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Final Fantasy VII

Final Fantasy VII is a 1997 role-playing video game developed by Square for the PlayStation console. It is the seventh main installment in the Final Fantasy series. Published in Japan by Square, it was released in other regions by Sony Computer Entertainment and became the first in the main series to see a PAL release; the game's story follows Cloud Strife, a mercenary who joins an eco-terrorist organization to stop a world-controlling megacorporation from using the planet's life essence as an energy source. Events send Cloud and his allies in pursuit of Sephiroth, a superhuman who seeks to wound the planet and harness its healing power in order to be reborn as a demigod. During the journey, Cloud builds close friendships with his party members, including Aerith Gainsborough, who holds the secret to saving their world. Development began in 1994 for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. After delays and technical difficulties from experimenting on several platforms, Square moved production to the PlayStation due to the advantages of the CD-ROM format.

Veteran Final Fantasy staff returned, including series creator and producer Hironobu Sakaguchi, director Yoshinori Kitase, composer Nobuo Uematsu. The title became the first in the series to use full motion video and 3D computer graphics, which featured 3D character models superimposed over 2D pre-rendered backgrounds. Although the gameplay systems remained unchanged from previous entries, Final Fantasy VII introduced more widespread science fiction elements and a more realistic presentation; the game had a staff of over 100, with a combined development and marketing budget of around US$80 million. Assisted by a large promotional campaign, Final Fantasy VII received widespread commercial and critical success and remains regarded as a landmark title and one of the greatest video games of all time; the title won numerous Game of the Year awards and was acknowledged for boosting the sales of the PlayStation and popularizing Japanese role-playing games worldwide. Critics praised its graphics, gameplay and story, although some criticism was directed towards its original English localization.

Its success has led to enhanced ports on various platforms, a multimedia subseries called the Compilation of Final Fantasy VII, an upcoming high-definition remake for the PlayStation 4. The gameplay of Final Fantasy VII is comparable to earlier Final Fantasy titles and Japanese role-playing games; the game features three modes of play: the world map, the field, the battle screen. At its grandest scale, players explore the entire world of Final Fantasy VII on a 3D world map; the world map is littered with representations of areas for the player to enter, including towns and ruins. Natural barriers—such as mountains and bodies of water—block access by foot to some areas. Chocobos can be found in certain spots on the map, if caught, can be ridden to areas inaccessible by foot or vehicle. In field mode, the player navigates scaled versions of the areas represented on the world map. For the first time in the series, this mode is represented in three-dimensional space; the player can explore the environment, talk with characters, advance the story, initiate event games in this mode.

Event games are short minigames that use special control functions and are tied into the story. While in field mode, the player may find shops and inns. Shops provide an opportunity to buy and sell items that can aid Cloud and his party, such as weapons and accessories. If the characters rest at an inn, their hit points and mana points will be restored, along with any abnormalities contracted during battles. At random intervals on the world map and in field mode, at specific moments in the story, the game will enter the battle screen; this screen places the player characters on one side, the enemies on the other, employs an "Active Time Battle" system in which the characters exchange moves until one side is defeated. The damage dealt by either side is quantified on screen. Characters have many statistics; each character on the screen has a time gauge. The commands change as the game progresses, are dependent on the characters in the player's party and their equipment. Commands may include attacking with a weapon, casting magic, using items, summoning monsters, other actions that either damage the enemy or aid the player characters.

Final Fantasy VII features powerful, character-specific commands called Limit Breaks, which can be used only after a special gauge is charged by enemy attacks. After being attacked, characters may be afflicted by one or more abnormal "statuses", such as poison or paralysis; these statuses and their adverse effects can be removed by special abilities. When all the enemies are defeated, the battle ends and the player may be rewarded with money and experience points. If the player is defeated, it is game over and the game must be loaded to the last save point; when not in battle, the player can use the menu screen. On this screen, the player can review each character's status and statistics, use items and abilities, change equipment, save the game, manage orbs called Materia; the main method of customizing characters in Final Fantasy VII, Materia may be added to equipment to provide characters with new magic spells, monsters to summon, statistical upgrades, other benefits. Materia

