click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Fir Bolg

In medieval Irish myth, the Fir Bolg are the fourth group of people to settle in Ireland. They are descended from the Muintir Nemid, an earlier group who abandoned Ireland and went to different parts of Europe; those who went to Greece became the Fir Bolg and return to the now-uninhabited Ireland. After ruling it for some time, they are overthrown by the invading Tuatha Dé Danann; the Lebor Gabála Érenn tells of Ireland being settled six times by six groups of people. The first three—the people of Cessair, the people of Partholón, the people of Nemed—are wiped out or forced to abandon the island, it says. All but thirty of Nemed's people were wiped out. Of this thirty, one group flees "into the north of the world", one group flees to Britain, another group flees to Greece; those who went into the north become the main pagan gods of Ireland. Those who went to Greece become the Fir Bolg; the LGÉ says that they were enslaved by the Greeks and made to carry bags of soil or clay, hence the name'Fir Bolg'.

The Cét-chath Maige Tuired says that they were forced to settle on poor, rocky land but that they made it into fertile fields by dumping great amounts of soil on it. After 230 years of slavery, they leave Greece at the same time. In a great fleet, the Fir Bolg sail to Iberia and on to Ireland. Led by their five chieftains, they divide Ireland into five provinces: Gann takes North Munster, Sengann takes South Munster, Genann takes Connacht, Rudraige takes Ulster and Slánga takes Leinster, they establish the High Kingship and a succession of nine High Kings rule over Ireland for the next 37 years. The last High King, Eochaid mac Eirc, is the example of a perfect king; the Fir Bolg are said to contain two sub-groups known as the Fir Domnann and Fir Gáilióin. After 37 years, the Tuath Dé arrive in Ireland, their king, asks that they be given half the island, but the Fir Bolg king Eochaid refuses. The two groups meet at the Pass of Balgatan, the ensuing battle—the First Battle of Mag Tuired—lasts for four days.

During the battle, the champion of the Fir Bolg, challenges Nuada to single combat. With one sweep of his sword, Sreng cuts off Nuada's right hand. However, the Fir Bolg are defeated and their king, Eochaid, is slain by the Morrígan, though Sreng saves them from total loss. According to some texts, the Fir Bolg flee Ireland. According to others, the Tuath Dé offer them one quarter of Ireland as their own, they choose Connacht, they are mentioned little after this in the myths. The Historia Brittonum—which was written earlier than the Lebor Gabála—says there were only three settlings of Ireland: the people of Partholón, the people of Nemed, the Gaels. However, it mentions that a leader called Builc or Builg and his followers had taken an island called Eubonia, believed to be the Isle of Man; the Lebor Gabála increases the number of settlings to six. It has been suggested that this number was chosen to match the "Six Ages of the World". Today, most scholars regard the Lebor Gabála as myth rather than history.

It is thought that its writers intended to provide an epic origin story for the Irish, like that of the Israelites, which reconciled native myth with the Christian view of history. Ireland's inhabitants are likened to the Israelites by fleeing slavery and making a great journey to a'Promised Land'; the pagan gods are depicted as a group of people with powers of sorcery. The name Fir Bolg is translated in the early literature as "men of bags"; the Irish word fir means "men" and the word bolg/bolc can mean a belly, sack, so forth. Kuno Meyer and R. A. Stewart Macalister argue that the name comes from the term Fir i mBolgaib, meaning "breeches wearers" "men in breeches", which could be interpreted as a term of contempt for the "lower orders". Macalister suggests this expression had fallen out of use by the time the Lebor Gabála was written, the writers tried to make sense of it by creating a story about men with bags, it has been suggested that it meant men who were'bulging' or'swollen' with battle fury.

The name may be based on, cognate with, Belgae. The Belgae were a group of tribes living in northern Gaul; some have suggested that the writers named a fictional race, the Fir Bolg, after a real group, the Belgae. Others, such as T. F. O'Rahilly, suggest that the Fir Bolg, Fir Domnann and Fir Gáilióin were real peoples who arrived in Ireland in ancient times, he proposed that the Fir Bolg were linked to the historical Belgae, the Fir Domnann were the historical Dumnonii and the Fir Gáilióin were the Laigin. It is suggested by John Rhys and R. A. Stewart Macalister that the Fir Bolg are the Fomorians under another guise. Macalister notes that the Fir Bolg are the only group of settlers who are not harried by the Fomorians; the Tuath Dé fight two similar battles at Mag Tuired, one against the human Fir Bolg and one against the supernatural Fomorians. The Fir Bolg lead the Fomorians to the second battle; the Fomorians seem to have represented the harmful or destructive powers of nature, while the Tuath Dé represented the gods of growth and civilization.

