Filmfare Awards

The Filmfare Awards are a set of awards that honour artistic and technical excellence in the Hindi-language film industry of India. The Filmfare ceremony is one of the most prestigious film events in India; the awards were first introduced by The Times Group in 1954, the same year as the National Film Awards. They were referred to as the "Clare Awards" or "The Clares" after Clare Mendonca, the editor of The Times of India. A dual voting system was developed in 1956. Under this system, in contrast to the National Film Awards, which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government, the Filmfare Awards are voted on by both the public and a committee of experts; the ceremony had been sponsored by various private organisations in the past as well as in present provisions. During several years in the 1990s, a live ceremony was broadcast to television audiences but was discontinued due to unknown reasons. Since 2000, a recorded and edited version of the awards ceremony was televised on SET a week or two after the ceremony has been held already.

Since 2018, the ceremony has been televised on Colors. The 65th Filmfare Awards event was held on the 16th of February 2020 at Guwahati; the Filmfare Awards have been referred to as the Hindi film industry's equivalent to the Academy Awards in the United States. Until the mid-1990s, Filmfare Awards were the preeminent and most-recognised awards in Bollywood until several other awards sprouted up in Mumbai; this has resulted in poor viewership since 2000s. In addition to the flagship event, Filmfare has variants for other Indian film industries, such as Filmfare Awards South for South Indian cinema, Filmfare Marathi Awards for Marathi cinema, Filmfare Awards East for eastern Indian cinema; the Filmfare awards were first introduced in 1954. The Clares was the original name of the award ceremony, named after The Times of India critic Clare Mendonca. Readers of Filmfare were polled to decide the winners, over 20,000 readers spread throughout India participated in the polls. In the first awards function, held on 21 March 1954 at the Metro Theatre of Mumbai, only five awards were presented: Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Music Director.

Do Bigha Zameen was the first movie to win the award for Best Film. The first winners for other four categories were: Bimal Roy for his direction of Do Bigha Zameen, Dilip Kumar for his performance in Daag, Meena Kumari for her performance in Baiju Bawra, Naushad Ali for his music in Baiju Bawra. Filmfare Awards introduced the Short Film Category in 2017, with Vidya Balan and Gauri Shinde on the jury; the People's Choice Award for Best Short Film was presented to Khamakha. Short films like Chutney, Matitali Kusti and Taandav won awards as well. Hollywood star Gregory Peck was invited to be the guest of honour at the first awards on 21 March 1954 at the Metro theatre, Mumbai but could not make it to the function since his flight from Colombo got delayed. However, Peck did attend the banquet that followed the award night at Mumbai; the winners for the year 1985 were announced in 1986 and the event was scheduled to be held at the Brabourne Stadium in December 1986. The'Bombay film Industry', as was known went on strike in'86 because of its many contentious issues with the Government of Maharashtra.

So the ceremony was pushed to the next year. The winners of 1985 were awarded on 28 January 1987. Due to Security reasons, Filmfare was not awarded for 1986 and 1987; the statuette, depicting a woman whose arms are upraised in a dance number with her fingers touching, is referred to as "The Black Lady". Designed by N. G. Pansare under the supervision of Times of India's art director Walter Langhammer, it is made of bronze, its height is 46.5 cm and it weighs around five kg. To celebrate the 25th year of the awards, the statues were made in silver and to celebrate the 50th year the statues were made in gold; the Filmfare trophy is manufactured by The Award Gallery since 2000. Till 2012, there were only a few changes made to the trophy, but as of 2013, a huge change has been made to give the trophy a 3-D look. There were two reasons; the organisers believe that this was necessary to match the many advances in technology in today's world which will advance a lot more in the coming years as well. This was an attempt to match the theme of the 2013 set of awards at Filmfare in Mumbai: a hundred years leap into the future.

The Red Carpet is a segment. This is when actors, producers, singers and others that have contributed to Indian cinema are introduced. Hosts question the celebrities about upcoming performances and who they think deserves to take the Black Lady home; the 2013 Filmfare awards took place in Mumbai at the Yash Raj Studios in Andheri. A special press conference was held just for its announcement and this took place at the Suburban hotel in Mumbai as well; the theme that year was a hundred years in the future. The reason for the theme to be held that year was because it was meant to be a continuous from previous year's theme where the fraternity celebrated the completion of a hundred years in Indian cinema at the box office. Critics Award Best Film Critics Award Best Actor Critics Award Best Actress Best Documentary Lifetime Achievement RD Burman Award for New Music Talent Special Performance Award Best Scene of the Year Power Award People's choice award for Best Short Film Best Short Film in Fiction Best Short Film in Non-Fiction Best Actor Male Short Film Best Actor Female Short Film

Alliance for Financial Inclusion

The Alliance for Financial Inclusion, or AFI, is a global network of financial inclusion policymakers. AFI is member-owned, its members are central banks and other financial regulatory institutions from emerging and developing economies. The AFI network includes 100 member institutions from nearly 90 countries. AFI is headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; the executive director is Dr. Alfred Hannig, who has held the post since 2008. While AFI members are regulatory institutions, the organization engages with a variety of stakeholders, including government institutions, development agencies and private sector firms through its strategic and knowledge partnership platforms; the organization has three working languages: English and Spanish. AFI's core mission is to empower policymakers to increase the access and usage of quality financial services for the underserved through the formulation and global advocacy of sustainable and inclusive policies, it was founded in 2008 as a project funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, with logistic and knowledge support from Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH with the goal of advancing the development of financial inclusion policy in developing and emerging economies.

