Thaxted is a village and civil parish in the Uttlesford district of northwest Essex, England. The town is 15 miles north from the county town of Chelmsford, 5.5 miles east from the M11 motorway. The parish contains the hamlets of Cutlers Green, Bardfield End Green, Sibleys Green, Monk Street, Richmond's Green. Much of its status as a "town" rests on its tall, Tudor guildhall, a place where guilds of skilled tradesmen regulated their trading practices. According to A Dictionary of British Place Names, Thaxted derives from the Old English'thoec' with'stede', being a "place where thatching materials are got". Thaxted was a development of a Saxon settlement on a Roman road. Archeological research of the area by Oxford Archaeology in 2007 produced finds showing Bronze Age, late Iron Age, late medieval and post-medieval occupation, including flint fragments and roof tiles, pottery sherds, ditch enclosures and skeletal remains. A further archeological excavation in the centre of the town by the Colchester Archeological Trust in 2015 found a large medieval ditch which may have been a part of the town's defences, 15th- to 16th-century artifacts, fragments of animal bone waste from cattle.
The town is listed in the 1086 Domesday Book by Norman scribes with no real sense of any orthodox orthography as'Tachesteda'. The settlement of 108 households was in the Hundred of Dunmow, with a population that included 54 villagers, 34 smallholders, 16 slaves, 4 freemen; the land supported 28.5 plough teams—being 7 lord's teams and 21.5 men's teams—and contained two mills, meadow of 154 acres, woodland with 850 pigs. In 1066 there were four cobs, 36 cattle, an additional 128 pigs, 200 sheep, 10 beehives; the sheep had increased to 320, the beehives to 16, by 1086. In 1066 the lord was WihtGar, son of Aelfric, lord or overlord of 27 other manors, chiefly in west Essex. After 1086 the lordship of Thaxted was given in part to Warner, to Richard fitz Gilbert—son to Gilbert, Count of Brionne—who was Tenant-in-chief to the king. Thaxted parish is run by a parish council, the town provides two district council representatives on Uttlesford District Council and one councillor on Essex County Council.
The Thaxted electoral ward had a recorded population of 3,512 at the 2011 census. In 1829 there were 2,293 people living in Thaxted. At the time of the 1881 census that figure had fallen to 1,914, fell further by 1921 to 1,596. In 2001, the population was 2,526. Thaxted had a total population of 2,845 according to the 2011 census. Between 2007 and 2009 a village design statement was produced for Thaxted to describe the character of the town and parish and to inform any future development, it was drawn up after consultation with local residents and under the auspices of Thaxted Parish Council and the Thaxted Society, was published after further consultation with the rural community council and Uttlesford District Council. The Thaxted Society is a conservation charity founded to promote Thaxted's legacy, it was fifty years old in 2013 and published the 100th issue of the Thaxted Bulletin in winter 2017. The society's remit is to scrutinise and respond to local planning and Government planning regulation and policy.
The annual Thaxted Festival takes place over four weekends in June and July every year, presenting a programme of musical concerts. Thaxted Cricket Club represents the parish; the club's teams play in the Herts and Essex League, play Sunday Friendlies, in under-12 and under-15 competitions. Thaxted football club, the Thaxted Rangers, has youth teams. Thaxted Morris Men is a morris side, founded in 1911, under the instigation of Conrad Noel, Vicar of Thaxted, as a response to a renewed interest in morris dancing; the side performed locally as part of coronation celebrations for George V. Horham Hall is a Grade I listed mansion at the southeast of Thaxted parish, it was rebuilt in brick by Sir John Cutte between 1510 and 1515, having been a timber-framed late–c. 1470 moated manor house. In the early 1950s the town was used as the location for the film Time Gentlemen, Please!. Released in 1952, the British comedy film was directed by Lewis Gilbert and starred actors like Eddie Byrne, Dora Bryan and Sid James.
