A fire-resistance rating means the duration for which a passive fire protection system can withstand a standard fire resistance test. This can be quantified as a measure of time, or it may entail a host of other criteria, involving other evidence of functionality or fitness for purpose; the following depict the most used international time/temperature curves: There are many international variations for nearly countless types of products and systems, some with multiple test requirements. Canada's Institute for Research in Construction requires a special test regime for firestops for plastic pipe penetrants. Fire endurance tests for this application must be run under 50Pa positive furnace pressure in order to adequately simulate the effect of potential temperature differences between indoor and outdoor temperatures in Canada's winters. Special hoods are applied here to provide suction on the top side of a test assembly in order to reach the 50Pa pressure differential. Afterwards, a 30PSI hose-stream test may be applied.
Outdoor spray fireproofing methods that must be qualified to the hydrocarbon curve may be required to pass a host of environmental tests before any burn takes place, to minimize the likelihood that ordinary operational environments cannot render a vital system component useless before it encounters a fire. If critical environmental conditions are not satisfied, an assembly may not be eligible for a fire-resistance rating. Regardless of the complexity of any given test regime that may lead to a rating, the premise is product certification and, most listing and approval use and compliance. Testing without certification and installations that cannot be matched with an appropriate certification listing, are not recognised by any Authority Having Jurisdiction unless it is in a realm where product certification is optional; the following classifications may be attained when testing in accordance with UL 72. This rating is the requirement in data safes and vault structures for protecting digital information on magnetic media or hard drives.
Temperatures inside the protected chamber must be held below 125 °F for the time period specified, such as Class 125-2 Hour, with temperatures up to 2,000 °F outside the vault. The temperature reading is taken on the inside surfaces of the protective structure. Maintaining the temperature below 125 °F is critical because data is lost above that temperature threshold if the media or hard drives appear to be intact; this is the rating required to protect microfilm and other film-based information storage media. Above 150 °F film is distorted by the heat and information is lost. A Class 150-2 Hour vault must keep the temperature below 150 °F. for at least two hours, with temperatures up to 2,000 °F. outside the vault. This rating is the requirement for protecting paper documents. Above 350 °F paper is distorted by the heat and information is lost. A Class 350-4 Hour vault must keep the temperature below 350 °F. for at least four hours, with temperatures up to 2,000 °F. outside the vault. Most countries use the building elements curve for residential and commercial spaces, nearly identical in most countries as, what results by burning wood.
The building elements curve is characterized jointly by, but not limited to, DIN4102, BS476, ASTM E119, ULC-S101, etc. For industrial facilities in the hydrocarbon & petrochemical industries, a hydrocarbon curve is used, reflecting a more rapid temperature rise; the only used exposure beyond this, apart from the more recent tunnel curves shown above, would be the jet fire exposure standards such as ISO 22899, which are used where equipment may be subject to the extreme heat and momentum effects of jet fire exposure. Big differences between different countries in terms of the use of the curves include the use of pipes, which shield the furnace thermocouples inside of NAFTA testing laboratories; this slows down the response time and results in a somewhat more conservative test regime in North America. On the other hand, the ISO based. North America selectively uses a hose-stream test between 30 and 45PSI, to simulate real-world impacts and damages that may not be simulated in a laboratory; the US Navy insists on a 90PSI hose-stream test for some of its assemblies, which may simulate the pressure available to firefighters in fighting a fire, but which has little to do with countermeasures against damaging effects of manual fire suppression.
