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Finnegans Wake

Finnegans Wake is a work of fiction by Irish writer James Joyce. It is significant for its experimental style and reputation as one of the most difficult works of fiction in the English language. Written in Paris over a period of seventeen years and published in 1939, Finnegans Wake was Joyce's final work; the entire book is written in a idiosyncratic language, which blends standard English lexical items and neologistic multilingual puns and portmanteau words to unique effect. Many critics believe the technique was Joyce's attempt to recreate the experience of sleep and dreams. Owing to the work's linguistic experiments, stream of consciousness writing style, literary allusions, free dream associations, abandonment of narrative conventions, Finnegans Wake remains unread by the general public. Despite the obstacles and commentators have reached a broad consensus about the book's central cast of characters and, to a lesser degree, its plot, but key details remain elusive; the book discusses, in an unorthodox fashion, the Earwicker family, comprising the father HCE, the mother ALP, their three children Shem the Penman, Shaun the Postman, Issy.

Following an unspecified rumour about HCE, the book, in a nonlinear dream narrative, follows his wife's attempts to exonerate him with a letter, his sons' struggle to replace him, Shaun's rise to prominence, a final monologue by ALP at the break of dawn. The opening line of the book is a sentence fragment which continues from the book's unfinished closing line, making the work a never-ending cycle. Many noted Joycean scholars such as Samuel Beckett and Donald Phillip Verene link this cyclical structure to Giambattista Vico's seminal text La Scienza Nuova, upon which they argue Finnegans Wake is structured. Joyce began working on Finnegans Wake shortly after the 1922 publication of Ulysses. By 1924 installments of Joyce's new avant-garde work began to appear, in serialized form, in Parisian literary journals The Transatlantic Review and transition, under the title "fragments from Work in Progress"; the actual title of the work remained a secret until the book was published in its entirety, on 4 May 1939.

Initial reaction to Finnegans Wake, both in its serialized and final published form, was negative, ranging from bafflement at its radical reworking of the English language to open hostility towards its lack of respect for the conventions of the genre. The work has since come to assume a preeminent place in English literature, despite its numerous detractors. Anthony Burgess has lauded Finnegans Wake as "a great comic vision, one of the few books of the world that can make us laugh aloud on nearly every page"; the prominent literary academic Harold Bloom has called it Joyce's masterpiece, and, in The Western Canon, wrote that "if aesthetic merit were again to center the canon, would be as close as our chaos could come to the heights of Shakespeare and Dante". The now commonplace term quark – a subatomic particle – originates from Finnegans Wake. Having completed work on Ulysses, Joyce was so exhausted that he did not write a line of prose for a year. On 10 March 1923 he wrote a letter to his patron, Harriet Weaver: "Yesterday I wrote two pages—the first I have since the final Yes of Ulysses.

Having found a pen, with some difficulty I copied them out in a large handwriting on a double sheet of foolscap so that I could read them." This is the earliest reference to. The two pages in question consisted of the short sketch "Roderick O'Conor", concerning the historic last king of Ireland cleaning up after guests by drinking the dregs of their dirty glasses. Joyce completed another four short sketches in August 1923, while holidaying in Bognor; the sketches, which dealt with different aspects of Irish history, are known as "Tristan and Isolde", "Saint Patrick and the Druid," "Kevin's Orisons" and "Mamalujo". While these sketches would be incorporated into Finnegans Wake in one form or another, they did not contain any of the main characters or plot points which would come to constitute the backbone of the book; the first signs of what would become Finnegans Wake came in August 1923 when Joyce wrote the sketch "Here Comes Everybody", which dealt for the first time with the book's protagonist HCE.

Over the next few years, Joyce's method became one of "increasingly obsessional concern with note-taking, since felt that any word he wrote had first to have been recorded in some notebook." As Joyce continued to incorporate these notes into his work, the text became dense and obscure. By 1926 Joyce had completed both Parts I and III. Geert Lernout asserts that Part I had, at this early stage, "a real focus that had developed out of the HCE sketch: the story of HCE, of his wife and children. There were the adventures of Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker himself and the rumours about them in chapters 2–4, a description of his wife ALP's letter in chapter 5, a denunciation of his son Shem in chapter 7, a dialogue about ALP in chapter 8; these texts formed a unity." In the same year Joyce met Maria and Eugène Jolas in Paris, just as his new work was generating an negative reaction from readers and critics, culminating in The Dial's refusal to publish the four chapters of Part III in September 1926. The Jolases gave Joyce valuable encouragement and material support throughout the long process of writing Finnegans Wake, published sections of the book in serial form in their literary magazine transition, under the title Work in Progress.

