click links in text for more info

Fionn mac Cumhaill

Fionn mac Cumhaill was an Irish mythical hunter-warrior in Irish mythology, occurring in the mythologies of Scotland and the Isle of Man. The stories of Fionn and his followers the Fianna, form the Fenian Cycle, much of it narrated in the voice of Fionn's son, the poet Oisín. In Old Irish, finn/find means "white, lustrous, it is cognate with Proto-Irish VENDO-, Welsh gwyn, Cornish gwen, Breton gwenn, Continental Celtic and Brittonic *uindo-, comes from the Proto-Celtic adjective masculine singular *windos. Fionn's birth and early adventures are recounted in the narrative The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn and other sources. Finn was the posthumous son of leader of the Fianna by Muirne. Finn and his father Cumhall mac Trénmhoir stem from Leinster, rooted in the tribe of Uí Thairsig There is mention of the Uí Thairsig in the Lebor Gabála Érenn as one of the three tribes descended from the Fir Bolg; the mother was called Muirne Muincháem "of the Fair Neck", the daughter or Tadg mac Nuadat and granddaughter of Nuadat the druid serving Cathair Mór, high-king at the time, though she is described as grand-daughter of Núadu of the Tuatha Dé Danann according to another source.

Cumhall served Conn Cétchathach "of the Hundre Battles", still a regional king at Cenandos. Cumhall abducted Muirne after her father refused him her hand, so Tadg appealed to the high king Conn, who outlawed Cumhall; the Battle of Cnucha was fought between Conn and Cumhall, Cumhall was killed by Goll mac Morna, who took over leadership of the Fianna. Fionn Mac Cumhaill was said to be from Ballyfin, in Laois; the direct translation of Ballyfin from Irish to English is "town of Fionn". The Fianna were a band of warriors known as a military order composed of the members of two rival clans, "Clan Bascna" and "Clan Morna", the Fenians were supposed to be devoted to the service of the High King and to the repelling of foreign invaders. After the fall of Cumall, Goll mac Morna replaced him as the leader of the Fianna, holding the position for 10 years. Muirne was pregnant. In Fiacal's house Muirne gave birth to a son, whom she called Deimne "sureness" or "certainty" a name that means a young male deer.

Finn and his brother Tulcha mac Cumhal were being hunted down by the Goll and siblings and other men. Finn was separated from his mother Muirne, placed in the care of Bodhmall and the woman Liath Luachra, they brought him up in secret in the forest of Sliabh Bladma, teaching him the arts of war and hunting. After the age of six, Finn learned to hunt, but still had cause to flee from the sons of Morna; as he grew older he entered the service – incognito – of a number of local kings, but each one, when he recognised Fionn as Cumhal's son, told him to leave, fearing they would be unable to protect him from his enemies. The young Fionn met the leprechaun-like druid and poet Finn Éces, or Finnegas, near the river Boyne and studied under him. Finnegas had spent seven years trying to catch the Salmon of Knowledge, which lived in a pool on the Boyne and became all-knowing through its diet of hazelnuts from a holy tree: whoever ate the salmon would gain all the knowledge in the world; the old man caught it, told the boy to cook it for him.

While cooking it Deimne burned his thumb, instinctively put his thumb in his mouth. This imbued him with the salmon's wisdom, when Finn Éces saw that he had gained wisdom, he gave young Fionn the whole salmon to eat. Fionn knew how to gain revenge against Goll, in subsequent stories was able to call on the knowledge of the salmon by putting his thumb to the tooth that had first tasted the salmon; the story of Fionn and the salmon of knowledge and the Welsh tale of Gwion Bach are similar. One feat of Finn performed at 10 years of age according to the Acallam na Senórach was to slay Áillen, the fire-breathing man of the Tuatha Dé Danaan, who had came to wreak destruction on the Irish capital of Tara every year on the festival of Samhain for the past 23 years, lulling the city's men to sleep with his music burned down the city and its treasures; when the King of Ireland asked what men would guard Tara against Áillen's invasion, Finn volunteered. Finn obtained a special spear from Fiacha mac Congha, which warded against the sleep-inducing music of Áillen's timpan when it was unsheathed and the bare steel blade was touched against the forehead or some other part of the body.

