The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. The affair is seen as a modern and universal symbol of injustice, it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism; the major role played by the press and public opinion proved influential in the lasting social conflict. The scandal began in December 1894 with the treason conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young Alsatian French artillery officer of Jewish descent. Sentenced to life imprisonment for communicating French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was imprisoned on Devil's Island in French Guiana, where he spent nearly five years. Evidence came to light in 1896—primarily through an investigation instigated by Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage—identifying a French Army major named Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy as the real culprit. After high-ranking military officials suppressed the new evidence, a military court unanimously acquitted Esterhazy after a trial lasting only two days.
The Army accused Dreyfus with additional charges based on falsified documents. Word of the military court's framing of Dreyfus and of an attempted cover-up began to spread, chiefly owing to J'Accuse…!, a vehement open letter published in a Paris newspaper in January 1898 by writer Émile Zola. Activists put pressure on the government to reopen the case. In 1899, Dreyfus was returned to France for another trial; the intense political and judicial scandal that ensued divided French society between those who supported Dreyfus, such as Sarah Bernhardt, Anatole France, Henri Poincaré and Georges Clemenceau, those who condemned him, such as Édouard Drumont, the director and publisher of the antisemitic newspaper La Libre Parole. The new trial resulted in another conviction and a 10-year sentence, but Dreyfus was given a pardon and set free. All the accusations against Dreyfus were demonstrated to be baseless. In 1906, Dreyfus was reinstated as a major in the French Army, he served during the whole of World War I.
He died in 1935. The affair from 1894 to 1906 divided France and lastingly into two opposing camps: the pro-Army Catholic "anti-Dreyfusards" and the anticlerical, pro-republican Dreyfusards, it encouraged radicalization. At the end of 1894 a French army captain named Alfred Dreyfus, a graduate of the École Polytechnique and a Jew of Alsatian origin, was accused of handing secret documents to the Imperial German military. After a closed trial, he was sentenced to prison for life, he was deported to Devil's Island. At that time, the opinion of the French political class was unanimously unfavourable towards Dreyfus. Certain of the injustice of the sentence, the Dreyfus family, through his brother Mathieu, worked with the journalist Bernard Lazare to prove his innocence. Meanwhile Colonel Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage, found evidence in March 1896 indicating that the real traitor was Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy; the General Staff, refused to reconsider its judgment and transferred Picquart to North Africa.
In July 1897 Dreyfus' family contacted the President of the Senate Auguste Scheurer-Kestner to draw attention to the tenuousness of the evidence against Dreyfus. Scheurer-Kestner reported three months that he was convinced of the innocence of Dreyfus and persuaded Georges Clemenceau, a former member of the Chamber of Deputies and a newspaper reporter. In the same month, Mathieu Dreyfus complained to the Ministry of War against Esterhazy. While the circle of Dreyfusards widened, in January 1898 two nearly simultaneous events gave a national dimension to the case: Esterhazy was acquitted of treason charges, Émile Zola published his "J'accuse...!" A Dreyfusard declaration that rallied many intellectuals to Dreyfus' cause. France became divided over the case, the issue continued to be hotly debated until the end of the century. Antisemitic riots erupted in more than twenty French cities. There were several deaths in Algiers; the Republic was shaken, which prompted a sense that the Dreyfus Affair had to be resolved to restore calm and protect the stability of the nation.
Despite the intrigues of the army to quash the case, the first judgment against Dreyfus was annulled by the Supreme Court after a thorough investigation and a new court-martial was held at Rennes in 1899. Despite robust evidence to the contrary, Dreyfus was convicted again and sentenced to ten years of hard labour, though the sentence was commuted due to extenuating circumstances. Exhausted by his deportation for four long years, Dreyfus accepted the presidential pardon granted by President Émile Loubet, it was only in 1906 that his innocence was recognized through a decision without recourse by the Supreme Court. Rehabilitated, Dreyfus was reinstated in the army with the rank of Major and participated in the First World War, he died in 1935. The implications of this case were affected all aspects of French public life. In politics, the affair established the triumph of the Third Republic. In religion, it slowed the reform of French republican integration of Catholics, it was during the affair.