The hose-stream is intended to add a level of toughness to matters because without this, some flimsy systems can pass a test, thus receive a rating and thus be permissible by a building code but be so weak that ordinary building use may damage a thus qualified system before it encounters a fire. Germany's DIN4102 includes a significant impact test for a potential firewall, which is, applied from the wrong side: the cold side. Applying the impact from the cold side is more practical to do in a lab setting, potential impacts should come from the exposed side, not the unexposed side. Still, for the person designing and paying for the test, the fire resistance itself may be rather uneventful unless major problems appear; the burn itself is the long duration, up to 4 hours, but the hose stream test only lasts a few minutes, with large damage potential due to the sudden thermal and kinetic impacts, as the fire was upwards of 1,100 °C, whereas the sudden hose-stream test is as cold as the domestic water fed to the fire hose used in the test, wh
Juan de Sanct Martín known as Juan de San Martín, was a Spanish conquistador. Little is known about De Sanct Martín, apart from a passage in El Carnero by Juan Rodríguez Freyle and Epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada, a work of uncertain authorship, he took part in the expedition from Santa Marta into the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes led by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and founded Cuítiva, Boyacá in 1550. Juan de Sanct Martín headed the left flank of the Spanish troops in the Battle of Tocarema against the Panche on August 20, 1538, while his fellow conquistador Juan de Céspedes commanded the right flank. In this battle, Juan de Sanct Martín was hurt himself. Juan de Sanct Martín had confronted the Panche the year before, when he was sent to the west while De Céspedes went south. Due to the resistance of the bellicose Panche, De Sanct Martín returned to the Spanish camp. List of conquistadors in Colombia Spanish conquest of the Muisca El Dorado Hernán Pérez de Quesada Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Blanco Barros, José Agustín.
S.a. Historia de Bogotá, 1–18. Sociedad Geográfica de Colombia. Accessed 2017-03-06. Rodríguez Freyle and Darío Achury Valenzuela. 1979. El Carnero - Conquista i descubrimiento del nuevo reino de Granada de las Indias Occidentales del mar oceano, i fundacion de la ciudad de Santa Fe de Bogota, 1–598. Fundacion Biblioteca Ayacuch. Accessed 2017-03-06. N, N. 1979. Epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada, 81–97. Banco de la República. Accessed 2017-03-06. Acosta, Joaquín. 1848. Compendio histórico del descubrimiento y colonización de la Nueva Granada en el siglo décimo sexto - Historical overview of discovery and colonization of New Granada in the sixteenth century, 1–460. Beau Press. Accessed 2017-03-01. De Castellanos, Juan. 1857. Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias, 1–567. Accessed 2017-03-01. Fernández de Piedrahita, Lucas. 1676. VI. Historia general de las conquistas del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Accessed 2017-03-01. Jiménez de Quesada, Gonzalo. 1576. Memoria de los descubridores, que entraron conmigo a descubrir y conquistar el Reino de Granada.
Accessed 2017-03-01. Ocampo López, Javier. 1996. Leyendas populares colombianas - Popular Colombian legends, 1–384. Plaza y Janes Editores. Accessed 2017-03-01. De Plaza, José Antonio. 1810. Memorias para la historia de la Nueva Granada desde su descubrimiento el 20 de julio de 1810, 1–464. Imprenta del Neo-Granadino. Accessed 2017-03-01. Simón, Pedro. 1892. Noticias historiales de las conquistas de Tierra Firme en las Indias occidentales vol.1-5. Accessed 2017-03-01
John David "Honey" Russell was an American basketball player and coach born, inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1964. He turned professional after his sophomore year of high school, for the next 28 years he played for numerous early 20th century pro teams, including many in the American Basketball League, his career included over 3,200 pro games. He was the first coach of the NBA's Boston Celtics. Russell coached basketball at Seton Hall University from 1936 to 1943 and again from 1949 to 1960, his teams won 294 games and lost 137. In 1940 and 1941, Seton Hall ran its winning streak to a national record at the time; the 1952–53 team won the National Invitation Tournament at Madison Square Garden in New York City. That team won 31 games, including 27 in a row. Russell was a scout in professional baseball, working for the Atlanta Braves, Montreal Expos and Chicago White Sox. Of the many players he signed, 23 made it to the major leagues, including the Joe and Frank Torre, Don McMahon, Earl Williams.
Honey Russell at the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame John Russell @ basketball-reference.com Honey Russell @ ProBasketballEncyclopedia.com