For the next few years Joyce worked on the book, adding what would become chapters I.1 and I.6, revising the written segments to make them more lexically complex. By t

41st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The 41st Division was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the River Division The Imperial Japanese Army 41st Division was raised as a triangular division on 30 June 1939 in Yongsan District, Korea with 38th, 39th and 40th Divisions. On 2 October 1939, the 41st Division under the command of Lieutenant General Moritake Tanabe was assigned to 1st Army in North China. Initial deployment was to Shanxi province to provide a garrison coverage. Upon the outbreak of the Pacific War on 7 December 1941, the division was based in Qingdao in eastern China, under the command of Shimizu Tsunenori. In November 1942 the division, under the command of Lieutenant General Heisuke Abe, was scheduled to be deployed to Guadalcanal. However, after attempts to reinforce the Japanese garrison on the island failed, the decision was made to divert the 41st Division, along with the 20th Division, being shipped from Korea at the same time, land them on New Guinea; the 41st Division arrived at Wewak on 12 February 1943, where they were attached to the 18th Army and subsequently took part in the New Guinea campaign throughout 1943–45, fighting against Australian and United States forces.

At this time, Shoge Detachment was sent to fortify positions at Lae participating in Salamaua–Lae campaign together with 51st Division. By 10 July 1944, the 18th Army was reduced to 41st Division, fighting a failed offensive in Battle of Driniumor River in July 1944 and suffering heavy casualties in the process; the remnants of the 41st Division have retreated to Prince Alexander Mountains and has a heavy loss of life due malnutrition and disease before the war ended with surrender of Japan 15 August 1945

Charles Edward Long

Charles Edward Long, was an English genealogist and antiquary. Born at Benham Park, Berkshire, he was the elder and only surviving son of Charles Beckford Long of Langley Hall and his wife, Frances Monro Tucker, he was the grandson of Edward Long, the historian of Jamaica, a cousin of Charles Long, 1st Baron Farnborough, nephew of General Robert Ballard Long, his father's twin. Long was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he won the Chancellor's Gold Medal in July 1818 for English verse on the subject of imperial and papal Rome, graduated BA in 1819 and MA in 1822. Returning from a visit to Hamburg, Long died unmarried on 25 September 1861 at the Lord Warden Hotel, Dover, he was buried in the churchyard at Surrey. Possessed of an ample fortune, Long's devotion to historical and genealogical studies were facilitated by access to the College of Heralds granted him by the Deputy Earl Marshal, Lord Henry Thomas Molyneux Howard - his uncle by marriage. Long always maintained a personal and scholarly interest in Harrow and in 1849 assisted George Butler in his biographical notes of Harrow scholars.

In 1860 he wrote for the Harrow Gazette an article on the life of John Lyon, the founder of the school. Descended from the Long family of Wiltshire, he took a considerable interest in the history of that county: he was an earnest promoter of the Wiltshire Archaeological Society, contributed to its magazine, he was for many years a frequent correspondent of the Gentleman's Magazine, the leading antiquarian periodicals of his day. In 1845 with the assistance of the Garter King of Arms, Sir Charles George Young, Long compiled a volume called Royal descents: a genealogical list of the several persons entitled to quarter the arms of the royal houses of England In 1859 from the original manuscript in the British Museum, he edited for the Camden Society, the Diary of the Marches of the Royal Army during the Great Civil War, Kept by Richard Symonds, he presented his Genealogical collections of Jamaica families, to the British Museum. During 1857–9 he gave to the museum many valuable documents relating to Jamaica preserved in the British Library are his letters to Joseph Hunter, extending from 1847 to 1859.

Amongst many other of Long's publications, notable is his pamphlet of 1832 in which he defends the conduct of his uncle Robert Ballard Long during the campaign of 1811. Erben, Michael. "Long, Charles Edward". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16963. Symonds, Richard. Long, Charles Edward. Diary of the Marches of the Royal Army During the Great Civil War. London: Camden Society. Retrieved 4 August 2018. Inheriting the Earth: The Long Family's 500 Year Reign in Wiltshire.