Transport for London
Transport for London is a local government body responsible for the transport system in Greater London, England. Its head office is in Windsor House in the City of Westminster, the underlying services are provided by a mixture of wholly owned subsidiary companies, by private sector franchisees and by licensees. In 2015-16, TfL had a budget of £11.5 billion, the rest comes from government funding, other income and Crossrail funding. On 21 January 2016, it was announced that the responsibility for franchising all of Londons inner suburban services would be transferred from the DfT to TfL. This transfer will take place as current franchises fall due for renewal, TfL was created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. It gained most of its functions from its predecessor London Regional Transport in 2000, the first Commissioner of TfL was Bob Kiley. The first Chair was then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, and the first Deputy Chair was Dave Wetzel and Wetzel remained in office until the election of Boris Johnson as Mayor in 2008.
Johnson took over as Chairman, and in February 2009 fellow-Conservative Daniel Moylan was appointed as his Deputy, TfL did not take over responsibility for the London Underground until 2003, after the controversial Public-private partnership contract for maintenance had been agreed. Management of the Public Carriage Office had previously been a function of the Metropolitan Police, Transport for London Group Archives holds business records for TfL and its predecessor bodies and transport companies. Some early records are held on behalf of TfL Group Archives at the London Metropolitan Archives. After the bombings on the underground and bus systems on 7 July 2005 and they helped survivors out, removed bodies, and got the transport system up and running, to get the millions of commuters back out of London at the end of the work day. Those mentioned include Peter Hendy, who was at the time Head of Surface Transport division, and Tim OToole, head of the Underground division, carrying open containers of alcohol was banned on public transport operated by TfL.
The Mayor of London and TfL announced the ban with the intention of providing a safer, there were Last Round on the Underground parties on the night before the ban came into force. Passengers refusing to observe the ban may be refused travel and asked to leave the premises, the Greater London Authority reported in 2011 that assaults on London Underground staff had fallen by 15% since the introduction of the ban. In an effort to reduce sexual offences and increase reporting, TfL—in conjunction with the British Transport Police, Metropolitan Police Service, TfL is controlled by a board whose members are appointed by the Mayor of London, a position held by Sadiq Khan since May 2016. The Commissioner of Transport for London reports to the Board and leads a management team with individual functional responsibilities, the body is organised in three main directorates and corporate services, each with responsibility for different aspects and modes of transport. This network is sub-divided into three service units, BCV, Central and Waterloo & City lines.
JNP, Jubilee and Piccadilly lines, SSL, District and Hammersmith & City lines
Finchley Road, an inner city main road which runs for about 7 kilometres, is one of the major thoroughfares of north London, England. Originally named Finchley New Road, it was built as a road in the late 1820s/early 1830s to provide a by-pass to the existing route north from London through Hampstead. The Hampstead route contained two steep hills either side of Hampstead Village and was difficult for horses carriages to negotiate when muddy. The new turnpike was built at the time as the improvements which created Regents Park. It started from what was called the New Road and ran north. As the road crossed the boundary of Finchley, its name became Regents Park Road, the turnpike ended when it joined the Great North Road as Ballards Lane. There was a tollgate at Childs Hill, after construction, many grand houses were built along its length, especially near to what are now Fortune Green, Childs Hill and Golders Green. It was once served by Finchley Road railway station on the Midland Main Line and it is still served by Finchley Road tube station and Finchley Road & Frognal railway station on the North London Line.
Today the route follows the A41 which becomes Finchley Road at St. Johns Wood tube station and it goes north through Swiss Cottage, turns slightly north west, forming the border between Hampstead and West Hampstead and turns north again at Childs Hill. The A41 diverges westward and Finchley Road becomes the A598 and it continues past Golders Green tube station, through Temple Fortune to the North Circular Road, crossing it at Henlys Corner. The A598 continues north of the North Circular Road into Finchley and it remains a heavily used route in and out of London. The most commercial part of the road is between Swiss Cottage tube station and the O2 Centre
North London is the northern part of London, England. It is a description and the area it covers is defined differently for a range of purposes. Common to these definitions is that it includes districts north of the River Thames and is used in comparison with south London, however, it is often used in comparisons with central London, east London and west London. The River Thames divides Greater London into two parts, the northern part includes most of the historic central areas including the City, the East End and the West End, and the majority of the London Underground network. This definition is used by the Boundary Commission for England, the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames includes sections on both sides of the River Thames. The boundary commission class the entire district as part of South London, for the purposes of the London Plan, there has been a north London subregion in operation since 2004, originally consisting of Barnet, Enfield and Waltham Forest. In 2001 this area had a population of 1,042,000 and this definition is used by organisations such as Connexions.
