Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with film which involves the use of digital technology; the film editor works with the raw footage, selecting shots and combining them into sequences which create a finished motion picture. Film editing is described as an art or skill, the only art, unique to cinema, separating filmmaking from other art forms that preceded it, although there are close parallels to the editing process in other art forms such as poetry and novel writing. Film editing is referred to as the "invisible art" because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become so engaged that he or she is not aware of the editor's work. On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art and practice of assembling shots into a coherent sequence; the job of an editor is not to mechanically put pieces of a film together, cut off film slates or edit dialogue scenes. A film editor must creatively work with the layers of images, dialogue, pacing, as well as the actors' performances to "re-imagine" and rewrite the film to craft a cohesive whole.
Editors play a dynamic role in the making of a film. Sometimes, auteurist film directors edit their own films, for example, Akira Kurosawa, Bahram Beyzai and the Coen brothers. With the advent of digital editing, film editors and their assistants have become responsible for many areas of filmmaking that used to be the responsibility of others. For instance, in past years, picture editors dealt only with just that—picture. Sound and visual effects editors dealt with the practicalities of other aspects of the editing process under the direction of the picture editor and director. However, digital systems have put these responsibilities on the picture editor, it is common on lower budget films, for the editor to sometimes cut in temporary music, mock up visual effects and add temporary sound effects or other sound replacements. These temporary elements are replaced with more refined final elements produced by the sound and visual effects teams hired to complete the picture. Early films were short films that were one long and locked-down shot.
Motion in the shot was all, necessary to amuse an audience, so the first films showed activity such as traffic moving along a city street. There was no editing; each film ran as long. The use of film editing to establish continuity, involving action moving from one sequence into another, is attributed to British film pioneer Robert W. Paul's Come Along, Do!, made in 1898 and one of the first films to feature more than one shot. In the first shot, an elderly couple is outside an art exhibition having lunch and follow other people inside through the door; the second shot shows. Paul's'Cinematograph Camera No. 1' of 1896 was the first camera to feature reverse-cranking, which allowed the same film footage to be exposed several times and thereby to create super-positions and multiple exposures. One of the first films to use this technique, Georges Méliès's The Four Troublesome Heads from 1898, was produced with Paul's camera; the further development of action continuity in multi-shot films continued in 1899-1900 at the Brighton School in England, where it was definitively established by George Albert Smith and James Williamson.
In that year, Smith made As Seen Through a Telescope, in which the main shot shows street scene with a young man tying the shoelace and caressing the foot of his girlfriend, while an old man observes this through a telescope. There is a cut to close shot of the hands on the girl's foot shown inside a black circular mask, a cut back to the continuation of the original scene. More remarkable was James Williamson's Attack on a China Mission Station, made around the same time in 1900; the first shot shows the gate to the mission station from the outside being attacked and broken open by Chinese Boxer rebels there is a cut to the garden of the mission station where a pitched battle ensues. An armed party of British sailors arrived to rescue the missionary's family; the film used the first "reverse angle" cut in film history. James Williamson concentrated on making films taking action from one place shown in one shot to the next shown in another shot in films like Stop Thief! and Fire!, made in 1901, many others.
He experimented with the close-up, made the most extreme one of all in The Big Swallow, when his character approaches the camera and appears to swallow it. These two filmmakers of the Brighton School pioneered the editing of the film. By 1900, their films were extended scenes of up to 5 minutes long. Other filmmakers took up all these ideas including the American Edwin S. Porter, who started making films for the Edison Company in 1901. Porter worked on a number of minor films before making Life of an American Fireman in 1903; the film was the first American film with a plot, featuring action, a closeup of a hand pulling a fire alarm. The film comprised a continuous narrative over seven scenes, rendered in a total of nine shots, he put a dissolve between every shot, just as Georges Méliès was doing, he had the same action repeated across the dissolves. His film, The Great Train Robbery, had a running time of twelve minutes, with twenty separate shots and ten different indoor and outdoor locations.
