Islay is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Known as "The Queen of the Hebrides", it lies in Argyll just south west of Jura and around 40 kilometres north of the Northern Irish coast; the island's capital is Bowmore where the distinctive round Kilarrow Parish Church and a distillery are located. Port Ellen is the main port. Islay is the fifth-largest Scottish island and the eighth-largest island of the British Isles, with a total area of 620 square kilometres. There is ample evidence of the prehistoric settlement of Islay and the first written reference may have come in the 1st century AD; the island had become part of the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata during the Early Middle Ages before being absorbed into the Norse Kingdom of the Isles. The medieval period marked a "cultural high point" with the transfer of the Hebrides to the Kingdom of Scotland and the emergence of the Clan Donald Lordship of the Isles centred at Finlaggan. During the 17th century the Clan Donald star waned, but improvements to agriculture and transport led to a rising population, which peaked in the mid-19th century.
This was followed by declining resident numbers. Today, it has over 3,000 inhabitants and the main commercial activities are agriculture, malt whisky distillation and tourism; the island has a long history of religious observance and Scottish Gaelic is spoken by about a quarter of the population. Its landscapes have been celebrated through various art forms and there is a growing interest in renewable energy. Islay is home to many bird species such as the wintering populations of Greenland white-fronted and barnacle goose, is a popular destination throughout the year for birdwatchers; the climate is ameliorated by the Gulf Stream. Islay was recorded by Ptolemy as Epidion, the use of the "p" suggesting a Brittonic or Pictish tribal name. In the seventh century Adomnán referred to the island as Ilea and the name occurs in early Irish records as Ile and as Íl in Old Norse; the root is not Gaelic and of unknown origin. In seventeenth century maps the spelling appears as "Yla" or "Ila", a form still used in the name of the whisky Caol Ila.
In poetic language Islay is known as Banrìgh Innse Gall, or Banrìgh nan Eilean translated as "Queen of the Hebrides" and Eilean uaine Ìle – the "green isle of Islay" A native of Islay is called an Ìleach, pronounced. The obliteration of pre-Norse names is total and place names on the island are a mixture of Norse and Gaelic and English influences. Port Askaig is from the Norse ask-vík, meaning "ash tree bay" and the common suffix -bus is from the Norse bólstaðr, meaning "farm". Gaelic names, or their anglicised versions such as Ardnave Point, from Àird an Naoimh, "height of the saint" are common. Several of the villages were developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and English is a stronger influence in their names as a result. Port Charlotte for example, was named after Lady Charlotte Campbell, daughter of the island's owner, Daniel Campbell of Shawfield. Islay is 40 kilometres long from north to south and 24 kilometres broad; the east coast is rugged and mountainous, rising steeply from the Sound of Islay, the highest peak being Beinn Bheigier, a Marilyn at 1,612 feet.
The western peninsulas are separated from the main bulk of the island by the waters of Loch Indaal to the south and Loch Gruinart to the north. The fertile and windswept southwestern arm is called The Rinns, Ardnave Point is a conspicuous promontory on the northwest coast; the south coast is sheltered from the prevailing winds and, as a result wooded. The fractal coast has numerous bays and sea lochs, including Loch an t-Sailein, Aros Bay and Claggain Bay. In the far southwest is a rocky and now uninhabited peninsula called The Oa, the closest point in the Hebrides to Ireland; the island's population is centred around the villages of Bowmore and Port Ellen. Other smaller villages include Bridgend, Port Charlotte and Port Askaig; the rest of the island is sparsely populated and agricultural. There are several small freshwater lochs in the interior including Loch Finlaggan, Loch Ballygrant, Loch Lossit and Loch Gorm, numerous burns throughout the island, many of which bear the name "river" despite their small size.
The most significant of these are the River Laggan which discharges into the sea at the north end of Laggan Bay, the River Sorn which, draining Loch Finlaggan, enters the head of Loch Indaal at Bridgend. There are numerous small uninhabited islands around the coasts, the largest of which are Eilean Mhic Coinnich and Orsay off the Rinns, Nave Island on the northwest coast, Am Fraoch Eilean in the Sound of Islay, Texa off the south coast; the underlying geology of Islay is intricate for such a small area. The deformed Palaeoproterozoic igneous rock of the Rhinns complex is dominated by a coarse-grained gneiss cut by large intrusions of deformed gabbro. Once thought to be part of the Lewisian complex, it lies beneath the Colonsay Group of metasedimentary rocks that forms the bedrock at the northern end of the Rinns, it is a quartz-rich metamorphic marine sandstone that may be unique to Scotland and, nearly 5,000 metres thick. South of Rubh' a' Mhail there are outcrops of quartzite, a strip of mica schist and limestone cuts across the centre of the island from The Oa to Port Askaig.