The affair engendered numerous antisemitic demonstrations, which in turn affected emotions within the Jewish communities of
In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. At the time, states focused on building their empires with new technological advances and developments, making their territory bigger through conquest, exploiting the resources of the subjugated countries. During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers individually conquered all of Africa and parts of Asia; the new wave of imperialism reflected ongoing rivalries among the great powers, the economic desire for new resources and markets, a "civilizing mission" ethos. Many of the colonies established during this era gained independence during the era of decolonization that followed World War II; the qualifier "new" is used to differentiate modern imperialism from earlier imperial activity, such as the so-called first wave of European colonization between the 15th and early-19th centuries.
In the First wave of colonization, European powers colonized the Americas and Siberia. The American Revolution and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America around 1820 ended the first era of European imperialism. In Great Britain these revolutions helped show the deficiencies of mercantilism, the doctrine of economic competition for finite wealth which had supported earlier imperial expansion. In 1846, the Corn Laws were repealed and manufacturers gained, as the regulations enforced by the Corn Laws had slowed their businesses. With the repeal in place, the manufacturers were able to trade more freely. Thus, Britain began to adopt the concept of free trade. During this period, between the 1815 Congress of Vienna after the defeat of Napoleonic France and the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, Britain reaped the benefits of being the world's sole modern, industrial power; as the "workshop of the world", Britain could produce finished goods so efficiently that they could undersell comparable, locally manufactured goods in foreign markets supplying a large share of the manufactured goods consumed by such nations as the German states, France and the United States.
The erosion of British hegemony after the Franco-Prussian War, in which a coalition of German states led by Prussia defeated France, was occasioned by changes in the European and world economies and in the continental balance of power following the breakdown of the Concert of Europe, established by the Congress of Vienna. The establishment of nation-states in Germany and Italy resolved territorial issues that had kept potential rivals embroiled in internal affairs at the heart of Europe, to Britain's advantage; the years from 1871 to 1914 would be marked by an unstable peace. France’s determination to recover Alsace-Lorraine, annexed by Germany as a result of the Franco-Prussian War, Germany’s mounting imperialist ambitions would keep the two nations poised for conflict; this competition was sharpened by the Long Depression of 1873–1896, a prolonged period of price deflation punctuated by severe business downturns, which put pressure on governments to promote home industry, leading to the widespread abandonment of free trade among Europe's powers.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 sought to destroy the competition between the powers by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of a territory claim in Africa. The imposition of direct rule in terms of "effective occupation" necessitated routine recourse to armed force against indigenous states and peoples. Uprisings against imperial rule were put down ruthlessly, most spectacularly in the Herero Wars in German South-West Africa from 1904 to 1907 and the Maji Maji Rebellion in German East Africa from 1905 to 1907. One of the goals of the conference was to reach agreements over trade and boundaries of Central Africa. However, of all of the 15 nations in attendance of the Berlin Conference, none of the countries represented were African; the main dominating powers of the conference were France, Great Britain and Portugal. They remapped Africa without considering the cultural and linguistic borders that were established. At the end of the conference, Africa was divided into 50 different colonies.
The attendants established, in control of each of these newly divided colonies. They planned, noncommittally, to end the slave trade in Africa. In Britain, the age of new imperialism marked a time for significant economic changes; because the country was the first to industrialize, Britain was technologically ahead of many other countries throughout the majority of the nineteenth century. By the end of the nineteenth century, other countries such as Germany, the United States and Italy soon matched Britain in technological and economic power. After several decades of monopoly, the country was battling to maintain a dominant economic position while other powers became more involved in international markets. In 1870, Britain contained 31.8% of the world's manufacturing capacity while the United States contained 23.3% and Germany contained 13.2%. By 1910, Britain's manufacturing capacity had dropped to 14.7%, while that of the United States had risen to 35.3% and that of Germany to 15.9%. As countries like Germany and America became more economically successful, they began to become more involved with imperialism, resulting in the British struggling to maintain the volume of British trade and investment overseas.