He used cross-cutting editing method to show simultaneous action in different places. These early film directors discovered i
"A Star Is Born Again" is the 13th episode from The Simpsons' fourteenth season. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on March 2, 2003; the episode owes much of its plot to Notting Hill. While that film is about an actress finding happiness with the owner of an independent bookstore, the Simpsons episode features Hollywood movie star Sara Sloane falling for Ned Flanders after visiting the Leftorium; the episode title is a reference to being born again, meaning a person who has converted to a personal faith in Jesus Christ for salvation. This is the only Simpsons episode in which the same person has been accredited with two different names, where James L. Brooks is credited as the Executive Producer and Executive Creative Consultant, again as Jim Brooks as a Special Guest Voice. During the annual Jellyfish Festival, which welcomes back the Stinging Red Jellyfish to the shores of Springfield, Ned Flanders becomes depressed because he is alone; the other adults have partners with whom to spend a romantic evening at the Jellyfish Cotillion, this is Ned's first festival without his wife Maude.
Ned returns to the Leftorium to take his mind off things. There he meets a woman named Sara Sloane, after a pair of left-handed eyelash curlers. After chatting with Ned she asks him out on a date. After she leaves Ned notices a movie poster with Sara's face on it, which she is a movie star. Sara and Ned hit it off, with Sara loving Ned's simple, quaint honesty, they go on several dates and encounter some problems from tabloid reporters following them. Sara is more uninhibited than Ned, causing some tension; when her movie wraps, Sara asks Ned to return to Hollywood with her. Ned has a horrible dream about the bad things of Hollywood in a sequence that includes a cameo by series producer James L. Brooks, the "Hollywood" sign reading "Hollyweird", refuses. Sara therefore tries to be with Ned, she starts settling in with the locals, joining Marge's book club hosted by author Helen Fielding and going shopping with Ned. At a concert, to which Sara wears a low-cut dress, Sara tells Ned. Ned relents, but insists on marriage if they are to continue a sexual relationship.
Sara is unwilling to get married, they break up and she returns to Hollywood. She gets a quickie divorce to Bob Balaban. Ned finds; this episode is a parody of the film Notting Hill. A billboard depicting Los Angeles personality Angelyne can be seen during Ned Flanders' Hollywood dream sequence; when Helen Fielding runs around being chased by bobbies and a man in a gorilla suit following the book club meeting and the end of the episode, it is an homage to the British sketch comedy The Benny Hill Show. The music featured in the sequence is "Yakety Sax", the music used in that series. Debussy's "Arabesque No. 1" and "Clair de Lune" were used as the background music for several scenes. After Sara asks Ned out on their first date, Ned sings a version of America's "A Horse with No Name" referring to the date. In a 2008 article, Entertainment Weekly named Marisa Tomei's role as Sara Sloane as one of the sixteen best guest appearances on The Simpsons. "A Star Is Born Again" at The Simpsons.com "A Star Is Born Again" on IMDb "A Star Is Born Again" at TV.com
CKMS-FM, branded as Radio Waterloo, is a Canadian community radio station, broadcasting at 102.7 FM in Waterloo, Ontario. The station launched in 1977 at 94.5 FM, moved to 100.3FM in 1992 where it has been broadcasting from at least 6 am until midnight. During this time the Federation of Students promised to provide perpetual funding at $40,000 per year; the station moved again, to 102.7FM in 2015. CKMS plays a variety of genres both in English and other languages, so as to provide the campus and community with music that may not otherwise be accessible on air from mainstream venues; the station's programmers are all volunteers from the Kitchener-Waterloo community and students at the University of Waterloo. The station contains UW Alumni who were programmers during their time at UW and stayed on after graduation, in addition to those who were interested in radio but never found the time to host a show while they were studying for their degree; the station is governed by a board of directors made up of community members.
90% of CKMS's funding came from UW's undergraduate students, via a refundable charge on students' bill statements, levied through the university's Federation of Students. In February 2008, a student referendum initiated by Student Council was passed by Feds by approx. 2:1 margin to remove the fee, funding ceased on September 1, 2008. Following the referendum, the station rebranded as "SoundFM", continuing operations with community and individual students support, the consent of the university and Feds to remain in its existing studios while it worked to revamp its operations. Five of the seven staff members took a voluntary layoff in June 2009, with the Board of Directors and select volunteers taking over operations. Following the November 2009 referendum, with 18% of eligible voters participating, students voted 2460 to 2005 against reinstating the station's funding at $2.50 per student. The announcement of the referendum results on November 13 led the station to change the locks of its studios and switch temporarily to a full-time rebroadcast of the BBC World Service, pending a final decision on its future.