Digestive system of gastropods

The digestive system of gastropods has evolved to suit every kind of diet and feeding behavior. Gastropods as the largest taxonomic class of the mollusca are diverse indeed: the group includes carnivores, scavengers, filter feeders, parasites. In particular, the radula is highly adapted to the specific diet of the various group of gastropods. Another distinctive feature of the digestive tract is that, along with the rest of the visceral mass, it has undergone torsion, twisting around through 180 degrees during the larval stage, so that the anus of the animal is located above its head. A number of species have developed special adaptations to feeding, such as the "drill" of some limpets, or the harpoon of the neogastropod genus Conus. Filter feeders use the gills, mantle lining, or nets of mucus to trap their prey, which they pull into the mouth with the radula; the modified parasitic genus Enteroxenos has no digestive tract at all, absorbs the blood of its host through the body wall. The digestive system has the following parts: buccal mass and salivary glands with salivary ducts oesophagus and oesophagal crop stomach known as the gastric pouch digestive gland known as the hepatopancreas intestine rectum and anus The buccal mass is the first part of the digestive system, consists of the mouth and pharynx.

The mouth includes a radula, in most cases a pair of jaws. The pharynx can be large in carnivorous species. Many carnivorous species have developed a proboscis, containing the oral cavity and part of the oesophagus. At rest, the proboscis is enclosed within a sac-like sheath, with an opening at the front of the animal that resembles a true mouth; when the animal feeds, it pumps blood into the proboscis, inflating it and pushing it out through the opening to grasp the gastropod's prey. A set of retractor muscles help pull the proboscis back inside the sheath; the radula is a chitinous ribbon used for cutting food. Several herbivorous species, as well as carnivores that prey on sessile animals, have developed simple jaws, which help to hold the food steady while the radula works on it; the jaw reinforces part of the foregut. The purely carnivorous. There are pieces of food in the gut corresponding to the shape of the jaw; the jaw structure can be ribbed or smooth: Some species have no jaw. Salivary glands plays primary role in the anatomical and physiological adaptations of the digestive system of predatory gastropods.

Ducts from large salivary glands lead into the buccal cavity, the oesophagus supplies the digestive enzymes that help to break down the food. Salivary secretions lubricate the food and they contain bioactive compounds; the mouth of gastropods opens into an oesophagus. Because of torsion, the oesophagus passes around the stomach, opens into its posterior portion, furthest from the mouth. In species that have undergone de-torsion, the oesophagus may open into the anterior of the stomach, therefore reversed from the usual gastropod arrangement. In Tarebia granifera the brood pouch is above the oesophagus. There is available an extensive rostrum on the anterior part of the oesophagus in all carnivorous gastropods; some basal gastropod clades have oesophageal gland. In most species, the stomach itself is a simple sac, is the main site of digestion. In many herbivores, the hind part of the oesophagus is enlarged to form a crop, which, in terrestrial pulmonates, may replace the stomach entirely. In many aquatic herbivores, the stomach is adapted into a gizzard that helps to grind up the food.

The gizzard may be filled with abrasive sand grains. In the most primitive gastropods, the stomach is a more complex structure. In these species, the hind part of the stomach, where the oesophagus enters, is chitinous, includes a sorting region lined with cilia. In all gastropods, the portion of the stomach furthest from the oesophagus, called the "style sac", is lined with cilia; these beat in a rotary motion. The food is embedded in a string of mucus produced in the mouth, creating a coiled conical mass in the style sac; this action, rather than muscular peristalsis, is responsible for the movement of food through the gastropod digestive tract. Two diverticular glands open into the stomach, secrete enzymes that help to break down the food. In the more primitive species, these glands may absorb the food particles directly and digest them intracellularly; the hepatopancreas is the largest organ in stylommatophoran gastropods. It produces enzymes, absorbs and stores nutrients; the anterior portion of the stomach opens into a coiled intestine, which helps to resorb water from the food, producing faecal pellets.

