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Final Solution

The Final Solution or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question was a Nazi plan for the genocide of Jews during World War II. The "Final Solution to the Jewish question" was the official code name for the murder of all Jews within reach, not restricted to the European continent; this policy of deliberate and systematic genocide starting across German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural and geopolitical terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference held near Berlin, culminated in the Holocaust, which saw the killing of 90% of Polish Jews, two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. The nature and timing of the decisions that led to the Final Solution is an intensely researched and debated aspect of the Holocaust; the program evolved during the first 25 months of war leading to the attempt at "murdering every last Jew in the German grasp". Most historians agree, wrote Christopher Browning, that the Final Solution cannot be attributed to a single decision made at one particular point in time.

"It is accepted the decision-making process was prolonged and incremental." In 1940, following the Fall of France, Adolf Eichmann devised the Madagascar Plan to move Europe's Jewish population to the French colony, but the plan was abandoned for logistical reasons a naval blockade. There were preliminary plans to deport Jews to Palestine and Siberia. In 1941, wrote Raul Hilberg, in the first phase of the mass murder of Jews, the mobile killing units began to pursue their victims across occupied eastern territories; the term "Final Solution" was a euphemism used by the Nazis to refer to their plan for the annihilation of the Jewish people. Historians have shown that the usual tendency of the German leadership was to be guarded when discussing the Final Solution. Euphemisms were, in Mark Roseman's words, "their normal mode of communicating about murder". From gaining power in January 1933 until the outbreak of war in September 1939, the Nazi persecution of the Jews in Germany was focused on intimidation, expropriating their money and property, encouraging them to emigrate.

According to the Nazi Party policy statement, the Jews and Gypsies, were the only "alien people in Europe". In 1936, the Bureau of Romani Affairs in Munich was taken over by Interpol and renamed The Center for Combating the Gypsy Menace. Introduced at the end of 1937, the "final solution of the Gypsy Question" entailed round-ups and incarceration of Romani in concentration camps built at, until this point in time, Buchenwald, Flossenbürg, Natzweiler, Ravensbruck and Westerbork. After the Anschluss with Austria in 1938, special offices were established in Vienna and Berlin to "facilitate" Jewish emigration, without covert plans for their forthcoming annihilation; the outbreak of war and the invasion of Poland brought a population of 3.5 million Polish Jews under the control of the Nazi and Soviet security forces, marked the start of a far more savage persecution, including mass killings. In the German-occupied zone of Poland, Jews were forced into hundreds of makeshift ghettos, pending other arrangements.

Two years with the launch of Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, the German top echelon began to pursue Hitler's new anti-Semitic plan to eradicate, rather than expel, Jews. Hitler's earlier ideas about forcible removal of Jews from the German-controlled territories in order to achieve Lebensraum were abandoned after the failure of the air campaign against Britain, initiating a naval blockade of Germany. Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler became the chief architect of a new plan, which came to be called The Final Solution to the Jewish question. On 31 July 1941, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring wrote to Reinhard Heydrich, authorising him to make the "necessary preparations" for a "total solution of the Jewish question" and coordinate with all affected organizations. Göring instructed Heydrich to submit concrete proposals for the implementation of the new projected goal. Broadly speaking, the extermination of Jews was carried out in two major operations. With the onset of Operation Barbarossa, mobile killing units of the SS, the Einsatzgruppen, Order Police battalions were dispatched to the occupied Soviet Union for the express purpose of killing all Jews.

During the early stages of the invasion, Himmler himself visited Białystok in the beginning of July 1941, requested that, "as a matter of principle, any Jew" behind the German-Soviet frontier was to be "regarded as a partisan". His new orders gave the SS and police leaders full authority for the mass murder behind the front lines. By August 1941, all Jewish men and children were shot. In the second phase of annihilation, the Jewish inhabitants of central and south-eastern Europe were transported by Holocaust trains to camps with newly-built gassing facilities. Raul Hilberg wrote: "In essence, the killers of the occupied USSR moved to the victims, whereas outside this arena, the victims were brought to the killers; the two operations constitute an evolution not only chronologically, but in complexity." Massacres of about one million Jews occurred before plans for the Final Solution were implemented in 1942, but it was only with the decision to annihilate the entire Jewish population that extermination camps such as Auschwitz II Birkenau and Treblinka were fitted with permanent gas chambers to kill large numbers of Jews in a short period of time.

