Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films and the film medium. The concept is used interchangeably with that of film reviews. A film review implies a recommendation aimed at consumers, however not all film criticism takes the form of reviews. In general, film criticism can be divided into two categories: journalistic criticism which appears in newspapers and other popular mass-media outlets. Academic film criticism takes the form of a review. Film was introduced in the late 19th century; the earliest artistic criticism of film emerged in the early 1900s. The first paper to serve as a critique of film came out of The Optical Lantern and Cinematograph Journal, followed by the Bioscope in 1908. Film is a new form of art, in comparison to music and painting which have existed since ancient times. Early writing on film sought to argue that films could be considered a form of art. In 1911, Ricciotto Canudo wrote a manifesto proclaiming cinema to be the "Sixth Art". For many decades after, film was still being treated with less prestige than longer-established art forms.
By the 1920s, critics were analyzing film for its value as more than just entertainment. The growing popularity of the medium caused major newspapers to start hiring film critics. In the 1930s, the film industry developed concepts of stardom and celebrity in relation to actors, which led to a rise in obsession with critics as well, to the point that they were seen on "red carpet" and at major events with the actors, it was in the 1940s. Essays analyzing films with a distinctive charm and style to persuade the reader of the critic's argument, it was the emergence of these styles that brought film criticism to the mainstream, gaining the attention of many popular magazines. As the decades passed, the fame for critics grew and gave rise to household names among the craft like James Agee, Andrew Sarris, Pauline Kael and in modern times Roger Ebert and Peter Travers. Film critics working for newspapers, broadcast media, online publications review new releases, although review older films. An important task for these reviews is to inform readers on whether or not they would want to see the film.
A film review will explain the premise of the film before discussing its merits. The verdict is summarised with a form of rating. Numerous rating systems exist, such as 5 - or academic-style grades and pictograms; some well-known journalistic critics have included: James Agee. Roger Ebert and Gene Siskel popularised the concept of reviewing films in a television format in the show Siskel & Ebert At the Movies which became syndicated in the 1980s. Both critics had established their careers in print media, continued to write written reviews for their respective newspapers alongside their television show; some websites, such as Rotten Tomatoes and Metacritic, seek to improve the usefulness of film reviews by compiling them and assigning a score to each in order to gauge the general reception a film receives. Blogging has introduced opportunities for a new wave of amateur film critics to have their opinions heard; these review blogs may focus on one genre, director or actor, or encompass a much wider variety of films.
Friends, friends of friends, or strangers are able to visit these blogsites, can leave their own comments about the movie and/or the author's review. Although much less frequented than their professional counterparts, these sites can gather a following of like-minded people who look to specific bloggers for reviews as they have found that the critic exhibits an outlook similar to their own. YouTube has served as a platform for amateur film critics; some websites specialize in narrow aspects of film reviewing. For instance, there are sites that focus on specific content advisories for parents to judge a film's suitability for children. Others focus on a religious perspective. Still others highlight more esoteric subjects such as the depiction of science in fiction films. One such example is Insultingly Stupid Movie Physics by Intuitor; some online niche websites provide comprehensive coverage of the independent sector. They tend to offer uncompromising opinions free of any commercial interest, their film critics have an academic film background.