Britain further faced strained international relations with three expansionist powers (Japan, Ger
Salome is a tragedy by Oscar Wilde. The original 1891 version of the play was in French. Three years an English translation was published; the play tells in one act the Biblical story of Salome, stepdaughter of the tetrarch Herod Antipas, who, to her stepfather's dismay but to the delight of her mother Herodias, requests the head of Jokanaan on a silver platter as a reward for dancing the dance of the seven veils. Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Judea Jokanaan, the Prophet The young Syrian, Captain of the guard Tigellinus, a young Roman A Cappadocian A Nubian First soldier Second soldier The page of Herodias Jews, etc. A slave Naaman, the Executioner Herodias, Wife of the Tetrarch Salomé, daughter of Herodias The slaves of Salomé Rehearsals for the play's debut on the London stage, for inclusion in Sarah Bernhardt's London season, began in 1892, but were halted when the Lord Chamberlain's licensor of plays banned Salomé on the basis that it was illegal to depict Biblical characters on the stage.
The play was first published in French in February 1893, an English translation, with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley, in February 1894. On the Dedication page, Wilde indicated. In fact and Douglas had quarrelled over the latter's translation of the text, nothing short of disastrous given his poor mastery of French – though Douglas claimed that the errors were in Wilde's original play. Beardsley and the publisher John Lane got drawn in. In a gesture of reconciliation, Wilde did the work himself but dedicated Douglas as the translator rather than having them sharing their names on the title-page. Douglas compared a dedication to sharing the title-page as "the difference between a tribute of admiration from an artist and a receipt from a tradesman."The play was premiered on 11 February 1896, while Wilde was in prison, in Paris at the Comédie-Parisienne – - in a staging by Lugné-Poe's theatre group, the Théâtre de l'Œuvre. In Pall Mall Gazette of 29 June 1892 Wilde explained, why he had written Salomé in French: "I have one instrument that I know I can command, and, the English language.
There was another instrument to which I had listened all my life, I wanted once to touch this new instrument to see whether I could make any beautiful thing out of it. Of course, there are modes of expression that a Frenchman of letters would not have used, but they give a certain relief or colour to the play. A great deal of the curious effect that Maeterlinck produces comes from the fact that he, a Flamand by grace, writes in an alien language; the same thing is true of Rossetti, though he wrote in English, was Latin in temperament." A performance of the play was arranged by the New Stage Club at the Bijou Theatre in Archer Street, London, on 10 and 13 May 1905, starring Millicent Murby as Salomé and directed by Florence Farr. In June 1906 the play was presented with A Florentine Tragedy by the Literary Theatre Society at King's Hall, Covent Garden; the Lord Chamberlain's ban was not lifted for forty years. She took the role of Herodias herself and cast her daughter Joan Maude as Salomé. In 1992 the play was performed on Broadway at the Circle in the Square Theatre, under the direction of Robert Allan Ackerman.
Sheryl Lee starred as the title role alongside Al Pacino. The play costarred Esai Morales and Arnold Vosloo. Al Pacino said in an interview that a new production of the play where he will star as King Herod is to open in London's West End in 2016. Wilde had considered the subject since he had first been introduced to Hérodias, one of Flaubert's Trois Contes, by Walter Pater, at Oxford in 1877, his interest had been further stimulated by descriptions of Gustave Moreau's paintings of Salomé in Joris-Karl Huysmans's À rebours. Other literary influences include Heinrich Heine's Atta Troll, Laforgue's Salomé in Moralités Légendaires and Mallarmé's Hérodiade. Many view Wilde's Salomé as a superb composite of these earlier treatments of the theme overlaid, in terms of dramatic influences, with Belgian playwright Maurice Maeterlinck's characteristic methodical diction, Maeterlinck's La Princesse Maleine,'with its use of colour, dance, visual description and visual effect'. Wilde referred to the play in musical terms and believed that recurring phrases'bind it together like a piece of music with recurring motifs.'
