking regions as movement occurs from one frame to the next.

Several companies claim to have produced automatic region-tracking algorithms: Legend Films describes their core technology as pattern recognition and background compositing that moves and morphs foreground and background masks from frame to frame. In the process, backgrounds are colorized separately in a single composite frame which functions as a visual database of a cut, includes all offset data on each camera movement. Once the foreground areas are colorized, background masks are applied frame-to-frame. Timebrush describes a process based on neural net technology that produces saturated and crisp colors with clear lines and no apparent spill-over; the process is cost effective because it relies on computers rather than human effort, is suitable for low-budget colorization and broa

List of Billboard number-one country songs of 1957

In 1957 Billboard magazine published three charts covering the best-performing country music songs in the United States: Most Played C&W in Juke Boxes, which had appeared in Billboard since 1944, C&W Best Sellers in Stores, which had debuted in 1948, Most Played C&W by Jockeys, which had launched in 1949. The "C&W" used in the titles of the charts was an abbreviation for "country and western", a term which Billboard had adopted for the genre in 1949, replacing the earlier "folk music"; the Juke Box chart was published for the final time in the issue of Billboard dated June 17, 1957. All three charts are considered part of the lineage of the current Hot Country Songs chart, first published in 1958. At the start of the year, the number one position on all three charts was held by "Singing the Blues" by Marty Robbins, who achieved a second number one in June with "A White Sport Coat", which topped all three charts and was in the top spot on the final C&W juke box chart published by Billboard.

Robbins was the only artist with more than one chart-topper on the juke box listing, his eleven weeks in the top spot was the most by any artist on the chart. Three other acts had more than one country number one in 1957. Bobby Helms took both "Fraulein" and "My Special Angel" to the top of both the best sellers and jockeys charts, a feat achieved by The Everly Brothers with "Bye Bye Love" and "Wake Up Little Susie". Elvis Presley was the only act with three country number ones during the year. Despite their success on the other charts, none of Presley's songs topped the jockeys chart. Four songs topped only the jockeys chart, including "Four Walls" by Jim Reeves, which spent eight non-consecutive weeks atop the airplay-based listing beginning in May, but failed to top either of the other two charts. Sonny James achieved his first number one in 1957 with "Young Love", which topped the pop singles charts; the singer, dubbed the "Southern Gentleman", would go on to become one of the most successful artists in country music history, with more than 20 number ones to his name.

Rock and roll pioneer Jerry Lee Lewis, whose early recordings were successful on the country charts, reached number one for the first time in September with "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On", a rhythm and blues number one. The song has been included on lists of the greatest tracks of all time, in 2015 was selected for permanent preservation in the National Recording Registry at the Library of Congress; the Everly Brothers topped the country charts for the first time, with "Bye Bye Love", returned to the top spot in the year with "Wake Up Little Susie", which topped Billboard's pop and R&B charts. The brothers had the highest total number of weeks atop both the country best sellers and jockeys charts, with 14 and 15 weeks at number one. "Gone" by Ferlin Husky had the longest unbroken run at number one on any of the charts, topping the best sellers chart for ten consecutive weeks. The final number one of the year on both the best sellers and jockeys charts was "My Special Angel" by Bobby Helms. a.

^ Due to a change in Billboard's cover-dating policy, the issue after that dated April 27 was dated April 29. B. ^ Two songs tied for number one. 1957 in music 1957 in country music List of artists who reached number one on the U. S. country chart

Komoro, Nagano

Komoro is a city located in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 March 2019, the city had an estimated population of 42,489 in 18776 households, a population density of 430 persons per km², its total area is 98.55 square kilometres. Komoro is located in eastern Nagano Prefecture; the Chikuma River flows thorough the western part of the city. Some extinct volcanic mountains are located between neighboring Tsumagoi; the highest point in Komoro is Mt. Kurofu, its peak is 2,404 metres above sea level. The lowest point is 540 metres; the old city center is at about 700 metres. There are many slopes, so Komoro is known as a "hilly city". Nagano Prefecture Saku Tōmi Miyota Gunma Prefecture Tsumagoi Per Japanese census data, the population of Komoro peaked at around the year 2000 and has declined since. Komoro is far from the sea and surrounded by mountains, so the rainfall is lower and diurnal temperature range is greater than many locations in Japan, average annual temperature of Komoro is cool because of the high altitude..

