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Film score

A film score is original music written to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack, which usually includes pre-existing music and sound effects, comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental, or choral pieces called cues, which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question. Scores are written by one or more composers, under the guidance of, or in collaboration with, the film's director or producer and are usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, choir or vocalists – known as playback singers and recorded by a sound engineer. Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they accompany; the majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but many scores are influenced by jazz, pop, new-age and ambient music, a wide range of ethnic and world music styles.

Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have included electronic elements as part of the score, many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments. Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many modern films have been able to rely on digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, many scores are created and performed wholly by the composers themselves, by using music composition software, samplers, MIDI controllers. Songs such as pop songs and rock songs are not considered part of the film's score, although songs do form part of the film's soundtrack. Although some songs in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score, scores do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Pop songs which are "needle dropped" into a specific scene in film for added emphasis, or which are depicted as being part of the scenes' background, are not considered part of the score, although the score's composer will write an original pop song based on their themes, such as James Horner's "My Heart Will Go On" from Titanic, written for Celine Dion.

A film score may be called a background score, background music, film soundtrack, film music, screen composition, screen music, or incidental music. The composer enters the creative process towards the end of filming at around the same time as the film is being edited, although on some occasions the composer is on hand during the entire film shoot when actors are required to perform with or be aware of original diegetic music; the composer is shown an unpolished "rough cut" of the film before the editing is completed and talks to the director or producer about what sort of music is required for the film in terms of style and tone. The director and composer will watch the entire film, taking note of which scenes require original music. During this process, the composer will take precise timing notes so that he or she knows how long each cue needs to last, where it begins, where it ends, of particular moments during a scene with which the music may need to coincide in a specific way; this process is known as "spotting".

A filmmaker will edit his or her film to fit the flow of music, rather than have the composer edit their score to the final cut. Director Godfrey Reggio edited his films Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi based on composer Philip Glass's music; the relationship between director Sergio Leone and composer Ennio Morricone was such that the finale of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and the films Once Upon a Time in the West and Once Upon a Time in America were edited to Morricone's score as the composer had prepared it months before the film's production ended. In another notable example, the finale of Steven Spielberg's E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial was edited to match the music of his long-time collaborator John Williams: as recounted in a companion documentary on the DVD, Spielberg gave Williams complete freedom with the music and asked him to record the cue without picture. In some circumstances, a composer will be asked to write music based on his or her impressions of the script or storyboards without seeing the film itself and is given more freedom to create music without the need to adhere to specific cue lengths or mirror the emotional arc of a particular scene.

This approach is taken by a director who does not wish to have the music comment on a particular scene or nuance of a film and which can instead be inserted into the film at any point the director wishes during the post-production process. Composer Hans Zimmer was asked to write music in this way in 2010 for director Christopher Nolan's film Inception; when writing music for film, one goal is to sync dramatic events happening on screen with musical events in the score. There are many different methods for syncing music to picture; these include using sequencing software to calculate timings, using mathematic formulas and free timing with reference timings. Composers work using SMPTE timecode for syncing purposes; when syncing music to picture a leeway of 3–4 frames late or early allows the composer to be accurate. Using a technique called Free Timing, a conductor will use either a stopwatch or studio size stop clock, or watch the film on a screen or video monitor while conducting the musicians to predetermined timings.

These are represented visually by vertical lines (streame

Linden Bateman

Linden B. Bateman was a previous Republican Idaho State Representative from 2010 until 2016 representing District 33 in the B seat, he served five terms in the Idaho House of Representatives from 1977 until 1986. He was born in Salt Lake City. Bateman earned his bachelor's degree in political science from Brigham Young University. Bateman was unopposed in the Republican primary. Bateman defeated Jim De Angelis in the general election. Bateman won the May 15, 2012, Republican primary with 2,680 votes against David Lyon, facing Democratic challenger Henry De Angelis in the general election on November 6, 2012. Bateman supported Mitt Romney for the Republican Party nominee; when Republican Representative Russ Mathews left the District 33 B seat open, Bateman won the May 25, 2010, Republican primary with 2,465 votes against Dane Watkins, winning the November 2, 2012, general election with 6,036 votes against John McGimpsey. Linden B. Bateman at the Idaho Legislature Profile at Vote Smart

Hristu Chiacu

Hristu Chiacu is a Romanian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Liga IV side Carmen București. Chiacu began his youth career at Dinamo București. Chiacu signed his first professional contract with Unirea, where he scored one goal in two appearances, he transferred to Electromagnetica. Chiacu made his debut against FC Timișoara, he finished the season with 17 appearances for Național. He signed with Wisła at Dan Petrescu's request, he scored one goal in Polish League. He returned to Romania at the team where started football, but play just ten matches because he was loaned out all time. Chiacu was loaned out to Dacia Mioveni for six months. In 2008 summer, Chiacu was loaned out again at newly promoted CS Otopeni for all season long, making 17 appearances and scoring one goal. Chiacu was again loaned out at Astra, just for few weeks. Chiacu was loaned two years by Dinamo at Poli, he was returned to Dinamo. His brother, Teodor was a footballer who played for Dinamo București. Khazar LankaranAzerbaijan Cup: 2010–11 Hristu Chiacu at RomanianSoccer.ro and StatisticsFootball.com Hristu Chiacu at Soccerway