Although the "kissing of the head" element was used in Heine and Joseph Converse Heywood's production, Wilde's ingenuity was to move it to the play's climax. While his debts are undeniable, there are some interesting contributions in Wilde's treatment, most notably being his persistent use of parallels between Salomé and the moon. Scholars like Christopher Nassaar point out that Wilde employs a number of the images favoured by Israel's kingly poets and that the moon is meant to suggest the pagan goddess Cybele, like Salomé, was obsessed with preserving her virginity and thus took pleasure in destroying male sexuality. Following the prelude three demarcated episodes follow: the meeting between Salomé and Iokanaan, the phase of the white moon. An argument is made by Brad Bucknell in his essay, "On "Seeing" Salomé" that the play can be seen as a struggle between the visual, in the form of various characters' gazing as well as Salomé's dance, the written word. Salome's dance (which is never d
Expressionism is a modernist movement in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists have sought to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War, it remained popular during the Weimar Republic in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range of the arts, including expressionist architecture, literature, dance and music; the term is sometimes suggestive of angst. In a historical sense, much older painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco are sometimes termed expressionist, though the term is applied to 20th-century works; the Expressionist emphasis on individual and subjective perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism and other artistic styles such as Naturalism and Impressionism.
While the word expressionist was used in the modern sense as early as 1850, its origin is sometimes traced to paintings exhibited in 1901 in Paris by obscure artist Julien-Auguste Hervé, which he called Expressionismes. An alternative view is that the term was coined by the Czech art historian Antonin Matějček in 1910 as the opposite of impressionism: "An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself... immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures... Impressions and mental images that pass through... people's soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols."Important precursors of Expressionism were the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche his philosophical novel Thus Spoke Zarathustra. In 1905, a group of four German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, formed Die Brücke in the city of Dresden.
This was arguably the founding organization for the German Expressionist movement, though they did not use the word itself. A few years in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter in Munich; the name came from Wassily Kandinsky's Der Blaue Reiter painting of 1903. Among their members were Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, Auguste Macke. However, the term Expressionism did not establish itself until 1913. Though a German artistic movement and most predominant in painting and the theatre between 1910 and 1930, most precursors of the movement were not German. Furthermore, there have been expressionist writers of prose fiction, as well as non-German-speaking expressionist writers, while the movement had declined in Germany with the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s, there were subsequent expressionist works. Expressionism is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it "overlapped with other major'isms' of the modernist period: with Futurism, Cubism and Dadaism." Richard Murphy comments, “the search for an all-inclusive definition is problematic to the extent that the most challenging expressionists such as Kafka, Gottfried Benn and Döblin were the most vociferous `anti-expressionists.'
”What can be said, however, is that it was a movement that developed in the early twentieth century in Germany, in reaction to the dehumanizing effect of industrialization and the growth of cities, that "one of the central means by which expressionism identifies itself as an avant-garde movement, by which it marks its distance to traditions and the cultural institution as a whole is through its relationship to realism and the dominant conventions of representation." More explicitly, that the expressionists rejected the ideology of realism. The term refers to an "artistic style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events arouse within a person." It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there are many examples of art production in Europe from the 15th century onward which emphasize extreme emotion. Such art occurs during times of social upheaval and war, such as the Protestant Reformation, German Peasants' War, Eighty Years' War between the Spanish and the Netherlands, when extreme violence, much directed at civilians, was represented in propagandist popular prints.