The city has a climate characterized by characterized by hot and humid summers, mild winters. The average annual temperature in Komoro is 10.8 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1108 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 23.9 °C, lowest in January, at around -1.7 °C. The area of present-day Komoro was part of ancient Shinano Province; the Tōsandō, one of the national routes passed Komoro, the location of an Umaya, or post station for government officials and army. However, the name "Komoro" first appears in written history in the Kamakura period chronicle, Azuma Kagami. In these days, Komoro Tarō Mitsukane, a gokenin assigned by the shogunate to govern the area. During the Muromachi period, the region came under the control of the Ogasawara Ōi clan; the area had a unsettled history during the Sengoku period. Under the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate, much of the area was under the control of Komoro Domain and the town developed into a jōkamachi around Komoro Castle.

The modern town of Komoro was established on April 1, 1889 with the establishment of the Meiji period municipalities system. The town of Komoro annexed villages of Kawabe and Osato on February 1, 1954; the city of Komoro was established on April 1, 1954 after absorbing the villages of Minamioi and Mitsuoka. On April 1, 1959 parts of the town of Tobu was merged into Komoro and the city has been unchanged since. Komoro has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 19 members. Komoro is s regional commercial center and has a agricultural economy based on cultivation of rice and fruits. Among agricultural products in Komoro, soba and peaches are popular. Komoro has many soba restaurants and apple orchards, so a lot of visitors come there from Shutoken. Komoro is known for its miso. Komoro has six public elementary schools and two public middle schools operated by the city government. There are two public high schools operated by the Nagano Prefectural Board of Education.

East Japan Railway Company - Koumi Line Misato - Mitsuoka - Otome - Higashi-Komoro - Komoro Shinano RailwayShinano Railway Line Hirahara - Komoro Nunobiki Electric Railway Nunobiki - Oshidashi - Hanakawa - Komoro Jōshin-etsu Expressway Chūbu-Ōdan Expressway National Route 18 National Route 141 National Route 142 National Route 403 Komoro is twinned with: Nakatsugawa, Japan Ōiso, Japan Namerikawa, Japan Kaikoen, a park in the center of Komoro containing the foundations of Komoro Castle as well as a museum dedicated to Shimazaki Toson and a zoo. The third gate of castle and the fourth gate are Important Cultural Properties of Japan, as is the Kyu Komoro Honjin. Kaikoen is known for cherry blossoms, has been selected as one of the Top 100 Cherry Blossom Viewing Sites in Japan. Nunobikisan Shakuson-ji, a Buddhist temple dating from 748 AD located at the top of a deep ravine. Kan'nondo Kūden, the oldest surviving building was built in 1252 and is an Important Cultural Property. You can see Shidare zakura in April.

Mountain hiking in Takamine, close to the active volcano Mt Asama, Mt. Kurofu is about a 30-minute drive uphill from Komoro. You can enjoy skiing in winter, Onsen in all seasons there. Teranouchi Stone Age Settlement ruins, a Jōmon-period settlement trace and National Historic Site Shimazaki Toson and writer. Toson spent a period teaching in Komoro, is featured in a dedicated museum located within Komoro's Kaikoen park. Sodo Yokoyama, a leaf-flute Zen Master who lived as a hermit in Komoro's Kaikoen Park until 1980. Yokoyama was inspired by an earlier resident of the poet and writer Shimazaki Toson. See Arthur Braverman's excellent article for some personal recollections of Yokoyama. Shuichi Abe, the current governor of Nagano prefecture, he and his family have been living in Komoro since 2014. Official Website Komoro Tourism Website 「小諸で待ってる」(Promotional Video by Komoro Tourism Bureau)(added English subtitles)

Bucculatrix helichrysella

Bucculatrix helichrysella is a moth in the family Bucculatricidae. It was described by Alexandre Constant in 1889, it is found in southern Europe, where it has been recorded from France, the Iberian Peninsula, Corsica and North Macedonia. The wingspan is about 7 mm; the larvae feed on Helichrysum italicum. They mine the leaves of their host plant; the mine starts as a thin corridor with a central frass line. The corridor becomes much wider. Older larvae live on the leaf and create fleck mines. Larvae can be found in April. Natural History Museum Lepidoptera generic names catalog