The British composer Gustav Holst – town resident. Thaxted is the name given to a hymn tune used for "I Vow to Thee, My Country" John Hunter – author, landscape archaeologist, historian of Essex and Cambridgeshire Diana Wynne Jones – author of Howl's Moving Castle and other novels, was raised in the town Conrad Noel – Christian socialist and known as the town's'Red Vicar', serving in the post from 1910 until his death Samuel Purchas – English cleric and author, born in the town his works are an important source of information about the age of exploration. Son of an English yeoman, he graduated from St John's College, Cambridge, in 1600. The Hundred Parishes Thaxted Church on Essex Churches website Pictures and information on Thaxted station from subbrit.org.uk
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Great Bardfield is a large village in the Braintree district of Essex, England. It is located 9 miles northwest of the town of Braintree, 12 miles southeast of Saffron Walden; the village came to national attention during the 1950s as home to the Great Bardfield Artists. Henry VIII is said to have given Bardfield to Anne of Cleves as part of his divorce settlement and a number of buildings in the village are associated with Anne of Cleves, including the Grade II-listed Great Lodge and its associated Grade I-listed barn, now named after her; the 1,000-acre grounds include a vineyard. Great Bardfield is home to the Bardfield Cage, a 19th-century village lock-up, the Gibraltar Mill, a windmill, converted to a house. Great Bardfield played an important role in the history of the oxlip which, in the UK, is a rare plant only found where Suffolk and Cambridgeshire meet, it was thought that oxlips were cowslip-primrose hybrids but in 1842 Henry Doubleday and Charles Darwin conducted tests on plants collected from Great Bardfield and concluded that this was not so.
For a while the plant was known as the Bardfield Oxlip. The common cowslip-primrose hybrid is known as the False Oxlip. Bardfield was the home of many important twentieth-century English artists who hosted a series of important'open house' exhibitions in the village during the 1950s; these exhibitions attracted thousands of visitors. The Great Bardfield Artists of the 1940s and 1950s were: John Aldridge, Edward Bawden, George Chapman, Stanley Clifford-Smith, Audrey Cruddas, Walter Hoyle, Michael Rothenstein, Eric Ravilious, Sheila Robinson and Marianne Straub. Other artists linked to the art community include Joan Glass, Duffy Ayers, Laurence Scarfe and the political cartoonist David Low. Early 20th-century Liberal candidate in several local constituencies, Ernest William Tanner. Artist Grayson Perry spent part of his childhood in the village and worked for a while as the local paperboy. Alan Jordan, former Sheriff of Essex and the founder of Great Bardfield vineyard; each year there is a village garage sale.
In 2017 it is on Saturday 6th May. A real ale festival is held each August Bank Holiday in the village pub garden of The Vine; the Hundred Parishes Great Bardfield Primary School Information on Great Bardfield Great Bardfield Garage Sale
Essex Police is a territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Essex, in the east of England, consisting of over 1.7 million people and around 1,400 square miles. It is one of the largest non-metropolitan police forces in the United Kingdom, employing over 2,900 police officers; the Chief Constable is Ben-Julian Harrington, who took up the appointment in October 2018. Assistant Chief Constable for Media Relations Steve Worron is simultaneously ACC for Area Operations for Kent Police due to the two forces forming a joint Serious Crime Directorate; as of 2017, Assistant Chief Constable Nick Downing became the head of the Serious Crime Directorate for Kent and Essex Police. In November 2012, the first Essex Police and Crime Commissioner election took place, in which Conservative candidate Nick Alston achieved 30.5% of the first round votes, 51.5% of the second round votes against Independent candidate Mick Thwaites. Alston set his 4 priorities in his election statement as 1) policing that meets local needs, 2) policing, prompt and professional, 3) effective cooperation and partnership between Police and the Voluntary Sector, 4) to be an influential voice in leading public engagement about crime reduction and policing, to listen to and speak for the victims of crime.
Nick Alston was elected with a 12.8% turnout. Essex police were featured in 3 of Channel 5's Police Interceptors. Essex Constabulary was formed in 1840. In 1965, the force had an establishment of 1,862 officers. Southend-on-Sea Borough Police was established by the county borough of Southend-on-Sea, England, in 1914. In 1969 Southend-on-Sea Borough Police amalgamated with Essex Constabulary to become the Essex and Southend-on-Sea Joint Constabulary; this merger was campaigned against by the local MPs. Colchester at one time had its own police force; the title was shortened to Essex Police in 1974. In April 2000, it took over parts of the county in the south-west in the Metropolitan Police Area. Epping Forest Keepers act as Epping Forest constables in the Forest parishes in the south-west of the Essex Police area. Essex Police is one of the United Kingdom's largest non-metropolitan police forces with a strength of over 2,900 police officers, its headquarters, the Force Control Room and Essex Police College, are all located in Chelmsford.