Further south is a band of metamorphic quartzite and granites, a continuation of the beds that underlie Jura. The geomorphology of these last two zones is dominated by a fold known as the Islay Anticline. To the south is a "shattered coastline" formed from mica schist and hornblende; the older Bowmor
An artifact, or artefact, is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art an object of archaeological interest. In archaeology, the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as: an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may be a cultural artifact having cultural interest. However, modern archaeologists take care to distinguish material culture from ethnicity, more complex, as expressed by Carol Kramer in the dictum "pots are not people". Examples include stone tools, pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons, items of personal adornment such as buttons and clothing. Bones that show signs of human modification are examples. Natural objects, such as fire cracked rocks from a hearth or plant material used for food, are classified by archeologists as ecofacts rather than as artifacts. Artifacts can come from any archaeological context or source such as: Buried along with a body From any feature such as a midden or other domestic setting Votive offerings Hoards, such as at wellsArtifacts are distinguished from the main body of the archaeological record such as stratigraphic features, which are non-portable remains of human activity, such as hearths, deposits, trenches or similar remains, from biofacts or ecofacts, which are objects of archaeological interest made by other organisms, such as seeds or animal bone.
Natural objects that humans have moved but not changed are called manuports. Examples include seashells moved inland, or rounded pebbles placed away from the water action that made them; these distinctions are blurred. For instance, a bone removed from an animal carcass is a biofact, but a bone carved into a useful implement is an artifact. There can be debate over early stone objects that could be either crude artifacts or occurring and happen to resemble early objects made by early humans or Homo sapiens, it can be difficult to distinguish the differences between actual man-made lithic artifacts and geofacts – occurring lithics that resemble man-made tools. It is possible to authenticate artifacts by examining the general characteristics attributed to man-made tools and local characteristics of the site. In ethnography and archaeology, a category of "ancestral artifact" has been proposed, defined as "any object of natural raw material made by a people following a lifestyle based on foraging and/or basic agriculture or pastoralism".
Artifact Collection at the Royal Military College of Canada Museum in Kingston, Ontario
Clan Donald known as Clan MacDonald, is a Highland Scottish clan and one of the largest Scottish clans. The Lord Lyon King of Arms, the Scottish official with responsibility for regulating heraldry in that country, issuing new grants of coats of arms, serving as the judge of the Court of the Lord Lyon, recognizes under Scottish law the High Chief of Clan Donald; the chiefs of the Clan Donald held the title of Lord of the Isles until 1493 and two of those chiefs held the title of Earl of Ross until 1476. There are numerous branches to the Clan Donald and several of these have chiefs recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. There are notable historic branches of Clan Donald without chiefs so-recognised, these are: the Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg, Clan MacDonald of Lochalsh, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, the MacDonalds of Ardnamurchan; the MacDonnells of Antrim are a cadet branch of the MacDonalds of Dunnyveg but do not belong to the Scottish associations and have a chief recognised in Ireland. The Norse-Gaelic Clan Donald traces its descent from Dòmhnall Mac Raghnuill, whose father Reginald or Ranald was styled "King of the Isles" and "Lord of Argyll and Kintyre".
Ranald's father, Somerled was styled "King of the Hebrides", was killed campaigning against Malcolm IV of Scotland at the Battle of Renfrew in 1164. Clan Donald shares a descent from Somerled with Clan MacDougall, who traces their lineage from his elder son, Dugall mac Somhairle, their dynasties are together referred to as the Clann Somhairle. Furthermore, they are descended maternally from both the House of Godred Crovan and the Earls of Orkney, through Somerled's wife Ragnhildis Ólafsdóttir, daughter of Olaf I Godredsson, King of Mann and the Isles and Ingeborg Haakonsdottir daughter of Haakon Paulsson, Earl of Orkney, it remains uncertain if the Clann Somhairle are descendants in some manner, through one or another of the above dynasts, of the House of Ivar, but this is argued. Tradition gave Somerled a Gaelic descent in the male line, as the medieval seanchaidhean traced his lineage through a long line of ancestors back to the High Kings of Ireland, namely Colla Uais and Conn of the Hundred Battles.