Since it has become an independent, member-owned network that has formed strategic and knowledge collaborations with a variety of global donors and partners from both the public and private sector. Significant year-on-year funding for programs and activities in the network comes from AFI members. AFI uses a peer-to-peer learning model to connect and enable financial policymakers to interact and exchange knowledge on policy initiatives such as consumer protection, digital financial services, gender inclusive finance, financial integrity, inclusive green finance, agent banking, formalizing microsavings and measurement and general financial inclusion. AFI has pioneered regional approaches to knowledge exchange among policymakers and stakeholders worldwide, notably within the Pacific Islands, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as well as Asia; this information exchange is intended to build a more comprehensive knowledge base of financial inclusion, the subsequent formulation and implementation of effective policy by members institutions in their home countries.

AFI operates the AFI Data Portal, a unique and integrated global database on financial inclusion policies and outcomes. Housing information sourced directly from policymakers and regulators, the ADP empowers countries to share their financial inclusion stories and formulate policies through on data while facilitating the study and understanding of trends in financial inclusion; the portal is publicly available. AFI administers financial inclusion policy-related services, including capacity building, working groups, knowledge products, regional initiatives, the provision of grants and in-country implementation support, it hosts its annual flagship AFI Global Policy Forum, the world's most important and most comprehensive forum for regulatory institutions with an interest in promoting financial inclusion policy. Since the first AFI GPF in 2009, the event has supported an environment of historic financial inclusion policy initiatives and declarations, including the Maya Declaration, the first global and measurable set of financial inclusion commitments by developing and emerging economies.

AFI was founded in 2008 as a GIZ and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation-funded project to advance the development of smart financial inclusion policies in developing and emerging countries. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, Bank Indonesia, Bank of Thailand, Central Bank of Kenya, Comisión Nacional Bancaria y de Valores of Mexico, Seguros y AFP de Peru and Superintendencia de Banca comprised the initial core group of six member institutions. In 2010, the Group of 20 nominated AFI as one of three implementing partners for the G20 Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion. In this role, AFI brings innovative policies for increasing access to financial services from developing countries to the wider G20 forum and facilitates the participation of non-G20 policymakers in developing and emerging economies participate in GPFI work. In 2011, AFI members collectively adopted the Maya Declaration, a statement of intent to make financial inclusion a centerpiece of national efforts for poverty reduction, economic stability and economic development.

More than 30 AFI members went a step further by announcing specific and measurable commitments. In recognition of these developments, both the G20 and the Group of 24 highlighted the AFI learning model and the Maya Declaration as key steps toward global economic development, with the G20 urging its members to commit to the Maya Declaration. In 2013, AFI members adopted the Sasana Accord on Evidence- and Data-based Results, Accelerated Progress and Measurement of Impact. During the same year, AFI reached 100 member institutions overall with the addition of the Central Bank of Trinidad and TobagoIn 2015, AFI members endorsed the Maputo Accord, which commits members to support access to finance for small and medium enterprises. In 2016, AFI completed the final steps in its evolution from an donor-funded project into an independent and member-supported international network of policy makers. Members endorsed the Denarau Action Plan for Gender Inclusive Finance to increase women's access to quality and affordable financial services globally — bridging the financial inclusion gender gap.

In 2017, AFI members adopted the Sharm El Sheikh Accord on Financial Inclusion, Climate Change and Green Finance

Jat states in Rajasthan

Jat people established themselves in the Indian Desert of the present-day state of Rajasthan, many centuries ago, although when is unknown. The region of Jangladesh in northern Rajasthan included the present-day districts of Bikaner, Sikar, Churu and Hanumangarh. According to the Suraj Mal Memorial Education Society, Jats failed to find a desirable place in south Rajasthan and north Gujarat because the regions were inhabited by tribes such as the Rajputs, Bhils, Yadavs and Mers. During this period Abhiras pushed them in Rajasthan. Jangladesh in ancient times was inhabited by Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs and governed by their own customary law. Whole of the region was possessed by six or seven cantons namely Punia, Saran, Beniwal and Kaswan. Besides these cantons there were several clan of Jat people wrested from Rajput proprietors for instance Bagor, Mohila or Mehila and Bhadu