In 2008 it was amended to consists of Barnet, Enfield, Haringey, Islington, in 2011 it was amended again to consist Barnet and Haringey. This list includes all boroughs included in the Boundary Commission area, north London has, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Four Met Office weather stations collect climate data for London north of the river, Heathrow, Northolt. Long term climate observations dating back to 1910 are available for Hampstead and this both hilltop and urban position means severe frosts are rare. Occasionally snow can be seen to lie towards the Chilterns while central London is snow-free, typically the warmest day of the year at Hampstead will average 29.3 °C with around 14 days in total achieving a value of 25.1 °C or higher. The average coldest night should fall to −5.6 °C, on average 35.8 nights will report an air frost, some 119 days of the year will register at least 1mm of precipitation, and on 7.4 days a cover of snow will be observed.
All annual averages refer to the observation period 1971–2000, north London v South London - The debate. North London v South London - The debate
Stratford is a major multilevel interchange station serving the district of Stratford and the mixed-use development of Stratford City in the London Borough of Newham, Greater London. On the Underground it is a through-station on the Central line between Mile End and Leyton, and it is the terminus of the Jubilee line following West Ham. On the DLR it is a terminus for trains and for others it is a through-station between Stratford High Street and Stratford International. There are limited services operated by c2c between Liverpool Street and Shoeburyness via the London and Southend Railway. From 2019 the full Crossrail service will replace TfL Rail, linking Stratford to other stations in central London as well as Reading, the station was opened in 1839 by the Eastern Counties Railway. Today it is owned by Network Rail and is situated in Travelcard zone 2/3, Stratford served as a key travel hub for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games held in London. By the most recent National Rail entry and exit figures, it is the 6th busiest station in Britain, the Northern and Eastern Railway opened a section of its authorised line from Broxbourne to join the ECR at Stratford on 15 September 1840.
As well as a station, a railway works was built adjacent to the line to Broxbourne and this and the engine shed expanded into the area to the west of the station which is now occupied by a shopping centre and Stratford International station. The ECR tracks were set to a gauge of 5 ft on the recommendation of engineer John Braithwaite. This choice meant that the Northern & Eastern Railway who were planning to share the ECR line between Stratford and Bishopsgate were forced to adopt the same gauge, at the same time the associated Northern & Eastern Railway was converted. New station buildings were built in 1847 replacing the structure on Angel Road. These were located in the V between the Cambridge and Colchester lines and access was via Station Road, the line through the low level platforms first opened in 1846 as a goods only branch as far as Thames Wharf. The bridge under the line was too low for many locomotives. On opening there was a line that linked what is now known as the Great Eastern Main Line directly to the docks enabling through running from Colchester to Thames Wharf, the docks and associated railway networks expanded with passenger services to North Woolwich starting in 1847.
There was an accident at Stratford station on 18 July 1846 when an up train ran into the back of a passenger train from Ipswich. There were 10 passengers seriously injured one of whom died, in 1854 the newly opened London Tilbury and Southend Railway served Stratford joining the main line at Forest Gate Junction a few miles north. Their services generally served Fenchurch Street and were routed via the Bow Road route although some carriages were detached at Stratford for onward working to Bishopsgate and this practice was discontinued in 1856 as passengers preferred the more conveniently sited Fenchurch Street. In connection with the introduction of the new LTSR services a third line was built from Stratford to Bow Junction which was used by down Fenchurch Street services and a new platform face opened
Finchley Road & Frognal railway station
Finchley Road & Frognal railway station is on Finchley Road in the London Borough of Camden in north London. It is on the North London Line, and the station and it is in Travelcard Zone 2. The station is five minutes walk from Finchley Road tube station. The typical service at the station in trains per hour is,4 westbound to Richmond via Willesden,6 eastbound to Stratford via Camden Road and Hackney. No direct trains run to/from Clapham Junction in the late evening. The last westbound service terminates at Willesden Junction Low Level, London Buses routes 13 and 113 and night route N113 serve the station. Train times and station information for Finchley Road & Frognal railway station from National Rail
Aldgate tube station
Aldgate is a London Underground station which serves the Aldgate area on the eastern edge of the City of London. It is situated within the City ward of Portsoken, which neighbours the Aldgate ward, the station is on the Circle line between Tower Hill and Liverpool Street, and it is the eastern terminus of the Metropolitan line. It is in Travelcard Zone 1, Aldgate was opened in 1876 with its entrance on Aldgate High Street. A station named Aldgate East opened nearby eight years and is served today by the District, construction was complicated because the station was on the site of a plague pit which contains an estimated 1,000 bodies. Aldgate station was opened on 18 November 1876, with an extension to Tower Hill opening on 25 September 1882. Services from Aldgate originally ran further west than they do now, reaching as far as Richmond and it became the terminus of the Metropolitan line in 1941. Before that, Metropolitan trains had continued on to the termini of the East London Line. In 2005, one of four suicide bombers involved in the 7 July terrorist attacks detonated a device on a C-stock Circle line train from Liverpool Street and was approaching Aldgate, seven passengers were killed in the bombing.