The anus opens above the head. Golding, Rosemary E.. "Three-dimensional reconstruction of the odontophoral cartilages of Caenogastropoda using micro-CT: Morphology and phylogenetic significance". Journal of Morphology. 270: 558–87. Doi:10.1002/jmor.10699. PMID 19107810. Photos of jaws


Characterization or characterisation is the representation of persons in narrative and dramatic works of art. This representation may include direct methods like the attribution of qualities in description or commentary, indirect methods inviting readers to infer qualities from characters' actions, dialogue, or appearance; such a personage is called a character. Character is a literary element; the term characterization was introduced in the 19th century. Aristotle promoted the primacy of plot over characters, that is, a plot-driven narrative, arguing in his Poetics that tragedy "is a representation, not of men, but of action and life." This view was reversed in the 19th century, when the primacy of the character, that is, a character-driven narrative, was affirmed first with the realist novel, later with the influential development of psychology. There are two ways an author can convey information about a character: Direct or explicit characterization The author tells the audience what a character is like.

This may be done by the character themselves. Indirect or implicit characterization The audience must infer for themselves what the character is like through the character's thoughts, speech, physical appearance and interaction with other characters, including other characters' reactions to that particular person. Characters in theater and film differ from those in novels in that an actor may interpret the writer's description and dialogue in their own unique way to add new layers and depth to a character; this can be seen when critics compare, for example, the'Lady Macbeths' or'Heathcliffs' of different actors. Another major difference in drama is that it is not possible to'go inside the character's head' in the way possible in a novel, meaning this method of character exposition is unavailable. Still another is that in drama, a character can be seen and heard and need not be described. Mythological characters have been depicted to be formulaic and are a part of a classification that consists of several differing, limited archetypes, type of component.

Multiple components, such as archetypes and other elements of a story, together form a type of configuration that results in realized myth. These configurations can be mixed and matched together to form new types of configurations, humans have never tired of using these configurations for their mythologies; this is an idea. Another perspective holds that humans when reading or hearing a mythology do not dissect it into various parts, that when physically together humans do not tell stories by using limited components in a configuration, that people and their cultures do change and thus this leads to new developments in stories, including characters. Mythological characters have influence; the poet Platon Oyunsky draws from the native mythology of his homeland, the Yakut region in Russia and the Sahka people. In several of his stories, he depicts a main character that follows historic examples of heroism, but fashions the main character using Soviet examples of heroism using real life figures, such as Stalin, etc. in a new type of mythology.

These figures play the lead in tragic stories full of sacrifice. An example of this includes his character Tygyn, who on his quest for peace determines that the only way for peace to exist is to use military strength to enforce; the use of mythology is used in Shakespeare's Hamlet as a device to parallel the characters and to reflect back on them there role in the story, such as the use of the Niobe myth and the twin sister of Gertrude. The psychologist Carl Jung identified twelve primary'original patterns' of the human psyche, he believed that these reside in the collective subconscious of people across cultural and political boundaries. These twelve archetypes are cited in fictional characters.'Flat' characters may be considered so because they stick to a single archetype without deviating, whereas'complex' or'realistic' characters will combine several archetypes, with some being more dominant than others – as people are in real life. Jung's twelve archetypes are: the Innocent, the Orphan, the Hero, the Caregiver, the Explorer, the Rebel, the Lover, the Creator, the Jester, the Sage, the Magician, the Ruler.

A character's voice is her manner of speech. Different characters use different rhythms of speech. For example, some characters are talkative; the way a character speaks can be a powerful way of revealing the character's personality. In theory, a reader should be able to identify which character is speaking from the way he or she talks; when a character voice has been created, rich and distinctive, the writer can get away with omitting many speech attributions. The manner of a character's speech is to literature what an actor's appearance and costume are to cinema. In fiction, what a character says, as well as how he or she says it, makes a strong impression on the reader; each character should have her distinctive voice. To differentiate characters in fiction, the writer must show them doing and saying things, but a character must be defined by more than one single topic of conversation or by the character's accent; the character will have other personality quirks as well. Although individual temperament is the largest determinant of what a character says, it is not the only one.