Na fir bolg Fir Ol nEchmacht Firbolg Carey, John "Fir Bolg: a Native Etymology Revisited" in: Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 16, pp. 77–83. Squire, Charles Celtic Myth and Legend. London: Gresham Arbois de Jubainville, Henri d' Le Cycle mythologique irlandais. Osnabrück: Zeller Wilde, Sir William R

North Cowton

North Cowton is a village and civil parish, located in Richmondshire, North Yorkshire, England. It is 8 miles north-west of the county town of Northallerton; the village is mentioned in the Domesday Book as Cattun. The head of the manor is noted as Gilling and lands before the Norman conquest belonged to Earl Edwin and Ulf. After 1086 the lands were granted to Count Alan of Brittany, with a small allocation to Godric, the steward and an unnamed individual; the manor became a mesne lordship and was granted to Adam de Mounchesny during the reign of Henry III. This passed to the Fitz Alan family around 1260 until the early 15th century when they were the possession of John Brough, his direct line of inheritance ceased around 1558 with the death of Sir Ralph Bulmer. Thereafter the descent followed that of the other Cowton manors nearby; the last confirmed lord of the manor was the Earl of Tyrconnel and thence his cousin Walter Cecil Talbot. The etymology of the village name is a combination of the Old English words of cū and tūn meaning Cow farm.

The East is to distinguish it from other Cowtons in the area. The village was known as "Long Cowton" and before that "Magna Cowton". On 22 August 1138 the English armies defeated the Scottish at nearby Cowton Moor in the Battle of the Standard; the fields behind Holywell Lane are the burial grounds for the Scottish. The name of a local public footpath called Cramble Cross is thought to derive from a cross marking the last stand of the Scottish soldiers. Nearly two centuries the Scottish had their revenge on North Cowton, raiding it in the early 14th century and burning it to the ground in 1318; the disbanded Eryholme-Richmond branch line passed nearby with a former railway station at Moulton End, around ¼ of a mile from North Cowton. The line was opened in 1846 by the Newcastle Railway Company. At one time 13 trains a day passed through Moulton End railway station in each direction; the line was closed in 1969. The old station house, station cottage and railway bridge are Grade II listed buildings.

The nearest settlements to North Cowton are East Cowton, Scorton and Dalton-on-Tees which are within 3 miles of the village. The highest point in the village is at 214 feet; the Stell is a tributary of the nearby River Wiske. The east end of the village lies close to the B1263 road; the village lies within the Richmond UK Parliament constituency, the Richmondshire North electoral division of North Yorkshire County Council and the Croft ward of Hambleton District Council. According to the 2001 UK Census, the parish was 50.4% male and 49.6% female of the total population of 550. The religious make-up was 84.5% Christian with the rest stating no religion. The ethnic distribution was 100% White. There were 216 dwellings. According to the 2011 UK Census, the parish had a total population of 503 with 50.3% male and 49.7% female. The religious make-up was 68.4% Christian with the rest stating no religion. The ethnic distribution was 99.8% White with a small Mixed Ethnic minority. There were 223 dwellings.

The local school is North and South Cowton Community Primary School which has around 40 pupils split between two sites. It is within the catchment area of Richmond School and Sixth Form College for secondary education, to the age of eighteen; the village public house is the Blacksmiths Arms. There is a village hall, football pitch, children's playground, bus stop, war memorial, public telephone box and a postbox. A petrol station/shop is just outside the village on the B1263 road; the village is served by a bus service which runs between Northallerton. There are a number including Cramble Cross. There are St Luke's Church of England and the Methodist Chapel; the chapel was built in 1827 and restored in 1881. St Luke's was built as a pastoral centre in 1968 and consecrated as the parish church on 21 October 1990. Atley Hill East Cowton South Cowton Media related to North Cowton at Wikimedia Commons

Amina Masood Janjua

Amina Masood Janjua,: born 28 April 1964 a painter and a poet, is known for her struggle against enforced disappearance in Pakistan. She is the chairperson of rights group Defence of Human Rights Pakistan, her career in activism started when her husband Masood Ahmed Janjua was disappeared on 30 July 2005. Apart from enforced disappearance her work include providing legal support to prisoners in foreign countries, arranging financial support to the families of victims of enforced disappearance and eradication of torture from jails and detention centers, she appears on local and foreign media as the spokesperson of missing persons and contribute articles in Urdu and English dailies of the country. She was born in an educated family from the marriage of Shahida and Islam Akhtar Zubari in Mardan, a city in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, her paternal grandfather Inam Ahmed Khan was a landlord and served as Cane Manager in a local sugar mill. Her father, living a retired life now, is an engineer by profession.