Regular programming resumed on the 16th in order to allow station management to examine other means of continuing broadcasts. A few weeks Sound FM announced it would move its studios to the upper level of Maxwell's Music House, a multipurpose music facility near the university, as of mid-January 2010. Since that time, the station has operated in part as a co-operative, while continuing to provide quality programming for students and the community at large, under the bylaws approved in 2008. Due to funding issues Sound was required to leave Maxwell's Music House. Sound moved to 142 Waterloo St. in late 2011, restarted live broadcast once the station was in order. The Station is still run by interested students and community members, is funded through the Co-Op Member Fees, Programmer Fees, fund raising activities, such as past grants from GO's, they receive no funding or support from the University of Waterloo or Feds. On August 3, 2015, Radio Waterloo Inc. submitted an application to change CKMS-FM's frequency from 100.3 MHz to 102.7 MHz.
The CRTC approved Radio Waterloo's application to change CKMS-FM's frequency from 100.3 MHz to 102.7 MHz on November 10, 2016. Radio Waterloo CKMS-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CKMS-FM
St George's Market is the last surviving Victorian covered market in Belfast, Northern Ireland. It is located on May Street, close to the Waterfront Hall. Belfast Corporation commissioned the building of St George's Market, built in three phases between 1890 and 1896. Before 1890 St George's Market was an open market and most contained a slaughterhouse and a meat market. Today it is a thriving market with crafters musicians and food vendors; the original market was smaller than the new structure. The city surveyor, it was built in red brick with sandstone dressing. Externally it features Roman styled arches with Latin and Irish inscriptions – the City's Latin motto "Pro Tanto Quid Retribuamus", meaning "what shall we give in return for so much?" and the Irish phrase "Lámh Dearg na hÉireann", "Red Hand of Ireland". The main entrance arch displays the Belfast Coat of Arms; this newly covered market opened to the public on 20 June 1890. After heavy bombing of Belfast by German aircraft in World War II, St George's Market was used as an emergency mortuary.
900 were killed during the bombing raids. Not all of the bodies were identified, so a public funeral for the unclaimed dead took place on 21 April 1941. There were separate Catholic and Protestant services held at the market and thousands of people lined the streets as the procession passed on its way to the Milltown and City cemeteries. By the 1980s, St George's Market had developed into a general market and it became the last of Belfast's thriving Victorian markets; the market was pressured with increased maintaince costs and changes to hygiene regulations, among other issues, Belfast City Council decided to source other uses for the listed building. A campaign backed by the City Council and the general public resulted in a Heritage Lottery Fund-backed £3.5 million refurbishment programme assisted by the Environment and Heritage Agency. Brick and stonework that had badly deteriorated was returned to good condition, special bricks were produced in England to match the original unusually sized bricks.
The renovated St George's Market reopened its doors on 14 May 1999. St George's Market is used as a market, however a number of other events are held at the site; these range from food festivals, art initiatives, charity launches, fashion shoots and live music events. Local software company Northbrook Technology hold their annual Staff Christmas Party at the venue; the market has won a number of recent awards, including being voted Best Large Indoor Market 2014 and as one of the UK's top five markets by the National Association of British Market Authorities in 2006, winning third place in the best markets category of the Observer Food Monthly/Waitrose Awards in 2004. The market regularly holds music concerts. Acts including Duffy, Newton Faulkner, Deep Purple, Biffy Clyro and Mark Ronson have played the venue. In March and April 2012, the venue served as one of the main stages at the World Irish Dancing Championships, alongside the Belfast Waterfront Theatre
Tracy Dickinson Mygatt was an American writer and pacifist, co-founder with Frances M. Witherspoon of the War Resisters League, longtime officer of the Campaign for World Government. Mygatt was born in Brooklyn, New York, raised by her widowed mother, Minnie Clapp Mygatt, her great-grandfather Daniel S. Dickinson and great-great-grandfather John Tracy were both prominent politicians in New York State. Tracy D. Mygatt graduated from Bryn Mawr College in 1909. After some years as a suffrage and labor organizer in Pennsylvania and Witherspoon moved to New York City in 1913. In New York City Witherspoon and Mygatt joined the Woman's Peace Party, together edited their publication, Four Lights, they organized the Socialist Suffrage Brigade, edited an issue of The Call about suffrage. Mygatt joined Jessie Wallace Hughan and John Haynes Holmes in launching the Anti-Enlistment League in 1915. Witherspoon and Mygatt continued with peace work after the war, as active members of the Women's Peace Union, as founders of the War Resisters League in 1923.