Of the stations affected by the bombings, Aldgate was the first to be reopened, once the damaged tunnel was repaired by Metronet engineers, the lines were reopened. This allowed the Metropolitan line to be restored, since the closure had meant all trains had to be terminated two stations early, at Moorgate. On the Circle line the typical off-peak service measured in trains per hour is,6 tph clockwise to Edgware Road via Embankment,6 tph anti-clockwise to Hammersmith via Kings Cross St. Pancras. On the Metropolitan line the typical service in trains per hour is,2 tph northbound to Amersham,2 tph northbound to Chesham,8 tph northbound to Uxbridge. During peak hours there are additional fast and semi-fast Metropolitan line services, with following the route to. London Buses routes 25,40,42,67,78,100,115,135,205 and 254, bus route 25 has a 24-hour bus service. Aldgate station plays a role in the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans, in the story, the body of a junior clerk named Cadogan West is found on the tracks outside Aldgate, with a number of stolen plans for the Bruce-Partington submarine in his pocket.
It seems clear enough that the man, dead or alive, but why, wonders Holmes, did the dead man not have a ticket. It turns out that the body was placed on top of a carriage before it reached Aldgate. Holmes realises that the fell off the carriage roof only when the train was jolted by the dense concentration of points at Aldgate
The Jubilee line is a London Underground line. Opened in 1979, it is the newest line on the network, although sections of track date back to 1932. The stations are larger and have special safety features, both aspects being attempts to future-proof the line, the Jubilee line is coloured silver/grey on the Tube map, to mark the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II after which the line was named. Between Finchley Road and Wembley Park, the Jubilee line shares its route with the Metropolitan line, between Canning Town and Stratford, the line runs parallel to the Stratford International branch of the Docklands Light Railway. In 1932, the Metropolitan Railway built a branch from its line at Wembley Park to Stanmore. The line, as many others in the northwest London area, was designed to absorb commuter traffic from the new. At first, the Metropolitan had advocated a new line roughly following the line of the Edgware Road between the tube station and a point near Willesden Green. Indeed, construction advanced as far as the rebuilding of Edgware Road station to accommodate 4 platforms of 8-car length, things changed, with the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board and the subsequent absorption of the Metropolitan.
The solution was now a new branch of the Bakerloo line from Baker Street to serve new stations at St, the new line rose between the Metropolitan tracks at Finchley Road, providing cross-platform interchange with the Metropolitan line. At Wembley Park, the new Bakerloo would run on to serve Kingsbury, Canons Park and Stanmore, the Bakerloo extension, built as above, opened in 1939. The planning for the Tube network immediately before and after World War II considered several new routes, Line C opened as the Victoria line, in stages, from 1968 to 1972. Work on the northeast–southwest route continued, the new line was to have been called the Fleet line after the River Fleet. In 1971, construction began on the new Fleet line, economic pressure and doubt over the final destination of the line had led to a staged approach. Under the first stage, the Baker Street-to-Stanmore branch of the Bakerloo line was joined at Baker Street to a new 2, the new tube was to offer cross-platform interchange between the Bakerloo and Fleet at Baker Street, as pioneered on the Victoria line.
