The ARM Cortex-A7 MPCore is a 32-bit microprocessor core licensed by ARM Holdings implementing the ARMv7-A architecture announced in 2011. It has two target applications; the other use is in the big. LITTLE architecture, combining one or more A7 cores with one or more Cortex-A15 cores into a heterogeneous system. To do this it is feature-compatible with the A15. Key features of the Cortex-A7 core are: Partial dual-issue, in-order microarchitecture with an 8-stage pipeline NEON SIMD instruction set extension VFPv4 Floating Point Unit Thumb-2 instruction set encoding Jazelle RCT Hardware virtualization Large Page Address Extensions Integrated level 2 Cache 1.9 DMIPS / MHz Typical Clock Speed 1.5GHz Several system-on-chips have implemented the Cortex-A7 core, including: Allwinner A20 Allwinner A31 Allwinner A83T Allwinner H3 Broadcom BCM23550 quad-core HSPA+ Multimedia Processor Broadcom BCM2836, designed for Raspberry Pi 2 NXP Semiconductor QorIQ Layerscape LS1 Freescale i. MX 6 UltraLite HiSilicon K3V3, big.
LITTLE architecture with dual-core Cortex-A7 and dual-core Cortex-A15. Use ARM Mali-T658 GPU. Marvell PXA1088 Mediatek MT6572 Mediatek MT6582 Mediatek MT6589 Mediatek MT6592 Mstar MSB2531A ARM Cortex A7 32bit 800MHZ Qualcomm Snapdragon 200 and Snapdragon 400 MSM8212 and MSM8612, MSM8226, MSM8626 and MSM8926 Samsung Exynos 5 Octa, big. LITTLE architecture with quad-core Cortex-A7 and quad-core Cortex-A15. Use Imagination Technologies PowerVR SGX544MP3 GPU. Samsung Exynos 5 Octa, big. LITTLE architecture with quad-core Cortex-A7 and quad-core Cortex-A15. Use ARM Mali-T628MP6 GPU. ARM architecture List of ARM cores List of applications of ARM cores Comparison of ARMv7-A cores JTAG ARM HoldingsOfficial website Cortex-A7 Technical Reference ManualsOtherCortex-A7 instruction cycle timings
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the industrial and medical radio bands, from 2.400 to 2.485 GHz, building personal area networks. It was conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 30,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing and consumer electronics; the IEEE standardized no longer maintains the standard. The Bluetooth SIG oversees development of the specification, manages the qualification program, protects the trademarks. A manufacturer must meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device. A network of patents apply to the technology; the development of the "short-link" radio technology named Bluetooth, was initiated in 1989 by Nils Rydbeck, CTO at Ericsson Mobile in Lund, Sweden and by Johan Ullman. The purpose was to develop wireless headsets, according to two inventions by Johan Ullman, SE 8902098-6, issued 1989-06-12 and SE 9202239, issued 1992-07-24.
Nils Rydbeck tasked Tord Wingren with specifying and Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson with developing. Both were working for Ericsson in Lund. Invented by Dutch electrical engineer Jaap Haartsen, working for telecommunications company Ericsson in 1994; the first consumer bluetooth launched in 1999. It was a hand free mobile headset which earned the technology the"Best of show Technology Award" at COMDEX; the first Bluetooth mobile phone was the Sony Ericsson T36 but it was the revised T39 model which made it to store shelves in 2001. The name Bluetooth is an Anglicised version of the Scandinavian Blåtand/Blåtann, the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald Bluetooth who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom; the implication is. The idea of this name was proposed in 1997 by Jim Kardach of Intel who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers. At the time of this proposal he was reading Frans G. Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and King Harald Bluetooth.
The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes and, Harald's initials. Bluetooth operates at frequencies between 2402 and 2480 MHz, or 2400 and 2483.5 MHz including guard bands 2 MHz wide at the bottom end and 3.5 MHz wide at the top. This is in the globally unlicensed industrial and medical 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. Bluetooth uses. Bluetooth divides transmitted data into packets, transmits each packet on one of 79 designated Bluetooth channels; each channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. It performs 1600 hops per second, with adaptive frequency-hopping enabled. Bluetooth Low Energy uses 2 MHz spacing. Gaussian frequency-shift keying modulation was the only modulation scheme available. Since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, π/4-DQPSK and 8-DPSK modulation may be used between compatible devices. Devices functioning with GFSK are said to be operating in basic rate mode where an instantaneous bit rate of 1 Mbit/s is possible; the term Enhanced Data Rate is used to describe π/4-DPSK and 8-DPSK schemes, each giving 2 and 3 Mbit/s respectively.