This Fiacha was now serving the high-king. After Finn defeated Áillen and saved Tara, his heritage was recognised and he was given command of the Fianna: Goll stepped aside, became a loyal follower of Fionn, although a dispute broke out between th

Institute of Modern Languages (Queensland)

The Institute of Modern Languages known as IML-UQ, is a language and translation institute located within the St Lucia campus of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. Today IML-UQ enrolls 3000 plus students annually in all of its language programs. IML-UQ provides courses in over 30 languages. Designed to enrich the knowledge of a language and its culture, these courses are taught by native speakers with a focus on enhancing fluency and accuracy of expression. Apart from Latin, their content is based on topics of the modern world in which we live. IML-UQ is an Australian translator and interpreter service for 75 different languages, specialising in English language translations. Languages available at the IML-UQ include Arabic, Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese Mandarin, Czech, Danish, French, German, Hindi, Italian, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Spanish, Thai and Vietnamese amongst many others. Established in 1934, IML-UQ continues to serve the community by facilitating language learning and cross-cultural communication.

Over the years it has sought to develop strategies to reach out to students in order to enrich their experience of learning another language. IML-UQ still meets the language service needs of the corporate sector, small businesses, government departments and community organisations. IML-UQ seeks to fulfill the original aspiration of the University of Queensland Senate to give more adults the chance to deepen their lives by bringing them into the university community via language courses open to the public. IML-UQ provides a vehicle for UQ students to remain connected with its alumni in a meaningful way over the decades in which they are no longer engaged in more formal study; when the seventh Senate of the University of Queensland met in March 1932, it stated its intentions "…to serve despite straitened resources, not only education but whatever public needs science and learning could serve."One of the ways these intentions were made manifest in 1934 was "to bring those classes under an Institute of Modern Languages associated with the Faculties of Arts and Commerce and to offer through it instruction in any modern language for which there should be a sufficient demand."The successful launching of the IML-UQ was the result of the personal commitment to non-traditional university studies of a number of prominent University of Queensland academics.

These academics recognised the demand for language teaching from the community at large. When IML-UQ was established at the University of Queensland on 11 May 1934, it was the first adult education extension unit in modern languages to be attached to an Australian tertiary education institution. According to a university statute, IML-UQ was intended to "promote and extend the teaching of Modern Languages."The Telegraph reported the University’s decision to establish IML-UQ as follows: "At the meeting of the University Senate yesterday afternoon a recommendation for the establishment of IML-UQ was approved. This is an important educational development, since it provides machinery for the study of foreign languages that have a cultural and commercial value for the State, for which no provision is made in secondary schools for Junior and Matriculation purposes."IML-UQ commenced operations with one class each in French and Italian and two in German. In an article entitled ‘A Wider National Perspective’, the author articulates a vision of language education serving the national interest.

The view was that IML-UQ courses would provide training in practical skills which would benefit business and international travel. Language programs were endorsed as suitable educational ventures towards better international understanding and tolerance. Australia’s changing perceptions of the non-English speaking world were reflected through the changing patterns of IML-UQ enrolments. New prospects in international commerce and tourism and the evolution of a cosmopolitan Australian society through post-war immigration were reflected in the diversification of language courses; these new courses were offered in response to public demand. In another article, entitled ‘Foreign Languages’, which appeared in the Courier-Mail on the same day, the new IML-UQ courses were defined as follows: "The courses were…for commercial purposes, would not enter so into the literature of the languages as in an ordinary degree course, but rather would aim at the impartation of good working business knowledge of each tongue dealt with."

The history of language teaching at IML-UQ has been characterised by an ongoing search for more effective ways of teaching languages. The Grammar Translation Method was the main language teaching method in the initial decades. After this the Direct Method, which emphasises listening and speaking skills, was introduced. Today, languages are taught using the Communicative and Intercultural Language Teaching and Learning approaches with less emphasis on whole class activities and more on pair and group work. On 23 April 1934, resolutions to create a constitution and rules were passed by IML-UQ Joint Sub-Committee of the Faculties of Arts and Commerce. By 1937, special courses were added for those involved in scientific work. In 1952, students of Russian reflected a sentiment that, "Russian will be useful in the future". By 1954, IML-UQ had grown to the point that a review of its purposes and administrative structures was required; the main priority was to establish IML-UQ as a provider of ‘adult education’, where courses would not enter ‘deeply into literature’ but focus on a ‘good working knowledge’ for practical application.