Her mother is an amateur writer whose writing involves fiction and general articles and is being published in local periodicals. She started her early education at Presentation Convent High School Risalpur where she studied until tenth grade. After passing her matriculation she joined Nisar Shaheed College, in Risalpur. After two years study in Nisar Shaheed College she joined F. G College for Women Rawalpindi from where she passed her BA exams with English Literature and Fine Arts as majors; as described by her in an interview she used to draw and paint on everything she could lay her hand on since early childhood. This natural talent of painting led her to Punjab University from where she got master's degree in Fine Arts securing second position and was awarded Silver Medal. After masters Pakistan's renowned painters Mansoor Rahi and Hajira Mansoor mentored and played a vital role in polishing her painting skills; as an artist her favoured medium is acrylic paints. Most of her paintings reflect an inclination towards romanticism.

She likes to paint portraits and life drawings. Her work had been exhibited in several group exhibitions, her poems appear on her blogs but she has not published any volume as of yet. She is married to Masood Ahmed Janjua, her father in law Lieutenant Colonel Raja Ali Muhammad and two elder brothers in law had served in Pakistan Army and Pakistan Air Force. She has one daughter, her husband, Masood Ahmed janjua, a successful business man and ran multiple business concerns, left home to go to Peshawar on 30 July 2005 along with his friend Faisal Faraz but did not return home neither he reached his destination. His mysterious disappearance could not be accounted for but on certain evidences convinced her that he had been picked up by an intelligence agency of the country, it was further established through the statement of one Dr Imran Munir who remained in the custody of military, was court martialed though released on by the orders of Supreme Court of Pakistan. Dr Imran in an official statement given to the government functionaries testified that he has seen and met Masood Ahmed Janjua in a secret detention centre.

Amina states that she was devastated by the disappearance of her husband and found herself disoriented for many months while taking random measures to trace her husband. Police was of no help and did not register a case, she started to approach different figures in power. She wrote letters to anyone who she thought could help including Gen Pervez Musharraf, Army Chief and President of Pakistan at that time. All her efforts turned out to be futile. Early in her struggle she came to know that there are countless other people who are victims of enforced disappearance but do not have a remedy for their malady. Victim families were forced to remain silent for fear of persecution under military rule, she started campaigning among the victims families Co-Founding The Activist group named Defense of Human Rights Alongside Lal Masjid's Abdul Rashid Ghazi. Under the banner of Defence of Human Rights, she organized her activities to trace not only her own husband but all the others who had disappeared. After disappointment from all quarters she got out of her home and staged her first road protest on 4 September 2006.

This first protest was not the last because she continued this protest on daily basis for next two months. After two months protest it was on 9 Oct 2006 that proceedings of Suo Moto case of Masood Janjua along with some other missing persons started in Supreme Court of Pakistan, her campaigning brought results and by the end of 2006 DHR had registered and submitted 100 cases of disappearances into Supreme Court. On 28 Dec 2006 in a bid to deliver a letter at GHQ gate Amina was set on marching along with her kids and other families, but the authorities subjected them to a brutal crackdown in front of Flashman's hotel Rawalpindi. Children of Amina Masood Janjua were targeted. Ali, 14, Muhammad, 15, were beaten mercilessly and 9-year-old daughter was fainted. Muhammad was carried away forcefully by police. In 2007 earlier on 9 March and on 3 November Gen Perwaiz Musharaf sacked Chief Justice of Pakistan Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry along with rest of the judiciary and put all the judges under house arrest.

Pakistan's civil society in general and lawyer's community in particular were outraged and started an historical movement for the restoration of judiciary. The movement was popularly known as "Lawyers' Movement". Missing person families under Amina's leadership stepped out and joined this

Atatürk Museum (Thessaloniki)

The Atatürk Museum is a historic house museum in Thessaloniki, Central Macedonia, Greece. The house is the birthplace of the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, born here in 1881, it is a three-floor house with a courtyard on 24 Apostolou Pavlou Street, next to the Turkish Consulate. Before the capture of Thessaloniki by the Greek Army in 1912, it was known as "Koca Kasım Paşa district, Islahhane street", it was built before 1870 and in 1935 the Thessaloniki City Council gave it to the Turkish State, which decided to convert it into a museum dedicated to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Until the Istanbul pogrom of 1955, the street in front of the house was named "Kemal Ataturk"; the building has a courtyard. It was repainted to its original pink. Most of the furniture is authentic. Any missing items were replaced with furniture from Kemal's mausoleum and from Topkapi Palace in Istanbul. There are photographs on all the walls of Kemal at various periods of his life. There are four rooms on the ground floor.