Thus Clan Donald claimed to be both Siol Chuinn. The oldest piece of poetry attributed to the MacDonalds is a brosnachadh, said to have been written in 1411, on the day of the Battle of Harlaw; the first lines of the poem begin "A Chlanna Cuinn cuimhnichibh / Cruas an àm na h-iorghaile,". A poem made to John of Islay, last of the MacDonald Lords of the Isles, proclaims "Ceannas Ghàidheal do Chlainn Cholla, còir fhògradh,", giving MacDonald's genealogy back to Colla Uais; however a recent DNA study has shown. By testing the Y-DNA of males bearing the surnames MacDonald, MacDougall, MacAlister, their variants it was found that a substantial proportion of men tested shared the same Y-DNA and a direct paternal ancestor; this distinct Y-chromosome R1a1 haplotype found in Scotland has been regarded as showing Norse descent in the Britain and Ireland. In 1263 Alexander III of Scotland defeated Haakon IV of Norway at the Battle of Largs; the Clan Donald chief, Aonghas Mor and his clan had technically been vassals of Haakon and so the king of Scots became their new overlord, as confirmed in the Treaty of Perth.
Aongus Mor's son was Aonghus Óg of Islay who supported Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. In recognition of Clan Donald's support King Robert the Bruce proclaimed that Clan Donald would always occupy the honoured position on the right wing of the Scottish army; the title and territory of the Earl of Ross had been held by the Chief of Clan Ross but had passed through an heiress to the Leslie or Lesley family in the early 15th century. However, Angus Og's grandson, Donald of Islay, Lord of the Isles married Mariota, Countess of Ross, the heiress of the Leslie Earls of Ross and he claimed the position of Earl of Ross through this marriage. In 1411, Donald secured Dingwall Castle, the principal seat of the Earldom of Ross, after he had defeated the powerful Clan Mackay who were supporters of the Stewart confederacy at the Battle of Dingwall; this in turn resulted in the indecisive Battle of Harlaw on 24 July 1411 fought between Donald of Islay's forces and those of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany.
There may have been as many as 10,000 men in the army of Donald at the Battle of Harlaw, but he failed to inflict a decisive victory and withdrew back to the Western Highlands. In the aftermath, Albany was able to seize control of Easter Ross. By 1415 the Earldom of Ross was with Duke of Albany. Donald prepared for war and proclaimed himself "Lord of Ross". However, the Duke of Albany appointed his own son John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan as the new Earl of Ross. In 1429 the Battle of Lochaber took place where forces led by Alexander of Islay, 3rd Lord of the Isles fought against the royalist army of James I of Scotland. Two years the Battle of Inverlochy took place; the armies of the MacDonald Lo
Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg
Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg known as Clan Donald South, Clan Iain Mor, Clan MacDonald of Islay and Kintyre, MacDonalds of the Glens and sometimes referred to as MacDonnells, is a Scottish clan and a branch of Clan Donald. The founder of the MacDonalds of Dunnyveg is Eòin Mòr Tànaiste Mac Dhòmhnaill, a son of Iain Mic Dhòmhnaill and Margaret Stewart; the founder of Clan Donald of Dunnyveg and the Glens was Eòin Mòr Tànaiste Mac Dhòmhnaill, the second son of John MacDonald known as Good John of Islay, Lord of the Isles, 6th chief of Clan Donald and 1st Lord of the Isles through his marriage to Margaret Stewart. Eòin Mòr Tànaiste Mac Dhòmhnaill married Margaret Bissett of the Glens of Antrim. From his marriage he claimed, but did not possess, this territory in Ireland, along with those he possessed in Islay and Kintyre in Scotland, he and his descendants became known as Lords of Dunnyvaig and the Glens, although they did not possess the latter until the 16th century. Their seat in Dunnyvaig was on the Island of Islay and in the Glens they were seated in Antrim.