These were unimpressive aesthetically but had the capacity to arouse extreme emotions in the viewer. Expressionism has been likened to Baroque by critics such as art historian Michel Ragon and German philosopher Walter Benjamin. According to Alberto Arbasino, a difference between the two is that "Expressionism doesn't shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque does. Expressionism throws some terrific'fuck yous', Baroque doesn't. Baroque is well-mannered." Some of the style's main visual artists of the early 20th century were: Armenia: Martiros Saryan Australia: Sidney Nolan, Charles Blackman, John Perceval, Alb
Eugenics is a set of beliefs and practices that aim to improve the genetic quality of a human population by excluding certain genetic groups judged to be inferior, promoting other genetic groups judged to be superior. The definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined by Francis Galton in 1883; the concept predates the term. Frederick Osborn's 1937 journal article "Development of a Eugenic Philosophy" framed it as a social philosophy—a philosophy with implications for social order; that definition is not universally accepted. Osborn advocated for higher rates of sexual reproduction among people with desired traits or reduced rates of sexual reproduction or sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits. Alternatively, by 2014, gene selection was made possible through advances in genome editing, leading to what is sometimes called new eugenics known as "neo-eugenics", "consumer eugenics", or "liberal eugenics". While eugenic principles have been practiced as early as ancient Greece, the contemporary history of eugenics began in the early 20th century, when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom, spread to many countries, including the United States and most European countries.
In this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Many countries adopted eugenic policies, intended to improve the quality of their populations' genetic stock; such programs included both positive measures, such as encouraging individuals deemed "fit" to reproduce, negative measures, such as marriage prohibitions and forced sterilization of people deemed unfit for reproduction. Those deemed "unfit to reproduce" included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges on different IQ tests, criminals and "deviants," and members of disfavored minority groups; the eugenics movement became associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the U. S. eugenics programs. In the decades following World War II, with the institution of human rights, many countries began to abandon eugenics policies, although some Western countries, the United States and Sweden among them, continued to carry out forced sterilizations.
Since the 1980s and 1990s, with new assisted reproductive technology procedures available, such as gestational surrogacy, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, cytoplasmic transfer, fear has emerged about the possible revival of a more potent form of eugenics after decades of promoting human rights. The State of California Legislature and Governor passed a form of negative eugenics into law via SB 1095, resulting in a State law requiring the screening for "any disease" "detectable in the blood" prior to birth; the bill, still law in California, has been regarded as a form of scientific racism, though its proponents continue to claim that it is necessary. A system was proposed by California Senator Skinner to compensate victims of the well-documented examples of prison sterilizations resulting from California's eugenics programs, but this did not pass by the bill's 2018 deadline in the Legislature. A major criticism of eugenics policies is that, regardless of whether negative or positive policies are used, they are susceptible to abuse because the genetic selection criteria are determined by whichever group has political power at the time.
Furthermore, negative eugenics in particular is criticized by many as a violation of basic human rights, which include the right to reproduce. Another criticism is that eugenics policies lead to a loss of genetic diversity, thereby resulting in inbreeding depression due to a loss of genetic variation, yet another criticism of contemporary eugenics policies is that they propose to permanently and artificially disrupt millions of years of evolution, that attempting to create genetic lines "clean" of "disorders" can have far-reaching ancillary downstream effects in the genetic ecology, including negative effects on immunity and species resilience. The concept of positive eugenics to produce better human beings has existed at least since Plato suggested selective mating to produce a guardian class. In Sparta, every Spartan child was inspected by the council of elders, the Gerousia, which determined if the child was fit to live or not. In the early years of ancient Rome, a Roman father was obliged by law to kill his child if they were physically disabled.