Strategically, Essex is an important force. Bordering London, the force area consists of affluent city suburbs, large urban areas, industrial centres, rural villages, London Stansted Airport and two of the UK's major ports; the force polices one of the largest expanses of coastline of any force in the UK. The police area covers 1,400 square miles and has a population of around 1,700,000; the Chief Constable is Ben-Julian Harrington who replaced Stephen Kavanagh after he retired in October 2018. The force has been a regular innovator and is used by the Home Office to trial new procedures and equipment, including automatic number plate recognition and the X26 Taser. Essex Police was the subject of the television series Police Interceptors, which followed the work of the specialist Mobile Support Division's ANPR intercept unit that utilise high-performance pursuit vehicles, including the Mitsubishi Evo X and Subaru Impreza, to pursue and intercept mobile criminals. In late 2016, Essex Police was the subject of a television series The Force: Essex, which followed the duties and responsibilities of Essex Police in the modern day, covering the front-line aspect of the police officers on duty, across Essex.
A number of specialist teams within Essex were grouped into the Mobile Support Division. In 2012 Essex Police moved away from the divisional structure to a patrol based structure and the former components of the Mobile Support Division were moved to new command structures. Roads Policing and Dog Section became part of the Patrol function. Crime Division works across the territorial divisions of Essex and with forces nationwide, providing resources and expertise; as a division within Essex Police, it deals with the specialist aspects of crime investigation, tending to focus on serious crime, but not and provides support to territorial divisions' efforts in investigating crime. Crime Division has a command team structure of a divisional commander, supported by a director of intelligence, lead senior investigating officer, support manager and divisional administrative manager, based at the Chelmsford headquarters; this team is supported by section heads. The work of the various departments of Crime Division are both reactive.
The way in which major crimes are investigated has changed over time. 30 years ago, the head of Crime Division would have carried out every part of the investigation in a murder case himself, including interviewing key witnesses. However, this has now been transformed with the advent of computerised Major Investigation Rooms and concerns over handling complex, high-profile enquiries like the Stephen Lawrence case. In April 2000, the Major Investigation Team was set up to investigate homicides, abductions and extortion; each major investigation has a senior investigation officer, like the conductor of an orchestra, overseeing all the different parts of the investigations. The SIO works with a MIT and they are supported by the resources of Major Investigation Centralised Administrative Support. There are four MIT offices, at Harlow, Brentwood and Rayleigh; the sc
Saffron Walden is a market town in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England, 12 miles north of Bishop's Stortford, 18 miles south of Cambridge and 43 miles north of London. It retains some buildings of the medieval period; the 2001 parish population of 14,313 had risen to 15,504 by the 2011 census. Archaeological evidence suggests continuous settlement on or near the site of Saffron Walden from at least the Neolithic period, it is believed that a small Romano-British settlement and fort – in the area round Abbey Lane – existed as an outpost of the much larger settlement of Cestreforda to the north. After the Norman invasion of 1066, a stone church was built. Walden Castle, dating from about 1140, may have been built on pre-existing fortifications. A priory, Walden Abbey, was founded under the patronage of Geoffrey de Mandeville, first Earl of Essex about 1136, on the site of what is now Audley End village; the abbey was separated from Walden by Holywell Field. After the dissolution of the monasteries, Sir Thomas Audley converted its cloisters into a dwelling.
This became the site of Audley End House. The market was moved from nearby Newport to Saffron Walden during de Mandeville's tenure, increasing the town's influence; this Tuesday market was held from 1295. The town’s first charter was granted in about 1300, to what was known as Chepyng Walden; the town at that time was confined to the castle's outer bailey, but in the 13th century the Battle or Repel Ditches were built or extended to enclose a larger area to the south. The focus of the town moved southwards to Market Square; the main trading item in medieval times was wool, a guild hall was built by the wool-staplers in the market place. This was demolished in 1847 to make way for a corn exchange. In the 16th–17th centuries the saffron crocus was grown, thanks to the town's favourable soil and climate; the flower was valuable, as the extract from the stigmas was used in medicines, as a condiment, in perfume, as an aphrodisiac, as an expensive yellow dye. The industry gave Walden its name; the town and surrounding area, like much of East Anglia, was Puritan during the 17th century.