They were charter members of the Episcopal Pacifist Fellowship when it was founded in 1939. In 1961 they were recognized jointly with the WRL Peace Award. In 1932, Mygatt ran for the New York State Assembly as the Socialist Party candidate. From 1941 to 1969, Mygatt worked full-time for the Campaign for World Government, was their accredited representative to the United Nations. Witherspoon and Mygatt co-wrote two Biblical novels, The Glorious Company and Armor of Light, a play about Vincent Van Gogh, Stranger Upon Earth, among other literary collaborations. Mygatt wrote several plays on her own, published Julia Newberry's Sketch Book: or, The Life of Two Future Old Maids, a biography of her mother and her mother's cousin. Mygatt lived and worked with Frances M. Witherspoon for over sixty years, in New York City, in Brewster, New York and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the pair were active in the Episcopal Church. They died in late 1973, in Philadelphia; the couple's papers were donated to the Swarthmore College Peace Collection
American singer-songwriter Mariah Carey has released fifteen studio albums, one live album, seven compilation albums, one extended play, one remix album. Carey is one of the best-selling music artists of all-time, having sold over 200 million records globally, she was presented with the Millennium Award at the 2000 World Music Awards for becoming the best-selling female artist of the millennium. According to the RIAA, she is the second highest-certified female artist and fourteenth overall recording artist with shipments of 66.5 million albums in the US. She is ranked as the best-selling female artist of the US Nielsen SoundScan era with album sales of 55.5 million. Her albums Mariah Carey, Music Box and The Emancipation of Mimi are among the top 100 certified albums according to the RIAA. Carey released her self-titled debut album in June 1990. Additionally, the album spawned four consecutive US number-one singles, her second album, was released a year and sold eight million copies worldwide.
In 1993, Carey released her most successful studio album to date, Music Box, certified Diamond in the United States and topped the charts in many countries around the world. Music Box is one of the best-selling albums of all time, with over 28 million copies sold. Carey's her first holiday album and fourth overall studio effort, Merry Christmas, followed in 1994 and contained "All I Want for Christmas Is You". After Carey's success in Asia with Merry Christmas, Billboard estimated Carey as the all-time best-selling international artist in Japan; the singer's fifth studio album Daydream was released in 1995 and became her second Diamond certified album by the RIAA, with worldwide sales of 20 million copies. Carey's sixth studio album Butterfly, the compilation album, #1's, were both certified five-times Platinum in the US. While the singer's seventh studio effort Rainbow received triple platinum certification from RIAA, it was her first album since Emotions to not reach number one in the US. Carey parted from Columbia/Sony Music in 2001 and signed a contract with EMI's Virgin Records worth a reported US$100 million, the largest record contract signed.
She released her next album, the soundtrack to the film of same name. The album became a commercial failure. Carey signed a new deal in 2002 with Island Records and released her ninth studio album Charmbracelet, which fell short of Carey's earlier success; the singer took a three-year break to record new material and introduced a hip-hop inspired album, The Emancipation of Mimi, which became the best-selling album of 2005 in the US. It was certified six-times Platinum by the RIAA, sold 10 million copies worldwide, produced the successful single "We Belong Together", it topped the US Billboard Hot 100 for fourteen weeks. In 2008, Carey released her tenth studio album, E=MC², which sold over 2.5 million copies worldwide and produced the single "Touch My Body" which broke her tie with Elvis Presley for the most number one singles by a solo artist on the Hot 100. Her subsequent release, Memoirs of an Imperfect Angel, managed sales of two million units, while her second holiday album Merry Christmas II You shipped over 500,000 copies in the United States.
The singer's fourteenth effort, Me. I Am Mariah... The Elusive Chanteuse, became the lowest selling release of her career, her fifteenth studio album, was released in November 2018. Mariah Carey singles discography List of best-selling music artists List of Billboard Hot 100 chart achievements and milestones List of best-selling albums in the United States List of best-selling albums in Australia List of best-selling albums in Japan List of best-selling albums