Among the ancient Germanic tribes, people who were cowardly, unwarlike or "stained with abominable vices" were put to death by being drowned in swamps. The first formal negative eugenics, a legal provision against the birth of inferior human beings, was promulgated in Western European culture by the Christian Council of Agde in 506, which forbade marriage between cousins; this idea was promoted by William Goodell who advocated the castration and spaying of the insane. The idea of a modern project of improving the human population through a statistical understanding of heredity used to encourage good breeding was developed by Francis Galton and was linked to Darwinism and his theory of natural selection. Galton had read his half-cousin Charles Darwin's theory of
Gustave Le Bon
Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was a French polymath whose areas of interest included anthropology, sociology, medicine and physics. He is best known for his 1895 work The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, considered one of the seminal works of crowd psychology. A native of Nogent-le-Rotrou, Le Bon qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Paris in 1866, he opted against the formal practice of medicine as a physician, instead beginning his writing career the same year of his graduation. He published a number of medical articles and books before joining the French Army after the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Defeat in the war coupled with being a first-hand witness to the Paris Commune of 1871 shaped Le Bon's worldview, he travelled touring Europe and North Africa. He analysed the peoples and the civilisations he encountered under the umbrella of the nascent field of anthropology, developing an essentialist view of humanity, invented a portable cephalometer during his travels.
In the 1890s, he turned to psychology and sociology, in which fields he released his most successful works. Le Bon developed the view that crowds are not the sum of their individual parts, proposing that within crowds there forms a new psychological entity, the characteristics of which are determined by the "racial unconscious" of the crowd. At the same time he created his psychological and sociological theories, he performed experiments in physics and published popular books on the subject, anticipating the mass–energy equivalence and prophesising the Atomic Age. Le Bon maintained his eclectic interests up until his death in 1931. Ignored or maligned by sections of the French academic and scientific establishment during his life due to his politically conservative and reactionary views, Le Bon was critical of democracy and socialism. Le Bon's works were influential to such disparate figures as Theodore Roosevelt and Benito Mussolini, Sigmund Freud and José Ortega y Gasset, Adolf Hitler and Vladimir Lenin.
Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire on 7 May 1841 to a family of Breton ancestry. At the time of Le Bon's birth, his mother, Annette Josephine Eugénic Tétiot Desmarlinais, was twenty-six and his father, Jean-Marie Charles Le Bon, was forty-one and a provincial functionary of the French government. Le Bon was a direct descendant of Jean-Odet Carnot, whose grandfather, Jean Carnot, had a brother, from whom the fifth president of the French Third Republic, Marie François Sadi Carnot, was directly descended; when Le Bon was eight years old, his father obtained a new post in French government and the family, including Gustave's younger brother Georges, left Nogent-le-Rotrou never to return. Nonetheless, the town was proud that Gustave Le Bon was born there and named a street after him. Little else is known of Le Bon's childhood, except for his attendance at a lycée in Tours, where he was an unexceptional student. In 1860, he began medicinal studies at the University of Paris.
He completed his internship at Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, received his doctorate in 1866. From that time on, he referred to himself as "Doctor" though he never formally worked as a physician. During his university years, Le Bon wrote articles on a range of medical topics, the first of which related to the maladies that plagued those who lived in swamp-like conditions, he published several other about loa loa filariasis and asphyxia before releasing his first full-length book in 1866, La mort apparente et inhumations prématurées. This work dealt with the definition of death, preceding 20th-century legal debates on the issue. After his graduation, Le Bon remained in Paris, where he taught himself English and German by reading Shakespeare's works in each language, he maintained his passion for writing and authored several papers on physiological studies, as well as an 1868 textbook about sexual reproduction, before joining the French Army as a medical officer after the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870.
During the war, Le Bon organised a division of military ambulances. In that capacity, he observed the behaviour of the military under the worst possible condition—total defeat, wrote about his reflections on military discipline and the behaviour of man in a state of stress and suffering; these reflections garnered praise from generals, were studied at Saint-Cyr and other military academies in France. At the end of the war, Le Bon was named a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Le Bon witnessed the Paris Commune of 1871, which affected his worldview; the thirty-year-old Le Bon watched on as Parisian revolutionary crowds burned down the Tuileries Palace, the library of the Louvre, the Hôtel de Ville, the Gobelins Manufactory, the Palais de Justice, other irreplaceable works of architectural art. From 1871 on, Le Bon was an avowed opponent of socialist pacifists and protectionists, who he believed were halting France's martial development and stifling her industrial growth, he warned his countrymen of the deleterious effects of political rivalries in the face of German military might and rapid industrialisation, therefore was uninvolved in the Dreyfus Affair which dichotomised France.