Kaltukatjara is a remote Indigenous Australian community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It is southwest of Alice Springs, west of the Stuart Highway, near the Western Australia and Northern Territory border. At the 2006 census, Kaltukatjara had a population of 355; the community is known as Docker River, the European name for the township. It is on a wadi called the Docker Creek on the north side of the west end of the Petermann Ranges in the southwest corner of Northern Territory in Australia. A permanent settlement at "Docker River" was established in 1968 to relieve pressure on the Warburton settlement and provide an opportunity for Indigenous Australians to live closer to their homelands. PY Media states that Kaltukatjara acquired its European name "Docker River" from explorer Ernest Giles, as well as other history, as follows: The site, now Kaltukatjara was named Docker River by Ernest Giles during his expedition of 1872. Pastors Duguid and Strehlow surveyed the area in the 1930s with a view to establishing a settlement for the people in the area.

It was decided not to proceed with this at that time. During the 30s and 40s Luthern missionaries told the Pitjantjatjara people of the Kaltukatjara area to go to Areyonga where they would be supplied with food and clothing. Although many Anangu moved in of their own free will, some stayed in the Petermanns. In the 1960s Areyonga Anangu desired to move back to the area around Docker River and with government assistance a permanent settlement was established there in 1967-8. Over 300 Anangu moved to establish the new settlement. By the proclamation of the Aboriginal Lands Rights Act, 1976, Anangu in the region gained freehold title to these traditional lands an area of 44,970 square kilometres. Kaltukatjara lies on the Tjukaruru Road which becomes the Great Central Road when it crosses into Western Australia 7 kilometres to the west. Based upon the climate records of the nearest weather station at Giles across the border to the west in Western Australia, Kaltukatjara experiences summer maximum temperatures of an average of 37.2 degrees Celsius in January and a winter maximum average temperature of 19.9 degrees Celsius in July.

Overnight lows range from a mean minimum temperature of 23.5 degrees in January to 6.8 degrees in June. Annual rainfall averages 284.2 millimetres. The 2001 ABS Census recorded that there were 297 people living in the community, an increase of 20 on the 277 people disclosed in the 1997 Census; the people speak Pitjantjatjara and Ngaatjatjarra and identify as Anangu people. The 2001 Census revealed that Kaltukatjara was second only to its northern neighbour Kintore in the having the highest proportion of its population engaged in health and community services. Before 2008-07-01, Kaltukatjara was served by the Kaltukatjara Community Council, composed of twelve residents who are elected annually; the Council served as the local government and qualified as a "local government area". On 2008-07-01, it became part of the MacDonnell Region. Water for the Kaltukatjara supply system is obtained from 3 bores, 1 located near the ground tanks and 2 1.5 km west of the community. There are 1 raised tank in the community.

Water quality is of a high standard with chlorine needed only on rare occasions. Kaltukatjara has a sewerage system and some houses are fitted with their own septic tanks. Electricity is provided by 3 diesel power generators. Roads within the township are sealed but the Petermann Road is unsealed. Kaltukatjara has an unsealed airstrip, general store, Tjarlirli Art centre and gallery, recreation hall, aged care facility, health centre, school, 2 public telephones, an Australian Rules football oval and basketball court. There is a Lutheran church with a resident pastor, overseen by the Lutheran Church's Finke River Mission board. In 2009, feral camels had become a major problem for local residents. Preparations for an emergency cull of 6,000 of the animals using a sharpshooter were underway. PY Media Waru website.

Culture jamming

Culture jamming is a tactic used by many anti-consumerist social movements to disrupt or subvert media culture and its mainstream cultural institutions, including corporate advertising. It attempts to "expose the methods of domination" of a mass society to foster progressive change. Culture jamming is a form of subvertising. Many culture jams are intended to expose questionable political assumptions behind commercial culture. Culture jamming makes use of the technique détournement, which uses the language and rhetoric of the mainstream paradigm or culture to subversively critique the paradigm or culture. Tactics include re-figuring logos, fashion statements, product images as a means to challenge the idea of "what's cool". Culture jamming entails using mass media to produce ironic or satirical commentary about itself using the original medium's communication method. Culture jamming is employed as a reaction against social conformity. Prominent examples of culture jamming include the adulteration of billboard advertising by the Billboard Liberation Front, contemporary artists such as Ron English.

Culture jamming may involve street protests. While culture jamming focuses on subverting or critiquing political and advertising messages, some proponents focus on a more positive form which brings together artists and activists to create new types of cultural production that transcend – rather than criticize – the status quo; the term was coined in 1984 by Don Joyce of the sound collage band Negativland, with the release of their album JamCon'84. The phrase "culture jamming" comes from the idea of radio jamming: that public frequencies can be pirated and subverted for independent communication, or to disrupt dominant frequencies. In one of the tracks of the album, they stated: As awareness of how the media environment we occupy affects and directs our inner life grows, some resist; the skillfully reworked billboard... directs the public viewer to a consideration of the original corporate strategy. The studio for the cultural jammer is the world at large. According to Vince Carducci, although the term was coined by Negativland, culture jamming can be traced as far back as the 1950s.

One influential group, active in Europe was the Situationist International and was led by Guy Debord. The SI asserted that in the past humans dealt with the consumer market directly, they argued that this spontaneous way of life was deteriorating as a direct result of the new "modern" way of life. Situationists saw everything from television to radio as a threat and argued that life in industrialized areas, driven by capitalist forces, had become monotonous, gloomy and productivity driven. In particular, the SI argued humans had become passive recipients of the spectacle, a simulated reality that generates the desire to consume, positions humans as obedient consumerist cogs within the efficient and exploitative productivity loop of capitalism. Through playful activity, individuals could create the opposite of spectacles. For the SI, these situations took the form of the dérive, or the active drift of the body through space in ways that broke routine and overcame boundaries, creating situations by exiting habit and entering new interactive possibilities.

The cultural critic Mark Dery traces the origins of culture jamming to medieval carnival, which Mikhail Bakhtin interpreted, in Rabelais and his World, as an sanctioned subversion of the social hierarchy. Modern precursors might include: the media-savvy agit-prop of the anti-Nazi photomonteur John Heartfield, the sociopolitical street theater and staged media events of 1960s radicals such as Abbie Hoffman, Joey Skaggs, the German concept of Spaßguerilla, in the Situationist International of the 1950s and 1960s; the SI first compared its own activities to radio jamming in 1968, when it proposed the use of guerrilla communication within mass media to sow confusion within the dominant culture. In 1985, the Guerrilla Girls formed to expose corruption in the art world. Mark Dery's New York Times article on culture jamming, "The Merry Pranksters And the Art of the Hoax" was the first mention, in the mainstream media, of the phenomenon. Adbusters, a Canadian publication espousing an environmentalist critique of consumerism and advertising, began promoting aspects of culture jamming after Dery introduced founder and editor Kalle Lasn to the term through a series of articles he wrote for the magazine.

In her critique of consumerism, No Logo, the Canadian cultural commentator and political activist Naomi Klein examines culture jamming in a chapter which focuses on the work of Jorge Rodriguez-Gerada. Through an analysis of the Where the Hell is Matt viral videos, researchers Milstein and Pulos analyze how the power of the culture jam to disrupt the status quo is being threatened by increasing commercial incorporation. For example, T-Mobile utilized the Liverpool street underground station to host a flashmob to sell their mobile services. Culture jamming is a form of disruption that plays on the emotions of bystanders. Jammers want to disrupt the unconscious thought process that takes place when most consumers view a popular advertising and bring about a détournement. Activists that utilize this tactic are counting on their meme to pull on the emotional strings of people and evoke some type of reaction; the reactions that most cultural ja

Yeovil College

Yeovil College is a tertiary institution and further education college based in Yeovil, England. Its main campus is on Mudford Road, but the College operates the North Dorset Skills Centre in Shaftesbury and the Construction Skills Centre, Yeovil, not far from the Yeovil Town Football Club stadium. In conjunction with the universities of Bournemouth, the West of England and Gloucestershire, the College provides Higher Education, degree-level and professional courses at the University Centre Yeovil on Preston Road, Yeovil. Preceding the current establishment was a Science and Arts college of, first founded in 1887 by appointment of Somerset County Council. In 1947 the college re-branded, with the help of their first principal, as'Yeovil Technical College', before in September 1974, becoming the location of an early experimental Tertiary College, of which Yeovil's was only the third such in the United Kingdom; the experiment was an attempt to see if it was possible to bring all vocational and non-vocational post CSE/O-level non-degree education under one roof.