The Online Film Critics Society, an international professional association of Internet-based cinema reviewers, consists of writers from all over the world, while New York Film Critics Online members handle reviews in the New York tri-state area. A number of websites allow Internet users to submit movie reviews and aggregate them into an average. Community-driven review sites have allowed the common movie goer to express their opinion on films. Many of these sites allow users to rate films on a 0 to 10 scale, while some rely on the sta
Vigilantes of Boomtown is a 1947 American Western film in the Red Ryder film series directed by R. G. Springsteen, written by Earle Snell, starring Allan Lane, Robert Blake, Martha Wentworth, Roscoe Karns, Roy Barcroft and Peggy Stewart, it was released on February 1947, by Republic Pictures. Allan Lane as Red Ryder Robert Blake as Little Beaver Martha Wentworth as Duchess Wentworth Roscoe Karns as Billy Delaney Roy Barcroft as McKean Peggy Stewart as Molly McVey George Tume as Jim Corbett Eddie Lou Simms as Eddie George Chesebro as Dink Bobby Barber as Corbett's Second George Lloyd as Thug Hired by Molly Ted Adams as Sheriff John Dehner as Bob Fitzsimmons Earle Hodgins as Governor Vigilantes of Boomtown on IMDb
SMS Stralsund was a Magdeburg-class light cruiser of the German Kaiserliche Marine. Her class included three other ships: Magdeburg and Strassburg, she was built at the AG Weser shipyard in Bremen from 1910 to December 1912, when she was commissioned into the High Seas Fleet. The ship was armed with a main battery of twelve 10.5 cm SK L/45 guns and had a top speed of 27.5 knots. Stralsund was assigned to the reconnaissance forces of the High Seas Fleet for the majority of her career, she saw significant action in the early years of World War I, including several operations off the British coast and the Battles of Heligoland Bight and Dogger Bank, in August 1914 and November 1915, respectively. She was not damaged in either action; the ship was in dockyard hands during the Battle of Jutland, so she missed the engagement. After the end of the war, she served in the Reichsmarine before being surrendered to the Allies, she was ceded to the French Navy, where she served as Mulhouse until 1925. She was formally broken up for scrap two years later.
Stralsund had a beam of 13.5 m and a draft of 4.4 m forward. She displaced 4,570 t and up to 5,587 t at full load, her propulsion system consisted of two sets of AEG-Vulcan steam turbines driving two 3.4-meter propellers. They reached 33,482 shp in service; these were powered by sixteen coal-fired Marine-type water-tube boilers, although they were altered to use fuel oil, sprayed on the coal to increase its burn rate. These gave the ship a top speed of 27.5 knots. Stralsund carried 1,200 tonnes of coal, an additional 106 tonnes of oil that gave her a range of 5,820 nautical miles at 12 knots. Stralsund had a crew of 336 enlisted men; the ship was armed with twelve 10.5 cm SK L/45 guns in single pedestal mounts. Two were placed side by side forward on the forecastle, eight were located amidships, four on either side, two were side by side aft; the guns had a maximum elevation of 30 degrees, which allowed them to engage targets out to 12,700 m. They were supplied for 150 shells per gun, she was equipped with a pair of 50 cm torpedo tubes with five torpedoes submerged in the hull on the broadside.
She could carry 120 mines. The ship was protected by a waterline armored belt, 60 mm thick amidships; the conning tower had 100 mm thick sides, the deck was covered with up to 60 mm thick armor plate. Stralsund was ordered under the contract name "Ersatz Cormoran" and was laid down at the AG Weser shipyard in Bremen in 1910 and launched on 4 November 1911, after which fitting-out work commenced, she was commissioned into the High Seas Fleet on 10 December 1912. Stralsund spent the majority of her career in the reconnaissance forces of the High Seas Fleet. On 16 August, some two weeks after the outbreak of World War I, Stralsund and Strassburg conducted a sweep into the Hoofden to search for British reconnaissance forces; the two cruisers encountered a group of sixteen British destroyers and a light cruiser at a distance of about 10,000 m. Outnumbered, the two German cruisers broke contact and returned to port; the ship's first major action was the Battle of Heligoland Bight on 28 August 1914. British battlecruisers and light cruisers raided the German reconnaissance screen in the Heligoland Bight.
At 12:30, Stralsund and Ariadne arrived to reinforce Rear Admiral Leberecht Maass, turned the tide against the British light cruisers. Shortly thereafter, the British battlecruisers intervened and sank Ariadne and Maass's flagship Cöln. Stralsund and the rest of the surviving light cruisers retreated into the haze and were reinforced by the battlecruisers of the I Scouting Group. Stralsund and Danzig rescued most of the crew of Ariadne, she participated in the raid on Yarmouth on 2–3 November 1914, as reconnaissance screen for the I Scouting Group. While the battlecruisers bombarded the town of Yarmouth, Stralsund laid a minefield, which sank a steamer and the submarine HMS D5 which had sortied to intercept the German raiders. After completing the bombardment, the German squadron returned to port without encountering British forces. Stralsund was present during the raid on Scarborough and Whitby, again screening for the I Scouting Group. In the withdrawal after bombarding the towns, the Germans were nearly intercepted by British forces.
Confusion aboard the British flagship allowed the German squadron to escape, however. On 25 December, the British launched the Cuxhaven Raid, an air attack on the German naval base in Cuxhaven and the Nordholz Airbase. Stralsund was unable to shoot it down; the ship was again part of the reconnaissance screen for the I Scouting Group at the Battle of Dogger Bank on 24 January 1915. Stralsund and Graudenz were assigned to the front of the screen and Rostock and Kolberg steamed on either side of the formation. At 08:15, lookouts on Stralsund and Kolberg spotted heavy smoke from large British warships approaching the formation; as the main German fleet was in port and therefore unable to support the battlecruisers, Hipper decided to retreat at high speed. The British battlecruisers were able to catch up to the Germans, in the ensuing battle, the large armored cruiser
Division Street is a major east-west street in Chicago, located at 1200 North. Division Street begins in the Gold Coast neighborhood near Lake Shore Drive, passes through Polonia Triangle at Milwaukee Avenue into Wicker Park and continues to Chicago's city limits and into the city's western suburbs. Once known as "Polish Broadway" during the heyday of Polish Downtown, Division Street was the favorite street of author Nelson Algren. A fountain dedicated in his name was installed in what had been the area that figured as the inspiration for much of his work. Division Street once served as one of Chicago's main and hippest club strips, with bars and clubs lining much of the street from State Street west to Dearborn Street. Today, the street serves as the Near North Side's second major nightlife hub, second only to the upscale River North entertainment district, located north and east of the Chicago River, west of the famed Michigan Avenue shopping district and south of Chicago Avenue, focusing on Hubbard Street as the epicenter.
The Division Street bars and clubs stay open late, with most closing 4 o'clock or 5 o'clock in the morning. The street is very crowded and busy, after 3 AM, Chicago police block off the street to vehicular traffic due to the heavy pedestrian presence. Further to the west, Division serves areas of the city that are not as economically vibrant, including for many years the Cabrini-Green public housing development, continuing a pattern of social class division noted by author Studs Terkel in his book, Division Street: America. Division Street has a Red Line stop at Clark/Division. Division Street is served by the Division/Milwaukee stop on the Blue Line at Polonia Triangle. On the north side of this street, two doors to the east of Dearborn Street, is the bar called "Mother's" which gained some prominence as a result of the 1986 film, About Last Night.... The film was based on the 1974 play, Sexual Perversity in Chicago, by David Mamet, set in the subculture to be found in the intersecting Rush Street and Division Street bars, at the time.
It focused on a group of characters who frequented the bar in question, portraying the corrosive effects of the subculture on relations within The exterior shots were of the real bar, though the interior shots were done elsewhere. Mother's is located in a basement, with many support pillars through its unusually-shaped space, due to the proximity of the tunnel for the Red Line train and its air intake shafts. Farther west, around Damen Avenue, are a number of upscale restaurants and bars; this is one of the trendiest strips in the city. These are popular in the gentrifying neighborhoods of Wicker Park, East Village, Ukrainian Village and Pulaski Park; this neighborhood figured prominently in the 1977 film. Paseo Boricua is located further west along Division Street between Western Avenue and California Avenue, in the neighborhood of Humboldt Park; the strip is flanked on both sides by 59-foot-tall Puerto Rican flags made of steel. Dedicated to Puerto Rican pride, this part of the street includes a "walk of fame", with the names of many outstanding Puerto Ricans.
Paseo Boricua is the political and cultural capital of the Puerto Rican community in the Midwest and, some say, in the Puerto Rican Diaspora. The Horween Leather Company, founded as I. Horween and Co. in 1905, was located on Division Street. The company moved in 1927 to North Elston Avenue; the entire route is in Cook County. Division Street Russian and Turkish Baths New York Times: On the Old'Polish Broadway,' Boutiques and Spas Arrive David Mamet Society – Sexual Perversity in Chicago
Muktar Ahmed Mohammed Aruwa was a Nigerian senator. He was first elected to the senate in 1999 as a representative of Kaduna State for the All People's Party. Aruwa opposed the privatization of public enterprises, he was re-elected in 2003 as a member of the All Nigeria Peoples Party, the successor to the APP. He was involved in a dispute over committee appointments, claiming unfair play by the senate leadership. Aruwa's name was dropped from the ANPP party list for the 2007 election. Muktar Ahmed Mohammed Aruwa was elected Senator for the Kaduna Central constituency of Kaduna State, Nigeria at the start of the Nigerian Fourth Republic, running on the All People's Party platform, he took office on 29 May 1999. After taking his seat in the Senate Aruwa was appointed to committees on Senate Services, Works & Housing, Police Affairs and Finance & Appropriation. In April 2000 he said he would not submit to Sharia law, saying "Even in true Islamic countries, there is no total application of Sharia. There is reformation going on now", saying Sharia violated some human rights.
In August 2002 he moved to halt the privatization of public enterprises pending amendment of the law governing the National Council on Privatization to bring it into line with the 1999 constitution. Aruwa was reelected on the All Nigeria People's Party platform for a further four-year term in 2003. In May 2005 Aruwa was appointed to an ad-hoc Senate committee on media relations, formed to present the Senate position to the public if President Olusegun Obasanjo were to insist on reviewing the budget after it has been signed into law; the Senate view was. In September 2005 he rejected a posting as Vice-Chairman of the Senate Committee on Women Affairs, accusing the Senate leadership of playing dirty politics with Committee positions. In November 2005 the Senate President Ken Nnamani announced that Aruwa had been dropped from the National Assembly Joint Committee on the Review of the 1999 Constitution, considering the possibility of allowing President Obasanjo to run for a third term. Aruwa was opposed to this change.
Aruwa was a contender to be the ANPP candidate for governor of Kaduna State in 2007, winning the primaries, but the party replaced his name by that of Sani Sha'aban on the list submitted to the Independent National Electoral Commission. Aruwa disputed the legality of the substitution, it was made because his name was included in the list of politicians indicted by Nuhu Ribadu's Economic and Financial Crimes Commission. In May 2007, following the election but before the new government had assumed its duties, Aruwa moved for a review of the conduct and outcome of the elections, but withdrew the motion before it was debated by the Senate. However, the senate did agree with his recommendation to set up a joint committee to review how INEC had managed funds allocated to conduct of the elections. Speaking to the press in April 2010, Aruwa said that membership of the ANPP by former military ruler Major-General Muhammadu Buhari had done the party great harm. Aruwa died in the early hours of 9 December 2018.
He was buried the next day at Unguwar Sarki Cemetery with Islamic rites. The funeral was attended by hundreds of mourners including former vice-president Namadi Sambo and governor of Kaduna State Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai. Aruwa was survived by his wives and eight children, two sons and six daughters
The Rijnlands Lyceum Foundation is an educational foundation in the Netherlands encompassing eight different schools. The Foundation, established in 1936, is based in a suburb of The Hague; the sole member and chair of the Foundation's Executive Board is Arjan Kastelein, accountable to the Supervisory Board chaired by Johan van der Werff. Previous chairs of the Supervisory Board include, Frans Weisglas, former Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands, Hans Dijkstal, former Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands; the Foundation is resposible for financial administration, the maintenance of buildings and IT infrastructure, the recruitment of staff. The Foundation, as the "competent authority", is responsible for the quality of the education and is accountable to the Dutch Ministry of Education and the Dutch Education Inspectorate; the organisation comprises eight schools: Rijnlands Lyceum Oegstgeest Rijnlands Lyceum Sassenheim Rijnlands Lyceum Wassenaar International School of The Hague International School of The Hague European School The Hague European School The Hague Eerste Nederlandse Montessorischool The Rijnlands Lyceum Oegstgeest, Rijnlands Lyceum Sassenheim and Rijnlands Lyceum Wassenaar offer three streams of Dutch secondary education: "pre-vocational secondary education", "higher general continued education", "preparatory scientific education".
They offer bilingual education, in English and Dutch. In addition the Rijnlands Lyceum Oegstgeest has an international department offering the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme and International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme; the International School of The Hague constitutes a primary and secondary school, offering the International Primary Curriculum, the MYP and the IB DP. The European School The Hague opened in 2012 offering primary-level education, with its secondary cycle operating from 2014; the school is accredited by the Board of Governors of the European Schools to offer the European Baccalaureate bilingual diploma as its secondary leaving qualification. It prioritises, for enrolment purposes, the children of European Union staff and other non-EU European institutions based nearby; the Eerste Nederlandse Montessorischool is a primary school offering a Montessori education. Official website