Eòin Mòr Tànaiste was assassinated by James Campbell in 1427. His son Donald Balloch MacDonald the 2nd chief led the clan when they fought and won at the first Battle of Inverlochy; this was in support of their cousin Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross and chief of Clan Donald, 3rd Lord of the Isles. The third Chief, Sir John Mor with his heir John Cathanach and three grandsons were apprehended through the treachery of MacIain of Ardnamurchan and were executed in Edinburgh for treason. However, MacIain of Ardnamurchan, who had betrayed Alexander MacDonald of Lochalsh, was himself killed in 1518 by those whom he had betrayed. On the death of James MacDonald, 6th of Dunnyveg and Antrim, the Antrim Glens were seized by one of his younger brothers called Somerled or Sorley Boy MacDonnell known as Sorley Buy. In 1565 under Sorley Boy MacDonnell the Clan Donald of Antrim and Dunnyveg fought the Battle of Glentasie against Shane O'Neill in Ireland. Sorley Buy swore allegiance to James IV of Scotland and his fourth son Ranald was made Randal MacDonnell, 1st Earl of Antrim by Queen Elizabeth.
Much quarrelling took place between Angus MacDonald, 8th of Dunnyveg and his eldest son, Sir James MacDonald, 9th of Dunnyveg this was due to the intrigues of the Clan Campbell. Sir James MacDonald led the clan who fought and won at the Battle of Gruinart Strand on the Isle of Islay in 1598 against an invasion force of the Clan MacLean who were led by Sir Lachlan Mor Maclean of Duart Castle, killed. Further intrigue by the Clan Campbell brought the downfall of the Clan Donald of Dunnyveg and by 1620 Sir James MacDonald had lost control of Islay and Kintyre. However, during the Civil War the lands were back in the hands of the MacDonalds when they were supporters of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. A notable member of the Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg is Alasdair Mac Colla, famed for his victories with the Royalist James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose during Scottish Civil War of the 1640s; the last chief, Sir James MacDonald, 9th of the Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg or Clan Donald South died in London in 1626.
A petition was lodged on 18 May 2012 with The Court of Lord Lyon by John Gerald McDonnell seeking confirmation of the Arms of the Clan Donald South, Clan Ian Mor and a grant of Supporters and Standard befitting the rank of degree of Chief of Ian Mor. The petition was dismissed on 10 November 2014 by Dr. Joseph J. Morrow. Eòin Mòr Tànaiste Mac Dhòmhnaill killed 1427 Dòmhnall Ballach Mac Dhòmhnaill died 1476 Seán Mór Mac Dhòmhnaill, 3rd of Dunnyveg executed 1499 Seán Cathanach Mac Dhòmhnaill, 4th of Dunnyveg executed 1499 Alexander Carragh Mac Dhòmhnaill, 5th of Dunnyveg died 1538 Séamus Mac Dhòmhnaill, 6th of Dunnyveg died 5 July 1565 Archibald Mac Dòmhnuill, 7th of Dunnyveg died circa 1569 Aonghus mac Séamus Mac Dòmhnuill, 8th of Dunnyveg died 21 October 1614 Sir Séamus Mac Dòmhnuill, 9th of Dunnyveg died 1626 Dunyvaig Castle, three miles east of Port Ellen on the south of the Isle of Islay was the seat of the chief of the Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg. There are now only ruins of. There was a small tower or keep, surrounded by an inner and outer courtyard.
The last MacDonald of Dunnvaig defeated the Clan MacLean at the Battle of Traigh Ghruinneart, but MacDonald was however ordered to surrender the castle and was forfeited in 1608. The castle was put under the stewardship of the Bishop of the Isles for the king, but Alasdair Colkitto MacDonald retook it in 1612. In 1615 the castle passed to the Clan Campbell of Cawdor and while Alasdair Colkitto MacDonald escaped, many of his men were killed, it was re-taken by Alasdair Colkitto MacDonald in 1647, but after a siege by David Leslie, 1st Lord Newark, the castle was forced to surrender when the water supply failed and Alasdair Colkitto MacDonald was hanged from the walls. The castle was held by the Campbells of Cawdor until 1677 and the island remained with branches of the Clan Campbell; the castle has crumbled away but the ruins have been consolidated and can be visited. Irish nobility Scottish clan List of Septs of Clan Donald http://www.clandonald-heritage.com/branches https://web.archive.org/web/20060626004201/http://www.clandonaldmich.com/badges.htm http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macdonald/addinfojpw.htm
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi