The Finnish Defence Forces are responsible for the defence of Finland. A universal male conscription is in place, under which all men above 18 years of age serve for 165, 255, or 347 days. Alternative non-military service for all men, volunteer service for all women are possible. Finland is the only non-NATO European Union state bordering Russia. Finland's official policy states that a wartime military strength of 280,000 personnel constitutes a sufficient deterrent; the army consists of a mobile field army backed up by local defence units. The army defends the national territory and its military strategy employs the use of the forested terrain and numerous lakes to wear down an aggressor, instead of attempting to hold the attacking army on the frontier. Finland's defence budget equals €3.2 billion or 1.3% of GDP. The voluntary overseas service is popular and troops serve around the world in UN, NATO and EU missions. Homeland defence willingness against a superior enemy is at one of the highest rates in Europe.
In war time the Finnish Border Guard will become part of the Finnish Defence Forces. After Finland's declaration of independence on 6 December 1917, the Civic Guards were proclaimed the troops of the government on 25 January 1918 and C. G. E Mannerheim was appointed as Commander-in-Chief of these forces the next day. Fighting between the White Guards and the Red Guards had broken out about a week before around Viipuri, in what became known as the Finnish Civil War. In the war, the Whites were victorious in large part thanks to the leadership of Mannerheim and the lead by example offensive mindedness of 1,800 German-trained Finnish Jägers, who brought with them German tactical doctrine and military culture; the post-war years were characterized by the Volunteer Campaigns that came to an end in 1920 with the signing of the Treaty of Tartu, which ended the state of war between Finland and Soviet Russia and defined the internationally recognized borders of Finland. After winning the Civil War, the Finnish peacetime army was organized as three divisions and a brigade by professional German officers.
It became the basic structure for the next 20 years. The coast was guarded by former czarist coastal ships taken as prizes of war; the Air Force had been formed in March 1918, but remained a part of the Army and did not become a independent fighting force until 1928. The new government instituted conscription after the Civil War and introduced a mobilization system and compulsory refresher courses for reservists. An academy providing basic officer training was established in 1919, the founding of a General Staff College followed in 1924, in 1927 a tactical training school for company-grade and junior officers and NCOs was set up; the requirement of one year of compulsory service was greater than that imposed by any other Scandinavian country in the 1920s and the 1930s, but political opposition to defense spending left the military badly equipped to resist an attack by the Soviet Union, the only security threat in Finnish eyes. When the Soviets invaded in November 1939, the Finns defeated the Red Army on numerous occasions, including at the crucial Battle of Suomussalmi.
These successes were in large part thanks to the application of motti tactics. While the Finns lost the war and were forced to agree to the Moscow Peace Treaty, the Soviet objective of conquering Finland failed, in part due to the threat of Allied intervention. During the war the Finns lost 25,904 men. Finland fought in the Continuation War alongside Germany from 1941 to 1944. Thanks to Nazi-German aid, the army was now much better equipped, the period of conscription had been increased to two years, making possible the formation of sixteen infantry divisions. Having deployed on the defensive, the Finns took advantage of the weakening of the Soviet positions as a consequence of Operation Barbarossa, swiftly recovering their lost territories and invading Soviet territory in Karelia settling into defensive positions from December 1941 onwards; the Soviet offensive of June 1944 undid these Finnish gains and, while failing in its objective of destroying the Finnish army and forcing Finland's unconditional surrender, forced Finland out of the war.
The Finnish were able to preserve their independence with key defensive victories over the Red Army. The Battle of Tali-Ihantala being significant; these conflicts involving Finland has had a significant impact on the Finnish defense force of today, while other European militaries has cut-down on their forces, Finland has still maintained a large conscript-based reserve army. As stated in a Swedish report. Sharing a 1340km border with Russia, the need for large ground forces is self-explanatory. Furthermore, memories of World War II – in which over 2 per cent of the population perished in two brutal wars with the Soviet Union – are much alive in Finland"; the demobilization and regrouping of the Finnish Defence Forces were carried out in late 1944 under the supervision of the Soviet-dominated Allied Control Commission. Following the Treaty of Paris in 1947, which imposed restrictions on the size and equipment of the armed forces and required disbandment of the Civic Guard, Finland reorganized its defense forces.
The fact that the conditions of the peace treaty did not include prohibitions on reserves or mobilization made it possible to contemplate an adequate defense establishment within t
The Emperor's Cup JFA All-Japan Soccer Championship Tournament known as The Emperor's Cup or The Emperor's Cup Soccer, or Japan FA Cup is a Japanese football competition. It has the longest tradition of any football tournament in Japan, dating back to 1921, before the formation of the J. League, Japan Football League and their predecessor, Japan Soccer League. Before World War II, teams could qualify not only from Japan proper but from Korea and sometimes Manchukuo; the women's counterpart is the Empress's Cup. As it is a competition to decide the "best football team in Japan", the cup is now open to every member club of the Japan Football Association, from J1 and J2 down to teams from J3, JFL, regional leagues, top college and high school teams from around the country; the Emperor's Cup is one of two well-known national football tournaments named after a monarch. The holder can wear a Yatagarasu emblem and obtains an AFC Champions League spot for the next season. Since the creation of the J. League in 1992, the professional teams have dominated the competition, although doubles, once common in the JSL, have become rare.
However, because the Emperor's Cup is contested in a knockout tournament format, the opportunity for "giant-killers" from the amateur ranks upsetting a top J. League squad is a real possibility. For example, a major upset occurred in the 2003/04 competition, when Funabashi Municipal High School took the 2003 J. League champion Yokohama F. Marinos to a penalty shootout. Although Waseda University was the last non-league winner in 1966, the previous non-top tier winner was in 2011. Since 1969, the Emperor's Cup final had traditionally been played on New Year's Day of the following year at the National Olympic Stadium in Tokyo and is regarded as the traditional closing match of the season. Since 2014, the venue has varied due to the National Olympic Stadium's renovation for the 2020 Summer Olympics; the 2014 Emperor's Cup final was not held on New Year's Day, but 13 December 2014, due to the Japanese National Team's involvement in 2015 AFC Asian Cup. The 2018 cup final was held on 9 December 2018.
Although an official reason has not been given, it appeared to be the Japanese National Team's involvement in 2019 AFC Asian Cup. On 1 January 2020, first time finalist Vissel Kobe beat Kashima Antlers in the 2019 Emperor's Cup final at the built New National Stadium to win the first title in their 54-year club history; this was the first professional match in Japan video assistant referee being used. The first matches to qualify for the Emperor's cup begin anywhere from April to August of that year, varies year to year. For the 97th Emperor's Cup, the games were played from 22 April 2017 and ended with the final on 1 January 2018; the knockout phase of the competition begins towards the end of the year. This phase is composed of all teams from J1 League and J2, the winners from each of the 47 prefectural championships, 1 organizer-nominated team among all amateur teams. J1 teams, sometimes J2 team receive bye in the knockout phase. In 2016, all J1 teams and the previous year's J2 champions received a bye, AFC Champions League participants received 3 byes.
In 2017, all J1 and J2 teams received a bye. However, they lose home advantage starting from the third round, unless they are facing a higher-tier or higher ranked team. From 1965 to 1970, the top 4 JSL clubs at the end of the season qualified for the Cup and the other four spaces allotted were taken by finalists from universities. From 1971 to 1994, as the League increased in size, the entire top division teams were entered automatically, while the second tier's member clubs participated in regional stages with other clubs. Beginning in 1995, the second tier clubs began to be admitted automatically instead of having to play regional stages, which in turn became prefectural stages. Before 2008, 48 teams took part in the first two rounds – the winner from each of the 47 prefectural championships and the collegiate champion; the top team in the JFL standings and all thirteen J2 teams joined in the third round. The eighteen J1 teams joined in the fourth round, making a total of 80 participating teams.
The original All Japan Championship Tournament trophy was awarded to the JFA by the English Football Association in 1919. This trophy was used until January 1945, when the militarist government confiscated it and melted down to procure additional metal for the war effort; when the tournament was reinstated, the present trophy, showing the Imperial chrysanthemum seal began to be awarded. In August 2011, the English FA presented its Japanese counterpart with a replica of the original trophy, made by London silversmiths Thomas Lyte. JFA President Junji Ogura expressed hope that the trophy, to be awarded at the 2011 final, would be "a symbol of peace"; the cup winner qualifies for AFC Champions League since 2001 tournament, where Shimizu S-Pulse qualified for the ACL 2002–03. Before the establishment of ACL, the cup winner qualified for the Asian Cup Winners' Cup. From 2012, as a part of the requirement of AFC, the champion team must hold a J1
The Keston Institute is an organisation dedicated to the study of religion and communist countries, at Oxford, England. It was founded in 1969 by the Revd Canon Michael Bourdeaux. In the 1950s, Michael Bourdeaux spent a year in Moscow as a part of the first wave of British exchange students; this prompted him to take up the cause of those persecuted for their religious faith. In 1969 Bourdeaux founded at Chislehurst the Centre for the Study of Religion and Communism together with Sir John Lawrence, with the help of Leonard Schapiro and Peter Reddaway, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University. In the early 1970s he bought the old parish school on Keston Common and the centre was renamed Keston College, it broadened its purview to include former communist countries with its main concerns being the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc. Over the years it played a key role in the revival of the Russian Orthodox Church, has become a leading voice on religious freedom in former communist countries, with an emphasis on the former Soviet Union.
The enterprise was relocated to Oxford. In 1984 Michael Bourdeaux won the Templeton Prize; the current chairman at the Keston Institute is Xenia Dennen. Since 2007, the Keston Institute's archive and library have been under the care of the Keston Center for Religion, Politics, & Society at Baylor University, Texas. Giles Udy Keston Institute Official Website Baylor University Keston Center
Richard Beechner is a former American football coach. He served as the head football coach at Hiram Scott College in Nebraska, he was the only head football coach in the school's history because Hiram Scott only existed from 1965 to 1970, was shut down due to massive debt. Hiram Scott did not have a single losing season in its five years as a football program, its two biggest wins came on September 24, 1966 over the Omaha and on November 7, 1970 over Boise State. Beechner was an assistant football coach at Nebraska and Washington State, he served as an associate athletic director at Washington State. Mahoney, Buck. "Beechner steps down as UNK golf coach". KearneyHub.com. Retrieved 20 November 2009. Rein, Mark. "Now-defunct Hiram Scott College's football team gathers to reminisce". KearneyHub.com. Retrieved 20 November 2009
The following database management systems and other software use multiversion concurrency control. Altibase ArangoDB Berkeley DB Cloudant Clustrix CockroachDB Couchbase CouchDB CUBRID IBM Db2 – since IBM DB2 9.7 LUW under CS isolation level – in committed mode IBM Cognos TM1 – in versions 9.5.2 and up Drizzle Druid etcd EXASOL eXtremeDB Firebird FLAIM FoundationDB GE Smallworld Version Managed Data Store H2 Database Engine – experimental since version 1.0.57 HBase HSQLDB – starting with version 2.0 IBM Netezza InfiniDB Ingres InterBase – all versions LeanXcale LMDB and MDBXMariaDB – when used with XtraDB, an InnoDB fork and, included in MariaDB sources and binaries or PBXT MarkLogic Server – a bit of this is described in MemSQL Meronymy SPARQL Database Server Microsoft SQL Server – when using READ_COMMITTED_SNAPSHOT, starting with SQL Server 2005 MonetDB MongoDB – when used with the WiredTiger storage engine MySQL – when used with InnoDB, Falcon, or Archive storage engines NuoDB ObjectDB ObjectStore Oracle database – all versions since Oracle 4 Oracle Rdb OrientDB PostgreSQL Postgres-XL Rdb/ELN RDM Embedded REAL Server Realm RethinkDB SAP HANA SAP IQ Snowflake sones GraphDB Splice Machine Sybase SQL Anywhere Sybase ASE 16 Teradata Tibero – all versions since Tibero 3 TokuMX Actian Vector Zope Object Database JBoss Cache – v 3.0 Ehcache – v 1.6.0-beta4 Clojure – language software transactional memory pojo-mvcc – a lightweight MVCC implementation written in Java JVSTM – Software Transactional memory that implements the concept of Versioned Boxes Apache Jackrabbit Oak
St. Ib's Church, 3 km south-west of Svaneke on the Danish island of Bornholm, is a fine 12th century Romanesque building; the altarpiece was painted by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg in 1846. The Renaissance pulpit was decorated by Paul Høm in 1964 with ceramics of the four evangelists; the church was known as Beati Jacobi, in 1429 it became Sancti Jacobs kirke and evolved to Ibs Kirke which in turn became Ibsker. Today the parish is known as Ibsker; the church consists of a Romanesque tower, nave and apsis, all from the end of the 12th century. The porch was added some 200 years while the extension to the north was constructed in 1867; the tower is of interest in view of its vaulting which can be seen at the western end of the nave, opening up from two arches. The interior is a fine example of the Romanesque style with whitewashed walls and arches of limestone and Bornholm marble; the cross-section added in 1867 changed the character of the building as the nave's original wall was torn down but the church's Romanesque appearance was restored in 1964 when a new organ was installed along the axis of the old wall.
During the restoration work, traces of frescos or kalkmalerier were found but were too faint to warrant further attention. The altarpiece consists of a painting from 1846 of Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane by the renowned Danish painter, C. W. Eckersberg. There is evidence of earlier altarpieces during the Roman Catholic period of the church's history, including the figure of the Virgin Mary, which now hangs over the font, the crucifix on the nave's southern wall, both from around 1500; the altar's large candlesticks are from 1891 while its seven-armed candelabra is from 1933. The oldest artefact inside the church is the font, made of Gotland limestone. Standing at the western end of the church, it is, in fact, taller than it appears as its pedestal is hidden under the floor which, together with other layers of flooring, was added later. There are two bells in the tower, the smaller one from 1773 and the larger from 1822. List of churches on Bornholm