Le Bon became interested in the emerging field of anthropology in the 1870s and travelled throughout Europe and North Africa. Influenced by Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer and Ernst Haeckel, Le Bon supported biological determinism and a hierarchical view of the races and sexes.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art and applied art the decorative arts, most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures the curved lines of plants and flowers. English uses the French name Art Nouveau; the style is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time: in Austria it is known as Secessionsstil after Wiener Secession. Art Nouveau is a total art style: It embraces a wide range of fine and decorative arts, including architecture, graphic art, interior design, furniture, ceramics, glass art, metal work. By 1910, Art Nouveau was out of style, it was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and by Modernism. Art Nouveau took its name from the Maison de l'Art Nouveau, an art gallery opened in 1895 by the Franco-German art dealer Siegfried Bing that featured the new style. In France, Art Nouveau was sometimes called by the British term "Modern Style" due to its roots in the Arts and Crafts movement, Style moderne, or Style 1900.
It was sometimes called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro, Art Belle Époque, Art fin de siècle. In Belgium, where the architectural movement began, it was sometimes termed Style nouille or Style coup de fouet. In Britain, it was known as the Modern Style, or, because of the Arts and Crafts movement led by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, as the "Glasgow" style. In Italy, because of the popularity of designs from London's Liberty & Co department store, it was called Stile Liberty, Stile floreale, or Arte nuova. In the United States, due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany, it was called the "Tiffany style". In Germany and Scandinavia, a related style emerged at about the same time. In Austria and the neighboring countries part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a similar style emerged, called Secessionsstil in German, or Wiener Jugendstil, after the artists of the Vienna Secession; the style was called Modern in Nieuwe Kunst in the Netherlands. In Spain the related style was known as Modernismo, Arte joven.
Some names refer to the organic forms that were popular with the Art Nouveau artists: Stile Floreal in France. The new art movement had its roots in Britain, in the floral designs of William Morris, in the Arts and Crafts movement founded by the pupils of Morris. Early prototypes of the style include the Red House of Morris, the lavish Peacock Room by James Abbott McNeill Whistler; the new movement was strongly influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite painters, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones, by British graphic artists of the 1880s, including Selwyn Image, Heywood Sumner, Walter Crane, Alfred Gilbert, Aubrey Beardsley. In France, the style combined several different tendencies. In architecture, it was influenced by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, a declared enemy of the historical Beaux-Arts architectural style. In his 1872 book Entretiens sur l'architecture, he wrote, "use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, in that way we can inaugurate a new architecture.
For each function its material. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, Antoni Gaudí; the French painters Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard and Édouard Vuillard played an important part in integrating fine arts painting with decoration. "I believe that before everything a painting must decorate", Denis wrote in 1891. "The choice of subjects or scenes is nothing. It is by the value of tones, the colored surface and the harmony of lines that I can reach the spirit and wake up the emotions." These painters all did both traditional painting and decorative painting on screens, in glass, in other media. Another important influence on the new style was Japonism: the wave of enthusiasm for Japanese woodblock printing the works of Hiroshige and Utagawa Kunisada which were imported into Europe beginning in the 1870s; the enterprising Siegfried Bing founded a monthly journal, Le Japon artistique in 1888, published thirty-six issues before it ended in 1891.
It influenced both artists, including Gustav Klimt. The stylized features of Japanese prints appeared in Art Nouveau graphics, porcelain and furniture. New technologies in printing and publishing allowed Art Nouveau to reach a global audience. Art magazines, illustrated with photographs and color lithographs, played an essential role in popularizing the new style; the Studio in England, Arts et