The writer can make the characters' dialogue more realistic and interesting by considering several factors affecting how people speak: ethnicity, family

Johan Absalonsen

Johan Hindsgaul Absalonsen is a Danish professional football player who plays for SønderjyskE. He scored one goal for the Denmark national football team. Born in Flemløse near Glamsbjerg, Absalonsen started playing football for local clubs, before he entered the youth scheme of B 1913, he played two senior matches for B 1913, before moving to the reserve team of defending Danish champions Brøndby IF in 2002. Absalonsen joined Brøndby IF on 3 January 2003 at the age of 17, he was a part of the'talent-squad' at Brøndby, extended his contract in January 2004. He made his Brøndby senior debut in the February 2004 UEFA Cup home game against FC Barcelona, he was a part of The Double winning team of both the 2004–05 Superliga championship and 2004–05 Danish Cup trophy, scoring four goals in 14 Superliga games that season. As he struggled to claim a starting position in the team, he moved on in summer 2006, having played a total 66 games for Brøndby, he joined Superliga rivals Odense Boldklub, where he soon claimed a position as a first time regular, as he played 28 of 33 games in his first season at the club.

He was named Danish Cup Fighter. He played his 100th Superliga game for OB in a 1–1 draw against SønderjyskE on March 13, 2010. In January 2011 he joined FC København. In January 2012 he joined AC Horsens on loan until summer 2012 In August 2012 he moved to SønderjyskE, he left the club in the summer 2017. In July 2017, Absalonsen signed a one-year deal with Australian side Adelaide United. Absalonsen returned to Denmark for family reasons, once again to play for SønderjyskE, in May 2018. Absalonsen started his international career while at B 1913, when he made his debut for the Danish under-16 national team in November 2000, he played a total 43 matches for various Danish national youth teams until October 2006, including 10 games and one goal for the Denmark under-21 national team. He took part in all four Danish games at the 2002 European Under-17 Championship. In May 2006, he was selected for the under-21 national squad for the 2006 European Under-21 Championship tournament, he played one match at the tournament, coming on as a substitute for Jonas Kamper in Denmark's last game.

He was called up for the senior Denmark national football team by national manager Morten Olsen, for two friendly matches against South Korea and the United States in November 2009. He took part in both games, scored his first national team goal in the 3–1 win against the United States. Danish Superliga: 2004–05, 2010-11 Danish Cup: 2004–05, 2006–07 Danish Cup Fighter: 2007 Palle "Banks" Jørgensen, "Landsholdenes 2198 spillerprofiler", Nørhaven Book, 2004, ISBN 978-87-89564-04-3 Danish national team profile Official Superliga stats

Station Trail

The Station Trail is a shared use path for cyclists and pedestrians, which follows the Pakenham/Cranbourne railway lines from Hughesdale railway station to Centre Road, Clayton in the inner southern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. The path starts at Hughesdale railway station. Here the path changes from the north side to south side of the railway line at Poath Road. 300 m along the Rosstown Rail Trail leads off to the right. A short on road section at Carlisle Crescent delivers you to Oakleigh station. Easy to get lost here - use the station underpass to rejoin the path on the north side of the rail line; the trail continues with one more crossings of the train line at Clayton Road. As part of the level crossing removal project between Caulfield and Dandenong, the station trail is set to be extended on either side to link Monash University Caulfield with the EastLink Trail at Yarraman railway station, it will link up with the Anniversary Trail at Hughesdale. This is due to be landscaped upon completion of the removal project.

Connects to the Scotchmans Creek Trail at East Malvern station in the north. Nearby in the north is the Gardiners Creek Trail and the Anniversary Trail. Centrally to the Rosstown Rail Trail and a little further south at Huntingdale station, it connects to Monash University - Clayton campus, via the path on North Road. Dead end in the south at Centre Road. South end at 37.929422°S 145.126569°E / -37.929422. Boroondara BUG's proposal to close the gap between East Malvern Station and Warrigal Road via Argyll Street and the photos. Geographic data related to Station Trail at OpenStreetMap

Retreat River

The Retreat River, a perennial stream, part of the Lachlan catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is located in the central western region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The Retreat River rises on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range, near Shooters Hill, flows to the south-west, before reaching its confluence with the Abercrombie River, near Hadley; the river flows adjacent to the Abercrombie River National Park, with access at The Sink campground. List of rivers of Australia List of rivers of New South Wales Rivers of New South Wales