Jaimee Kaire-Gataulu

Jaimee Kaire-Gataulu is a New Zealand television actress, best known for her role as Cloe in Cloud 9's series, The Tribe. She played the long-running role in Series 1 through 4 and proved to be one of the show's favourite characters with fans. Kaire-Gataulu was born at St. Helens Hospital in New Zealand, she began appearing in short films and commercials at the age of 5. She made her acting debut in the short film The Kiwi and The Water Melon followed by appearances in two other short films, The Birthday and Clown Story, her other television roles included parts in The Visitation and the popular action hero show Xena: The Warrior Princess. She worked as a reporter on What Now. During the series, she was close to co-star Dan Weekes-Hannah, with whom her character would become involved in a romantic storyline. While filming The Tribe, Jaimee lived in the cast house with Weekes. During an interview, Weekes claimed that they flirted together and dated, against the rules. Weekes claimed that an impromptu train ride to Auckland with Kaire-Gataulu caused them to miss a scheduled shooting.

Their absence caused shooting to be rescheduled, costing the studio upwards of one hundred thousand dollars. Both were dropped from the show, Kaire-Gataulu being fired while Weeks was written out on in the season; the pair broke up soon after The Tribe ceased production. In 2008 Jaimee gave an interview, she is a mother now, to three boys: her eldest son named Phoenix and two toddlers Preston and Brooklyn. Though she has an agent, she is not acting. Jaimee Kaire-Gataulu on IMDb JaimeeOnline.com Tribe-Cast.com - Jaimee Kaire-Gataulu

Delila (Richards) Abbott

Delila M. "Dee" Richards Abbott was an American housewife and politician. Throughout her life she was active in both the local and national political scene and her accomplishments range from writing fiction novels to serving on the Defense Advisory Committee for Women. Abbott worked to bring more women into the public sphere, saying that "Women are a neglected resource, they are not sufficiently recognized and their full potential is not developed". Delila M. Richards was born on November 4, 1908, to John C. Richards and Clara Bacon in West Jordan, Utah. John Richards was a carpenter, he and his wife were both natives of West Jordan. Delila graduated from Jordan High School and went on to attend LDS Business College in Salt Lake City, Utah, she married Floyd A. Abbott a life-time resident of West Jordan, on June 25, 1930; the young couple moved to Spokane, but were forced back to Utah with the onset of the Great Depression. Mr. Abbott had graduated from the University of Utah school of pharmacy but was soon called into service during World War II.

Five months after his departure, their son, Richard Abbott, was born. Abbott's husband was released from the military in 1946, after a brief stay in Seattle, returned permanently to Utah. Abbott began her political career in the late 1940s as a watcher at the polls and a member of the Salt Lake County Republican Central Committee. In 1954, she was elected as the Republican Party County Vice Chairman, but became involved at the state level, she served as the Supervisory Clerk for the Utah Senate in 1955 and the same year was invited to attend the Republican Women's National Conference in Washington, D. C. as the Utah State Conference chairman. In 1957, she was elected to the Utah House of Representatives. Though she served for only one year, as a representative she acted as chair of both the Patronage and Rules Committees and was a member of several others. Over the next 20 years, Abbott held and/or campaigned for numerous other local and state offices and organizational positions, some of which include: Republican Party Western Conference Representative Ran for the office of Salt Lake County Clerk Census Crew Leader Vice President of the Salt Lake City Women's Republican Club Committee Member of the National Council of Women of the United States Committee Member of the International Council of Women President of the Utah Order of Women Legislators Of these offices, Abbott was the most influential during a three-year appointment as a member of the United States Defense Department's Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services beginning in 1960.

The purpose of the committee was to advise the U. S. Defense Department on policies in regards to women in the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps; the committee itself was considered the "top echelon" of women's civilian advisory committees, its agenda and the identities of those making the appointments was kept a complete secret. As a member of the committee and the chairman of the organization sub-committee, Abbott promoted many policy changes to assist the U. S. military in utilizing its women more effectively. Her achievements were many as committee chairman, but she became popular in Utah for "bucking" regulation and fighting to allow servicewomen to wear more comfortable and stylish clothing—in particular, their skirts. Delila Abbott at Find a Grave Delila M. Abbott papers, MSS 1657 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University