Finchley is a district of northwest London, England, in the London Borough of Barnet. Finchley is on 11 km north of Charing Cross, it formed an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, becoming a municipal borough in 1933, has been part of Greater London since 1965. It is predominantly a residential suburb, with three town centres: North Finchley, East Finchley and Finchley Church End. Made up of four wards, the population of Finchley counted 65,812 as of 2011. Finchley means "Finch's clearing" or "finches' clearing" in late Anglo-Saxon. Finchley is not recorded in Domesday Book, but by the 11th century its lands were held by the Bishop of London. In the early medieval period the area was sparsely populated woodland, whose inhabitants supplied pigs and fuel to London. Extensive cultivation began about the time of the Norman conquest. By the 15th and 16th centuries the woods on the eastern side of the parish had been cleared to form Finchley Common; the medieval Great North Road, which ran through the common, was notorious for highwaymen until the early 19th century.
St Mary-at-Finchley Church is first recorded in the 1270s. Near the northern gate to the Bishop of London's park, the hamlet of East End East Finchley, had begun to develop by 1365; the Edgware and London Railway reached Finchley in 1867. It ran from Finsbury Park via Finchley to Edgware; the branch from Finchley to High Barnet opened in 1872. In 1905 tram services were established in Finchley, extended shortly afterwards to Barnet, they were replaced by trolleybuses. In 1933, the Underground New Works Programme, to electrify the lines through Finchley, connect the Northern line from Archway to East Finchley, via a new tunnel was announced. Much of the work was carried out and East Finchley station was rebuilt, but the project was halted by the second world war. All passenger services from Finchley to Edgware ended in September 1939. Underground trains began running from central London to High Barnet in 1940, to Mill Hill East, to reach the army barracks, in 1941. After the war, the introduction of London's Metropolitan Green Belt undermined pre-war plans and the upgrading between Mill Hill East and Edgware was abandoned, although the line continued to be used by steam trains for goods traffic through Finchley, until 1964.
From around 1547 Finchley had a parish vestry, which became a local board in 1878, an urban district council in 1895, a municipal borough council between 1933–1965. The area is now part of the London Borough of Barnet. From 1959–1992 the Finchley constituency was represented in Parliament by Margaret Thatcher, UK Prime Minister from 1979–1990. Finchley is now included in the new constituency of Golders Green. In February 2010, the Green Party held its spring party conference at the artsdepot in North Finchley. Finchley is on a plateau, 90 metres above sea level 11 km north of Charing Cross and 6 km south of Barnet. To the west is the Dollis valley formed by Dollis Brook the natural western boundary of Finchley. Mutton Brook forms the southern boundary. Most of Finchley is on boulder clay or glacial moraine, skirted by a layer of gravel the underlying layer of London clay; this triangular gravel line was the most fertile area. The residential areas of West Finchley, in postcode district N3, Woodside Park, in postcode district N12, centre on their respective tube stations to the west of the area.
Between East Finchley and Finchley Central is Long Lane, which runs parallel to the tube line and is dotted with small shopping parades. The area of London known as'Finchley Road', around Finchley Road Underground station, is not part of Finchley, but instead refers to a district further south at Swiss Cottage, Camden; the area is named after a section of the A41 road, which runs north to Golders Green and continues to Henlys Corner on the North Circular Road and on to Finchley. According to the 2011 UK Census in Finchley Church End ward, 67% of the population was White, 8% Indian and 6% Other Asian; the largest religion was Judaism, claimed by 31% of the population, whereas Christians made up 28%. West Finchley ward was 61% White, 13% Indian and 8% Other Asian. St Mary's at Finchley is the parish church, with parts dating from the 13th century. College Farm is the last farm in Finchley; the Phoenix Cinema in East Finchley with its 1930s art deco façade is one of the oldest purpose-built cinemas in the United Kingdom.
The Sternberg Centre for Judaism in the old Manor House at 80 East End Road in Finchley is a Jewish cultural centre. It was founded to facilitate Reform and Liberal Jewish institutions, attached to the Movement for Reform Judaism; the Archer, on East Finchley tube station, is a 10-foot-tall statue by Eric Aumonier of a kneeling archer having just released an arrow. The statue La Déliv
Biliverdin reductase is an enzyme found in all tissues under normal conditions, but in reticulo-macrophages of the liver and spleen. BVR facilitates the conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin via the reduction of a double-bond between the second and third pyrrole ring into a single-bond. There are two isozymes, in humans, each encoded by its own gene, biliverdin reductase A and biliverdin reductase B. BVR acts on biliverdin by reducing its double-bond between the pyrrole rings into a single-bond, it accomplishes this forming bilirubin and NADP + as products. BVR catalyzes this reaction through an overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg185 as key residues; this binding site attaches to biliverdin, causes its dissociation from heme oxygenase, causing the subsequent reduction to bilirubin. BVR is composed of two packed domains, between 247-415 amino acids long and containing a Rossmann fold. BVR has been determined to be a zinc-binding protein with each enzyme protein having one strong-binding zinc atom.