The work was completed in 1979, as part of the works, Trafalgar Square and Strand stations were combined into a single station complex, Charing Cross. The existing Charing Cross station on the sub-surface District and Circle lines was renamed Embankment, another part of the works included a section of test tunnel, built near New Cross. When the planned route was altered, this section was abandoned as it was effectively useless. However, this idea was rejected because of the costs involved
The Bakerloo line /ˌbeɪkərˈluː/ is a line of the London Underground, coloured brown on the Tube map. It runs partly on the surface and partly at deep level, from Elephant and Castle in Central London, via the West End, the line serves 25 stations, of which 15 are below ground. It was so named because it serves Baker Street and Waterloo, North of Queens Park, the line shares tracks with London Overgrounds Watford DC Line and runs parallel to the West Coast Main Line. It is the ninth busiest line on the network, carrying over 111 million passengers annually, for a detailed history of the line, see Baker Street and Waterloo Railway. The route had its origins in the projects of the pneumatic 1865 Waterloo and Whitehall Railway. It was extended to Elephant & Castle five months later, on 5 August, the contraction of the name to Bakerloo rapidly caught on, and the official name was changed to match in July 1906. As a result, work on the line was stopped for a few months and did not resume until Charles Yerkes and UERL stepped in, in 1915 the line was extended to Queens Park, where it joined the LNWRs Euston-Watford DC line to Watford Junction.
Bakerloo services to Watford Junction were reduced in the 1960s and cut back in 1982 to Stonebridge Park, services as far as Harrow & Wealdstone were gradually restored from 1984, and in 1989 the present all-day service was instituted. By the mid-1930s, the Metropolitan line was suffering from congestion caused by the capacity of its tracks between Baker Street and Finchley Road stations. The Bakerloo line took over the Metropolitan lines service to Stanmore on 20 November 1939, a projected extension as far as Camberwell was shown on a 1949 edition of the Underground map but no further work was done. The train describers at Warwick Avenue station showed Camberwell as a destination until the 1990s, one oddity is that, almost from its opening until 1917, the Bakerloo operated with the polarity of the conductor rails reversed, the outside rail negative and the centre rail positive. This came about because the Bakerloo shared a power source with the District Railway, on the Bakerloo, the outside conductor rail tended to leak to the tunnel wall, whereas on the District Railway, the centre rail shared a similar problem.
The solution was to reverse the polarity on the Bakerloo line, in 1917, the two lines were separated when the LNWR began its New Line service between Euston and Watford Junction, which the Bakerloo would share north of Queens Park. As a result, normal operation was restored, the line celebrated its centenary on 10 March 2006, when various events were organised on the line. This was in conjunction with the reorganisation of a number of north London railways under London Overground, under a former London Plan it was projected that by 2026 the Bakerloo line would be re-extended from Harrow & Wealdstone to Watford Junction, restoring the pre-1982 service. The railway line from Queens Park to Watford Junction, currently shared with London Overground, the 1949 extension to Camberwell proposal was resurrected in 2006 when the London Mayor, Ken Livingstone, suggested that an extension was being considered within 20 years. However, there are no firm commitments to this extension and it remains at the proposal stage, tfLs Transport T2025 - Transport Vision for a growing world city investment programme identifies the ambition to separate the present Northern line into two self-contained lines by 2025.
In this scenario, an extension to the Bakerloo line would no longer be required, in its July 2011 London & South East Route Utilisation Strategy, Network Rail recommended extending the Bakerloo line from Elephant & Castle to Lewisham and taking over the Hayes Line
Baker Street tube station
Baker Street is a station on the London Underground at the junction of Baker Street and the Marylebone Road. The station is in Travelcard Zone 1 and is served by five different lines and it is one of the original stations of the Metropolitan Railway, the worlds first underground railway, opened in 1863. On the Circle and Hammersmith & City lines it is between Great Portland Street and Edgware Road, on the Metropolitan line it is between Great Portland Street and Finchley Road. On the Bakerloo line it is between Regents Park and Marylebone, and on the Jubilee line it is between Bond Street and St. Johns Wood, the station has entrances on Baker Street, Chiltern Street and Marylebone Road. Nearby attractions include Regents Park, Lords Cricket Ground, the Sherlock Holmes Museum, the station layout is rather complex. The sub-surface station is connected to the open-air Metropolitan line station, below this is a deep-level tube station for the Bakerloo and Jubilee lines. These are arranged in a cross-platform interchange layout and there are connections between the two lines just to the north of the station, access to the Bakerloo and Jubilee lines is only via escalators.