The current college was constituted from the existing Yeovil Technical College, the sixth forms of Yeovil School and Yeovil High School. Two existing sites were used: the old Tech College site became the main facility, while the nearby Yeovil School site became an annexe containing the Science Department, Business and Secretarial Schools. Subsequent new building enabled the former college site to be vacated and sold for housing development. Teaching is now concentrated on the site of the former Tech College; the teaching staff of the new college were mainly retained from the previous Tech College, while the entire science department transferred from Yeovil School, giving the new college an excellent tradition in Science Education. Among other achievements, in its early years the Chemistry Department twice won the annual "BBC Young Scientist of the Year" competition. Deemed successful, the results of the experiment has given rise to the college in its present form as well as allowing room for expansion.

Notably with the introduction of Degree level study at the University Centre Yeovil – In which Yeovil College is in partnership with. The Leonardo Building opened in September 2007 and is a 5.7 million pound development featuring new equipment and dedicated facilities for Design, Engineering and Media Students. It was opened by David Laws MP in November 2007; the College has a beauty salon, Inner Beauty, two hairdressing salons and a restaurant, the Da Vinci. All are working, commercial ventures run by students and supervised by staff, open to the public. In 2010, A Level results for students studying a full-time programme of at least three A Levels achieved a 99.1% pass rate, from 95% in 2009 and 100% in 2008. However, results in traditionally difficult subjects including Biology, Physics and Further Maths have remained high and many of the College's recent top results have been in these areas. In 2010, the full-time vocational pass rate was 95%, down from 97% in the previous year. There are a number of key events in the College calendar.

These include the annual production every February, the Further Education Awards every December, the Arts and Fashion Show in June and Festival Fortnight, featuring departmental awards ceremonies, at the end of the summer term. Yeovil College provides education for 16+ students after they leave secondary school, these courses include A-levels, GCSEs, BTEC Diplomas and the 14-19 Diplomas; the College offers a variety of part-time courses and apprenticeships, as well as business training. Yeovil College offers the Extended Project Qualification and AQA Baccalaureate to able students as part of its Gifted and Talented programme. Yeovil College operates the University Centre Yeovil in partnership with Bournemouth University, the University of the West of England and the University of Gloucestershire. Degree courses are validated by these partner institutions. Qualifications provided include Foundation and Honours degrees, Higher National Diplomas/Certificates, teaching qualifications and professional qualifications.

The latter include Chartered Institute of Marketing, the Chartered Institute of Purchasing & Supply and Institute of Legal Executives. Additionally the centre offers another from the Open College Network; the UCY has nursing students and offers a number of unique courses found nowhere else in the country, including a degree in Sustainable Graphics and Packaging and Garden History and Heritage Horticulture. The UCY holds a graduation ceremony every October. Following an internal restructuring in 2008, the College is now separated into the following departments of Faculties, each managed by a Faculty Director: Arts and Publishing, Health and Teacher Training and Hospitality, Engineering and Construction, Hair and Complementary Therapies and Preparation for Life and Work. Further restructure in 2014 has divided the curriculum into 12 "Areas" each have a centre area manager or CAM, the 12 are,Creative and Design Industries, Construction, Motor vehicle, Hospitality, ALevels, IT, Hair and Beauty Health, social care, Prep for working life, Business studies.

The College nurtures sporting talent and students are selected to play at regional and international levels. The College participates in the Talented Athlete Scholarship Scheme run by the Department for Culture Media and Sport, it has a number of academies for sports including men's an

Gladstone Avenue

Gladstone Avenue is a street in Ottawa running east from the Rideau Canal west to Parkdale Avenue. It is a residential street running just south of the downtown core, with a number of small houses in the downtown section now converted to commercial uses; the local pronunciation is phonetic, unlike that of William Ewart Gladstone's surname. Connaught Public School, just east of Parkdale Avenue. Gladstone Theatre, just west of Preston Street Saint Nicholas Adult High School, at Booth Street. McNabb Arena and Community Centre at Percy Street, one block east of Bronson Avenue; when laid out in the 1800s, the street was named Ann Street, after the wife of Thomas McKay. From 1896 until 1907, the Ottawa Hockey Club known as the Silver Seven, Stanley Cup winner, played its games at the Dey's Skating Rink at Bay Street and Gladstone. Prince George himself cut the ribbon to open Connaught Public School in 1913. In the 2000s, the street was modified to provide two lanes of traffic, bicycle lanes and traffic calming measures between Bronson Avenue and Bank Street.

In May 2005, the Salus Millennium House for the Homeless, located on Gladstone Avenue in Ottawa, was destroyed by fire. List of Ottawa, Ontario roads