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Finding Your Roots

Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates, Jr. is a documentary television series hosted by Henry Louis Gates Jr. that premiered on March 25, 2012 on PBS. In each episode, celebrities are presented with a "book of life", compiled with information researched by professional genealogists that allows them to view their ancestral histories, learn about familial connections and discover secrets about their lineage. Season Six is shown from October 2019 to October 2020 with two new episodes premiering in October 2019, eight episodes premiering in January 2020, six episodes premiering in October 2020; the series uses traditional genealogical research and genetics to discover the family history of well-known Americans. Genetic techniques include Y-chromosome DNA, mitochondrial DNA, autosomal DNA analyses to infer both ancient and recent genetic relationships; the series has examined the family histories of celebrity guests with African American, Asian American, British American, Chinese American, Dutch American, Greek American, Indian American, Irish American, Italian American, Jewish American, Latin American heritage.

Each celebrity guest is given a book of life which contains all of the information discovered about the guest's genealogy by researchers. Included in or with the book are comprehensive genetic results, a family tree, as complete as paper research allows, copies of historical records used to assemble each tree, photos of newly found family members. In some episodes episodes in which original DNA profiling research must be used to establish a past ancestor's parental link, guests are reunited with long-lost relatives. However, in most episodes, each guest is predominantly shown seated opposite Gates as he guides them through their book of life. To show correlations between the guests' family stories, each episode cuts back and forth between two or three guest stories. To draw further correlations, Gates uses examples from his own genealogy quite frequently. Examples of this would be a grandmother of his having multiple children with a white man whose name she never revealed, as well as Gates' membership into the Sons of the American Revolution.

In addition to celebrity guests, everyday people are sometimes featured in an episode to create a third or fourth story line. The non-celebrity guests are a group of peers. One example of this would be the episode in which Gates has his friends at his local barbershop take a DNA test to determine their ethnic makeup, each friend betting on their percentages of African and Native American genetic heritage. Another episode uses a similar guessing game with students at a local school. Singular secondary guests include Robert Downey Sr. and Margarett Cooper, the latter being a friend of Gates'. The series has seen two past incarnations on PBS. In 2006 and 2008 the series African American Lives aired. Both seasons of the series consisted of a season-long story line as well as an all African American cast. In 2010 Faces of America aired. Though it continued to use the season-long plot from the prior installment, it was the first installment to be hosted by Gates which included Americans of all ethnic and racial backgrounds.

Starting with Finding Your Roots in 2012, the series redirected from a season-long plot to having plots extending only within a single episode. In doing so it has allowed the series to extend its number of episodes each season to ten, opposed to the prior four episodes a season; the series is in production on season five. The show's third season was postponed by WNET after it was discovered that actor Ben Affleck had persuaded Gates to omit information about his slave-owning ancestors; the series returned on January 5, 2016, although "Roots of Freedom", the second-season episode featuring Affleck, was pulled from all forms of distribution by PBS. PBS America, a U. K. TV channel featuring content from PBS in the U. S. continues to feature three clips from the withdrawn episode on their YouTube channel. Main Article: List of Finding Your Roots episodes Cal Thomas of The Baltimore Sun wrote, "The most compelling television you will see." African American Lives Ancestors in the Attic Faces of America Who Do You Think You Are?

Official website Finding Your Roots on IMDb

Apache Parquet

Apache Parquet is a free and open-source column-oriented data storage format of the Apache Hadoop ecosystem. It is similar to the other columnar-storage file formats available in Hadoop namely RCFile and ORC, it is compatible with most of the data processing frameworks in the Hadoop environment. It provides efficient data compression and encoding schemes with enhanced performance to handle complex data in bulk; the open-source project to build Apache Parquet began as a joint effort between Twitter and Cloudera. Parquet was designed as an improvement upon the Trevni columnar storage format created by Hadoop creator Doug Cutting; the first version—Apache Parquet 1.0—was released in July 2013. Since April 27, 2015, Apache Parquet is a top-level Apache Software Foundation -sponsored project. Apache Parquet is implemented using the record-shredding and assembly algorithm, which accommodates the complex data structures that can be used to store the data; the values in each column are physically stored in contiguous memory locations and this columnar storage provides the following benefits: Column-wise compression is efficient and saves storage space Compression techniques specific to a type can be applied as the column values tend to be of the same type Queries that fetch specific column values need not read the entire row data thus improving performance Different encoding techniques can be applied to different columnsMoreover, Apache Parquet is implemented using the Apache Thrift framework which increases its flexibility.

As of August 2015, Parquet supports the big-data-processing frameworks including Apache Hive, Apache Drill, Apache Impala, Apache Crunch, Apache Pig, Cascading and Apache Spark. In Parquet, compression is performed column by column, which enables different encoding schemes to be used for text and integer data; this strategy keeps the door open for newer and better encoding schemes to be implemented as they are invented. Parquet has an automatic dictionary encoding enabled dynamically for data with a small number of unique values that enables significant compression and boosts processing speed. Storage of integers is done with dedicated 32 or 64 bits per integer. For small integers, packing multiple integers into the same space makes storage more efficient. To optimize storage of multiple occurrences of the same value, a single value is stored once along with the number of occurrences. Parquet implements a hybrid of bit packing and RLE, in which the encoding switches based on which produces the best compression results.

This strategy works well for certain types of integer data and combines well with dictionary encoding. Apache Parquet is comparable to RCFile and Optimized Row Columnar file formats---all three fall under the category of columnar data storage within the Hadoop ecosystem, they all have better compression and encoding with improved read performance at the cost of slower writes. In addition to these features, Apache Parquet supports limited schema evolution, i.e. the schema can be modified according to the changes in the data. It provides the ability to add new columns and merge schemas that don't conflict. Pig Apache Hive Apache Impala Apache Drill Apache Kudu Apache Spark Apache Thrift Presto Official website Dremel paper How to Be a Hero with Powerful Apache Parquet and Amazon

2002–03 National Division Two

The 2002–03 National Division Two was the third version of the third division of the English domestic rugby union competition using the name National Division Two. New teams to the division included Henley Hawks and Bracknell who were relegated from the 2001–02 National Division One while promoted teams included Doncaster who were champions of the 2001–02 National Division Three North as well as Cornish teams Penzance & Newlyn and Launceston who came up from the 2001–02 National Division Three South; the league points system was 1 point for a draw. Penzance & Newlyn finished the season as champions with Henley Hawks six points behind as runners up, both sides being convincingly the best in the division and would be promoted to the 2003–04 National Division One for the next season. For Penzance & Newlyn it was their second successive promotion while Henley made an instant return having been relegated the following season. Fylde and Kendal were the first two sides to be relegated but the battle for the last relegation spot was tight with just three points separating 12th from 8th in the division.

Launceston went into their last game ahead of relegation rivals Nottingham and Wharfedale, but while those sides won their games, Launceston lost their home game against league champions and local rivals Penzance & Newlyn to condemn the Polson Bridge side to the drop – dead level with Nottingham but with a worse points difference. Fylde and Kendal would drop to the 2003–04 National Division Three North while Launceston returned to the 2003–04 National Division Three South. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 28 December 2002. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 28 December 2002. Game rescheduled from 21 December 2002. Game rescheduled from 21 December 2002. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 15 February 2003. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 15 February 2003. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 8 March 2003. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 8 March 2003. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 22 March 2003. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 15 February 2003. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 8 March 2003. Postponed. Game rescheduled to 8 March 2003.

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