With ten platforms overall, Baker Street has the most London Underground platforms of any station on the network, of the MRs original stations, now the Circle and Hammersmith & City line platforms five and six are the best preserved dating from the stations opening in 1863. Plaques of the Metropolitan Railways coat of arms along the platform and old plans and photographs depict the station which has changed little in over a hundred. Restoration work in the 1980s on the oldest portions of Baker Street station brought it back to something similar to its 1863 appearance. The Metropolitan lines platforms one to four were largely the result of the rebuild in the 1920s to cater for the increase in traffic on its outer suburban routes. All Metropolitan line platforms can function as terminating tracks however under normal circumstance only dead ended platforms one, the Bakerloo line uses platforms eight and nine date from 10th March 1906 when the Baker Street & Waterloo railway opened between here and Lambeth North.
The contraction of the name to Bakerloo rapidly caught on, by the mid-1930s, the Metropolitan line was suffering from congestion caused by the limited capacity of its tracks between Baker Street and Finchley Road stations. The Bakerloo line took over the Metropolitan lines service to Stanmore on 20 November 1939, following refurbishment in the 1980s the original tiling scheme was replaced with tiles depicting the silhouette of Sherlock Holmes who lived at 221B, Baker Street. In 1999 the Jubilee line was extended from Green Park to Stratford, the design of the Jubilee line platforms at Baker Street has changed little since being opened with illustrations depicting famous scenes from Sherlock Holmes cases. Cross platform interchange is provided between Bakerloo and Jubilee lines in both directions, in 2008 TfL proposed a project to provide step-free access to the sub-surface platforms. The project was a TfL-funded Games-enabling project in its investment programme, the project was included in the strategy on accessible transport published by the London 2012 Olympic Delivery Authority and the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
Access to the Metropolitan line platforms 1–4 would be provided by a bridge from the Bakerloo and Jubilee line ticket hall, through a passage from platforms 1–2, this would give step-free access to platform 5
Its first line connected the main-line railway termini at Paddington and Kings Cross to the City. It opened to the public on 10 January 1863 with gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, the line was soon extended from both ends, and northwards via a branch from Baker Street. Harrow was reached in 1880, and the line extended to Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street. Electric traction was introduced in 1905 and by 1907 electric multiple units operated most of the services, unlike other railway companies in the London area, the Met developed land for housing, and after World War I promoted housing estates near the railway using the Metro-land brand. On 1 July 1933, the Met was amalgamated with the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, former Met tracks and stations are used by the London Undergrounds Metropolitan, District, Hammersmith & City and Jubilee lines, and by Chiltern Railways. In the first half of the 19th century the population and physical extent of London grew greatly, only Fenchurch Street station was within the City.
The congested streets and the distance to the City from the stations to the north, none were successful, and the 1846 Royal Commission investigation into Metropolitan Railway Termini banned construction of new lines or stations in the built-up central area. The concept of a railway linking the City with the mainline termini was first proposed in the 1830s. Charles Pearson, Solicitor to the City, was a promoter of several schemes. The scheme was rejected by the 1846 commission, but Pearson returned to the idea in 1852 when he helped set up the City Terminus Company to build a railway from Farringdon to Kings Cross. Although the plan was supported by the City, the companies were not interested. The Bayswater and Holborn Bridge Railway Company was established to connect the Great Western Railways Paddington station to Pearsons route at Kings Cross, a bill was published in November 1852 and in January 1853 the directors held their first meeting and appointed John Fowler as its engineer. After successful lobbying, the company secured parliamentary approval under the name of the North Metropolitan Railway in the summer of 1853 and this dropped the City terminus and extended the route south from Farringdon to the General Post Office in St.