The plans

Oakdale, Minnesota

Oakdale is a city in Washington County, United States. It is on the eastern side of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area; the population was 27,378 at the 2010 census. Oakdale is the 32nd largest city in Minnesota by population. Oakdale lies within the North St. Paul–Maplewood–Oakdale school district, the city's students are split into two high schools within the district. Tartan Senior High School is within the city's boundaries, serves the southern half of Oakdale; the city's northern residents are served by North High School in North St. Paul. Imation World Headquarters was in Oakdale. Nearby 3M headquarters employs many residents of the city. Oakdale was named for a grove of oak trees near the original town site. Oakdale Township was organized in 1858; the city of Oakdale is the result of a consolidation of Oakdale and Northdale Townships in the 1970s, continued to annex land well into the 1990s. Arthur Stephen suggested the name "Oakdale" at the first town meeting on November 1, 1858. Stephen was born on March 1830, in Scotland.

He was the son of Elizabeth Stephen. In 1839, when Arthur was 9 years old, the Stephen family came to America and settled in Knox County, Illinois, his father was a schoolteacher and young Arthur learned the trade of bricklayer. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.29 square miles. Oakdale is bound between Minnesota State Highway 120 on its west, Washington County Road 13 on its east, Interstate 694 on its north, Interstate 94 on its south. Other main routes in the community include Minnesota State Highway 36, Hadley Avenue North which Oakdale designates its "signature street" since it is the primary street running the length of the city and serves as a replacement for what the city lacks in a downtown or main street. Population projections put Oakdale's population at 30,000 by the year 2030; as of the census of 2010, there were 27,378 people, 10,948 households, 7,152 families living in the city. The population density was 2,500.3 inhabitants per square mile.

There were 11,388 housing units at an average density of 1,040.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.4% White, 6.0% African American, 0.4% Native American, 8.2% Asian, 1.2% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.3% of the population. There were 10,948 households of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.7% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age in the city was 37.9 years. 24.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 52.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 26,653 people, 10,243 households, 7,129 families living in the city; the population density was 2,408.4 people per square mile.

There were 10,394 housing units at an average density of 939.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.21% White, 2.29% African American, 0.36% Native American, 2.45% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.77% from other races, 1.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.75% of the population. There were 10,243 households out of which 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.0% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 34.6% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $56,299, the median income for a family was $66,680. Males had a median income of $42,371 versus $32,343 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,107. About 2.9% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.1% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over. The Oakdale Dump is listed as an Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site due to the contamination of residential drinking water wells with volatile organic compounds and heavy metals. After extensive cleanup, the area was converted into a city park

Elizabeth Learning Center

Elizabeth Learning Center is a preK-12 public school in Cudahy, United States. It is part of the Los Angeles Unified School District; the high school contains two California Partnership Academies, the'Health Academy', and'InfoTech Academy'. The school was built in the early 1900s as Elizabeth Street Elementary School; the school was named after daughter of the city's founder Pancho Cudahy. Elizabeth Learning Center is a pre-K through 12th grade SPAN school, is part of the Los Angeles Unified School District; the Elizabeth Health Academy is a school to work program. The academy uniquely prepares the students within our community for entry into the University of California, California State University, job entry and life skills to succeed with careers in the health field. Health Academy Requirements: 10th Grade – 50 Hours of community service. 11th Grade – Job shadowing with healthcare professionals in the students career of choice. 12th Grade – Intern program. Students fill roles as transportation intern, or medical records intern.

The Elizabeth Learning Center Information Technology Academy is a career oriented small learning community which uniquely prepares all students for success in college, university and life. Students in the Tech Academy perform Community Service Projects in the 11th and 12th Grade. Students acquire a Tech Certificate by completing three tech classes including Exploring Computer Science, Web Design, Game Programming and Virtual Business. In addition to required Academic classes, students earn certificates and badges in JavaScript, HTML and CSS through CodeCademy. Students learn animation, video editing and entrepreneurial skills as part of their computer science and business curricula; the school's athletic department consists of the following teams: Baseball Basketball Cross Country Soccer Softball Volleyball Tennis Academic Decathlon Debate Team HOSA DECA ELCAA Virtual Business Robotics Club Bridge Club Travel Club Leadership Official website