The C-terminal half of BVR contains the catalytic domain, which adopts a structure containing a six-stranded beta-sheet, flanked on one face by several alpha-helices. This domain contains the catalytic active site, which reduces the gamma-methene bridge of the open tetrapyrrole, biliverdin IX alpha, to bilirubin with the concomitant oxidation of a NADH or NADPH cofactor. BVR works with the biliverdin/bilirubin redox cycle, it converts biliverdin to bilirubin, converted back into biliverdin through the actions of reactive oxygen species. This cycle allows for the neutralization of ROS, the reuse of biliverdin products. Biliverdin is replenished in the cycle with its formation from heme units through heme oxygenase localized from the endoplasmic reticulum. Bilirubin, being one of the last products of heme degradation in the liver, is further processed and excreted in bile after conjugation with glucuronic acid. In this way, BVR is essential in many mammals for the disposal of heme catabolites – in the fetus where the placental membranes are bilirubin-permeable but not biliverdin-permeable - aiding in the removal of toxic protein build-up.
BVR has more been recognized as a regulator of glucose metabolism and in cell growth and apoptosis control, due to its dual-specificity kinase character. This control over glucose metabolism indicates that BVR may play a role in pathogenesis of multiple metabolic diseases - the notable one being diabetes, by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. BVR acts as a means to regenerate bilirubin in a repeating redox cycle without modifying the concentration of available bilirubin. With these levels maintained, it appears that BVR represents a new strategy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other types of oxidative stress-mediated diseases; the mechanism is due to the amplification of the potent antioxidant actions of bilirubin, as this can ameliorate free radical-mediated diseases. Studies have shown. Genetic knock-outs and reduced BVR levels have demonstrated increased formation of ROS, results in augmented cell death.
Cells that experienced a 90% reduction in BVR experienced three times normal ROS levels. Through this protective and amplifying cycle, BVR allows low concentrations of bilirubin to overcome 10,000-fold higher concentrations of ROS. biliverdin+reductase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings
"'Cause I'm a Man" is a song by Australian musical project Tame Impala, released on 7 April 2015 as the second single from their third studio album Currents. The song peaked at number 80 on the ARIA Singles Chart. A music video for the song was uploaded on 21 May 2015 on the group's Vevo channel on YouTube. Kevin Parker described the song as being "about how weak men are and how we make all these excuses." In the song, Parker's vocals are clearer in the mix than in previous Tame Impala songs, an extension of his love of "that dreamy, silvery vocal sound." It was difficult for him. According to Parker, recording the song became obsessive, he recalled performing over 1,057 partial vocal takes for either "'Cause I'm a Man" or the album's fourth single, "The Less I Know the Better", though he could not recall which. The song courted controversy over its lyrics. Parker addressed this in an interview with Stereogum: Parker intended the song as tongue-in-cheek, noted that interpreting the song in such a way disappointed him.
The song debuted on Australia's Triple J on 5 April 2015, was released for digital download on 7 April 2015. A remix of the song by pop rock band Haim premiered on 6 August 2015. According to Billboard, Tame Impala asked Haim to remix the song, subsequently promoted the song via their social media accounts; the song has been noted as more of a cover version than a remix, Danielle Haim acknowledged this: "We've never done a "remix" before so we decided to put out our own spin on the song." Evan Minsker of Pitchfork gave it the site's "Best New Track" designation, praising the song's universal theme and R&B balladry: "It's a vulnerable song—one with regret, but affection." Ryan Reed at Billboard gave it four stars out of five, praising the song as a "soulful single" spread over "four gorgeous minutes." The Arizona Republic ranked the song number seven on its list of the top 30 songs of 2015. The song received two music videos; the first "official" music video for the song, lasting four minutes and four seconds, was uploaded on 21 May 2015 to the group's Vevo channel on YouTube.
The video is a 3D animation centered on a man with no face and his events in life involving work, "the ultimate pitfalls of life", as stated by AXS TV. It was directed by Nicky Smith; the second, directed by Dan Dipaola and Megan McShane, features puppet versions of Tame Impala performing the song, was released on 28 May. In June, Feltworth, a puppet band connected with the Canadian group Sloan, released a clip wherein its members debate the merits of the second clip. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics First music video on YouTube Second music video on YouTube