Martins Le Grand. The route at the end was altered so that it connected more directly to the GWR station. Permission was sought to connect to the London and North Western Railway at Euston and to the Great Northern Railway at Kings Cross, the companys name was to be changed again, to Metropolitan Railway. Royal assent was granted to the North Metropolitan Railway Act on 7 August 1854, construction of the railway was estimated to cost £1 million. Initially, with the Crimean War under way, the Met found it hard to raise the capital, while it attempted to raise the funds it presented new bills to Parliament seeking an extension of time to carry out the works. In July 1855, an Act to make a connection to the GNR at Kings Cross received royal assent
The home counties are the counties of England that surround London. The counties generally included in the list are Berkshire, Essex, Kent, the origin of the term home counties is unknown and no exact definition exists, making their composition a matter of constant debate. The earliest use of the term cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1695, the term is sometimes understood to mean those counties which, on their borders closest to London, have been partly subsumed into London. Indeed, the county of Middlesex has been almost wholly within London since 1965 as have parts of Hertfordshire and Surrey. The third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as the English counties surrounding London and they comprise chiefly Essex, Kent and Hertfordshire. Parts of all of historic counties are, since 1965, officially within London. An additional theory is that the derived from the Home Circuit of the courts of Assize which contained Hertfordshire, Kent, Sussex. The Home counties were described by one 1987 reference book as being inhabited on the whole by nice, comfortable, in fiction and Jerry Leadbetter of the television sitcom The Good Life, set in Surbiton, represent a typical home counties suburban couple.
The home counties as a whole are more prosperous than other parts of the United Kingdom. The towns of Amersham, Gerrards Cross and Beaconsfield, all in Buckinghamshire, were ranked as the top three most expensive in the country in one 2008 survey of average house prices. The area is so large, that it includes a number of areas of deprivation such as Margate, Hastings. Multiple definitions of the term have been used in legislation and by official bodies, in the twentieth century, for instance, as follows,1908, The Home Counties Division of the Territorial Force comprised units recruiting in Middlesex, Kent and Sussex. 1920, The London and Home Counties Electricity District consisted of the counties of London and Middlesex,1924, The London and Home Counties Traffic Advisory Committee, covering the London Traffic Area, London and parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Surrey. 1926, The Home Counties Licensing Act regulated activities in all parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Kent,1938, Green Belt Act limited development in parts of Middlesex, Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire.
1948, The Home Counties Brigade was formed to administer the regiments of the City and County of London, Middlesex, Surrey. London commuter belt Metro-land The Association of British Counties
World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System is a standard for use in cartography and navigation including GPS. It comprises a standard system for the Earth, a standard spheroidal reference surface for raw altitude data. The latest revision is WGS84, established in 1984 and last revised in 2004, earlier schemes included WGS72, WGS66, and WGS60. WGS84 is the coordinate system used by the Global Positioning System. The coordinate origin of WGS84 is meant to be located at the Earths center of mass, the error is believed to be less than 2 cm. The WGS84 meridian of longitude is the IERS Reference Meridian,5.31 arc seconds or 102.5 metres east of the Greenwich meridian at the latitude of the Royal Observatory. The WGS84 datum surface is a spheroid with major radius a =6378137 m at the equator. The polar semi-minor axis b equals a times, or 6356752.3142 m, currently, WGS84 uses the EGM96 geoid, revised in 2004. This geoid defines the sea level surface by means of a spherical harmonics series of degree 360. The deviations of the EGM96 geoid from the WGS84 reference ellipsoid range from about −105 m to about +85 m, EGM96 differs from the original WGS84 geoid, referred to as EGM84.
Efforts to supplement the national surveying systems began in the 19th century with F. R. Helmerts famous book Mathematische und Physikalische Theorien der Physikalischen Geodäsie. Austria and Germany founded the Zentralbüro für die Internationale Erdmessung, a unified geodetic system for the whole world became essential in the 1950s for several reasons, International space science and the beginning of astronautics. The lack of inter-continental geodetic information, efforts of the U. S. Army and Air Force were combined leading to the DoD World Geodetic System 1960. Heritage surveying methods found elevation differences from a local horizontal determined by the level, plumb line. As a result, the elevations in the data are referenced to the geoid, the latter observational method is more suitable for global mapping. The sole contribution of data to the development of WGS60 was a value for the ellipsoid flattening which was obtained from the nodal motion of a satellite. Prior to WGS60, the U. S.
Army, the Army performed an adjustment to minimize the difference between astro-geodetic and gravimetric geoids. By matching the relative astro-geodetic geoids of the selected datums with an earth-centered gravimetric geoid, since the Army and Air Force systems agreed remarkably well for the NAD, ED and TD areas, they were consolidated and became WGS60