The population was influenced by the missionary John Eliot. By 1640, Samuel Bass's family and a number of others had departed for the Massachusetts Bay Colony as part of the Great Migration. Saffron Walden was at the centre of the Eastern Association during the English Civil War. While the town was the headquarters of the New Model Army, Lieutenant-General of Horse, Oliver Cromwell paid a 19-day visit in May 1647, taking part in debates to seek a settlement between Parliament and the army, he is thought to have stayed at the Sun Inn. By the end of the 18th century saffron was no longer in demand and the industry was replaced by malt and barley. More than 40 maltings stood in the town by the end of the century; the trade was less lucrative than saffron, but the town continued to grow through the 19th century, had a cattle market, corn exchange and other civic buildings. During this time Quakers became economically active in the area; the influential Gibsons – one of the founding families of Barclays Bank – aided the construction of several public buildings that remain today, such as the museum and town hall.
In the 1900s the Saffron Walden branch railway line from Audley End station, on the mainline from London to Cambridge, was extended to Bartlow. The branch succumbed to the Beeching cuts in the 1960s. Heavy industry arrived after the Second World War. Acrows Ltd, makers of falsework, built premises to the east of the town and became a significant employer and economic influence in the area. For a short time there was a dedicated railway station for the works known as Acrow Halt. Light industry was added to the south of the town at Shire Hill; as the agricultural economy continued to mechanise, the new employment opportunities were welcome and migration into the town from surrounding villages led to a major expansion of housing estates in the 1970s and 1980s. Saffron Walden's unofficial coat of arms showed the saffron crocus within the walls of the castle in the form of an heraldic pun – as in, "Saffron walled-in". In 1961, a formal coat of arms was granted by the College of Arms and this was adapted in 1974 into its current form.
The town has three ceremonial maces. The large mace was given to Saffron Walden by James II in 1685 and provides an early recording of the unofficial coat of arms. Made of silver gilt, it is 4 feet long. Two smaller silver maces were bought by the corporation in 1549 to commemorate the granting of a new town charter by Edward VI; this purchase is recorded in the town's Guild of Holy Trinity accounts and reads, "For 2 new maces, weying 18 ownces one quarter and half at 8s. The ownce 7l.7s". The 12th-century Walden Castle, built or expanded by Geoffrey de Mandeville, the first Earl of Essex, is in ruins. After the medieval period, the castle fell into disuse and much of the flint was taken and used in the construction of local houses and the wall surrounding the Audley End estate. All that remains is the ruined basement. Near to the castle is a turf maze, a series of circular excavations cut into the turf of the common, it is the largest example of this style of maze in England, the main part is about 100 feet in diameter.
The earliest record of it dates from 1699. It has been extensively restored several times, most in 1979; the oldest inhabited building in the town is believed to be the former maltings at 1 Myddleton Place. The 15th-century building with a courtyard garden was used by the Youth Hostel Association from 1947 to 2010, it is now used for functions. Pevsner described it as: "without doubt, the best medieval house of S
Shalford is a village and civil parish in the Braintree district of Essex, England. The village is 4 miles north from Braintree on the B1057 road; the parish includes the hamlets of Church End, Jasper's Green, Shalford Green. The village has a primary school, a village hall, a 14th-century pub. At the southern end of the village is Stoneley Park, constructed in 1997 from an infilled sand pit and where trees were planted by local residents; the Tour de France cycle race passed through Shalford on the third and final day of its visit to England, on Monday 7 July 2014, en route from Cambridge to London. The Hundred Parishes Media related to Shalford at Wikimedia Commons Shalford Parish Council
Duck End Mill, Finchingfield
Duck End Mill, Letch's Mill or Finchingfield Post Mill is a grade II listed Post mill at Finchingfield, England, restored. Duck End Mill was built in the mid eighteenth century, dates of 1756, 1760 1773 and 1777 being recorded in the mill, it was built as an open trestle mill, the roundhouse being added in 1840. The mill was insured for £50 in 1790 and £100 in 1794; the mill was working. 1890, had an all wood windshaft to the last. This was replaced by the cast iron one from Toppesfield in the 1950s. A replacement wooden windshaft has since been fitted. Duck End Mill is a post mill with a single storey roundhouse; the mill is winded by a tailpole. It has four Spring sails. There was one pair of millstones, driven by an 8 feet 8 inches Brake Wheel; the body of the mill measures 16 feet 6 inches by 10 feet in plan. Samuel Stammers 1790 - 1807 Edward Stammers 1807 - 1817 Edward Letch 1817 - 1852 Edward Letch Jr 1852 - Andrew Luke Letch -1890References for above:- The mill is open to the public on the one Sunday of each month in the summer.
Essex Country Parks webpage on Finchingfield Post Mill. Windmill World webpage on Duck End Mill