On the 1st floor is the reception room, with European sofas, a large console table, a chased brazier. The most impressive room on the 2nd floor is the one in which Kemal was born, a large room with a banquette, his desk, a large brazier, it faces another room. These include formal dress, smoking requisites, cutlery and other items. All the documents relating to Kemal's schooldays have been hung on the walls. A pomegranate tree planted by Kemal's father still grows in the courtyard. In September 1955 as the Cyprus EOKA crisis unleashed in the Mediterranean island, a bomb exploded close to the Turkish consulate damaging the Atatürk Museum; the damage was minimal with some broken windows. But it marked the beginning of anti-Greek pogrom in Istanbul. Six years the Turkish Prime Minister Adnan Menderes was deposed and a Turkish court found that the bombing had been ordered by his government. In 1981 a replica of the house was built in Ankara. Www.museumsofmacedonia.gr www.studylanguages.org

Jeff Cripps

Jeff Cripps is an Australian recording artist and music producer both for many local bands within New South Wales as well as throughout Australia and many internationally. Many see him as a producer of great blues music though he can and has recorded many styles for a variety of bands. Jeff always works out of the ASharp Recording Studio in Sydney, NSW though he does a copious amount of live events and mixing. Over the years Jeff has worked with and produced works for several big bands and artists including The Vines, Fred Smith, Disney The Wolverines, Mortal Sin, Anglican Youth Works, Cursed Legacy, The D4, James Blundell and The Atlantics, he has worked on various other regional and international projects including producing the soundtrack for the movie Garage Days and producing the official AFL songs. He was the lead guitarist and vocalist of the band Mississippi Shakedown and was the drummer in the band Ol' 55 John Paul Young, Col Joye, Marc Hunter, Jackie Orszaczky, The Fiftys, The Cadillacs, The Atlantics.

As a reflection of his work Jeff Cripps has received numerous music awards, some of which include: Goulburn Music Festival: producer of the year in 2003 2005 and 2006, Album of the Year 2003, Album of the Year 1999 Aust Blues Music Awards: Producer of the Year 2005, Female Vocalist of the Year 2001 Italian Song Festival: Best Song Country Music Australian Awards: Gold Guitar 2004Jeff is a former owner of A Sharp Studio audio engineer at ASharp Recording Studio in Sydney, New South Wales. Jeff now is a member of The Brazilians. ASharp Recording Studio

Summerfield, North Carolina

Summerfield is a town in Guilford County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 7,018 at the 2000 census. At the 2010 census, the population had risen to 10,232; the town is regarded as a suburb of Greensboro and as development has grown, the town has transformed from a rural farming area into a bedroom community. It features a town hall, along Oak Ridge Road, west of Battleground Avenue, a shopping center east of Battleground Avenue near Auburn Road and NC 150. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 27.3 square miles, of which 27.1 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. At the 2010 census, there were 10,232 people, 2,518 households and 2,094 families residing in the town; the population density was 258.9 per square mile. There were 2,653 housing units at an average density of 97.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.47% Caucasian, 4.03% African American, 0.44% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.56% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino were 1.42% of the population. There were 2,518 households of which 41.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.4% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.8% were non-families. 14.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.07. Age distribution was 28.1% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. The median household income was $71,738, the median family income was $79,433. Males had a median income of $51,838 versus $32,798 for females; the per capita income for the town was $33,116. About 2.5% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over.

Summerfield serves as home to Summerfield Elementary School which serves as the primary school for grades kindergarten to fifth grade in the town. Summerfield Charter Academy, a charter school operated by National Heritage Academies is located in Summerfield and educates children from kindergarten through eighth grade although it is not as open and flexible as most charter schools tend to be. Most homes Summerfield attend Northern Guilford Middle School, Northern Guilford High school. For some, residents attend Northwest Guilford Middle School followed by Northwest Guilford High School for high school, both of which are located nearby in Greensboro; the mascot of the NW schools and Summerfield Elementary School is the Viking. Students of SCA are known as the Summerfield Stamp. Summerfield School Gymnasium and Community Center has a gym, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012; the Summerfield Historic District was listed in 2005. Former North Carolina Governor Alexander Martin had a house that he lived in the town square of Summerfield, not standing today.

George Washington stayed in the house during the Revolutionary War. There is a historical home on the square known as the Martin House, but it was lived in by a son of the Governor; the Martin House is owned by the town of Summerfield. Alexander Martin, former North Carolina Governor. Andrew Jackson, 7th president of the United States, who lived here for one year before he became president. Harold L. Martin, Current Chancellor of North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University Official website of Summerfield, NC The Stokesdale Star a local newspaper serving Summerfield, NC The Northwest Observer a local newspaper serving Summerfield, NC Atlantic & Yadkin Railway