The combination of these modes in Bluetooth radio technology is classified as a BR/EDR radio. Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master/slave architecture. One master may communicate with up to seven slaves in a piconet. All devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 µs intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 µs, two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 µs. In the simple case of single-slot packets, the master transmits in slots and receives in odd slots; the slave, receives in slots and transmits in odd slots. Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long, but in all cases the master's transmission begins in slots and the slave's in odd slots; the above excludes Bluetooth Low Energy, introduced in the 4.0 specification, which uses the same spectrum but somewhat differently. A master BR/EDR Bluetooth device can communicate with a maximum of seven devices in a piconet, though not all devices reach this maximum; the devices can switch roles, by agreement, the slave can become the master.
The Bluetooth Core Specification provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatternet, in which certain devices play the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another. At any given time, data can be transferred between one other device; the master chooses. Since it is the master that chooses which slave to address, whereas a slave is supposed to listen in each receive slot, being a master is a lighter burden than being a slave. Being a master of seven slaves is possible; the specification is vague as to required behavior in scatternets. Bluetooth is a standard wire-replacement communications proto
This article provides information about the physical aspects of Universal Serial Bus, USB: connectors and power. The initial versions of the USB standard specified connectors that were easy to use and that would have acceptable life spans. Higher-speed development of the USB standard gave rise to another family of connectors to permit additional data paths. All versions of USB specify cable properties. X cables include additional data paths; the USB standard included power supply to peripheral devices. USB has been selected as the standard charging format for many mobile phones, reducing the proliferation of proprietary chargers; the three sizes of USB connectors are the default or standard format intended for desktop or portable equipment, the mini intended for mobile equipment, the thinner micro size, for low-profile mobile equipment such as mobile phones and tablets. There are five speeds for USB data transfer: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed, SuperSpeed, SuperSpeed+; the modes have cabling requirements.
USB devices have some choice of implemented modes, USB version is not a reliable statement of implemented modes. Modes are identified by their names and icons, the specifications suggests that plugs and receptacles be colour-coded. Unlike other data buses, USB connections are directed. Only downstream facing ports provide power. Thus, USB cables have different ends: B, with different physical connectors for each; each format has a receptacle defined for each of the A and B ends. USB cables have plugs, the corresponding receptacles are on the computers or electronic devices. In common practice, the A end is the standard format, the B side varies over standard and micro; the mini and micro formats provide for USB On-The-Go with a hermaphroditic AB receptacle, which accepts either an A or a B plug. On-The-Go allows USB between peers without discarding the directed topology by choosing the host at connection time; the connectors the USB committee specifies support a number of USB's underlying goals, reflect lessons learned from the many connectors the computer industry has used.
The female connector mounted on the host or device is called the receptacle, the male connector attached to the cable is called the plug. The official USB specification documents periodically define the term male to represent the plug, female to represent the receptacle. By design, it is difficult to insert a USB plug into its receptacle incorrectly; the USB specification requires that the cable plug and receptacle be marked so the user can recognize the proper orientation. The type-C plug is reversible. USB cables and small USB devices are held in place by the gripping force from the receptacle, with no screws, clips, or thumb-turns as other connectors use; the different A and B plugs prevent accidentally connecting two power sources. However, some of this directed topology is lost with the advent of multi-purpose USB connections, which require A-to-A, B-to-B, sometimes Y/splitter cables. See the USB On-The-Go connectors section below for a more detailed summary description. There are cables with A plugs on both ends, which may be valid if the cable includes, for example, a USB host-to-host transfer device with 2 ports.
The standard connectors were designed to be more robust than many past connectors. This is because USB is hot-pluggable, the connectors would be used more and with less care, than previous connectors. Standard USB has a minimum rated lifetime of 1,500 cycles of insertion and removal, the mini-USB receptacle increases this to 5,000 cycles, the newer Micro-USB and USB-C receptacles are both designed for a minimum rated lifetime of 10,000 cycles of insertion and removal. To accomplish this, a locking device was added and the leaf-spring was moved from the jack to the plug, so that the most-stressed part is on the cable side of the connection; this change was made. In standard USB, the electrical contacts in a USB connector are protected by an adjacent plastic tongue, the entire connecting assembly is protected by an enclosing metal shell; the shell on the plug makes contact with the receptacle before any of the internal pins. The shell is grounded, to dissipate static electricity and to shield the wires within the connector.
The USB standard specifies tolerances for compliant USB connectors to minimize physical incompatibilities in connectors from different vendors. The USB specification defines limits to the size of a connecting device in the area around its plug, so that adjacent ports are not blocked. Compliant devices must either fit within the size restrictions or support a compliant extension cable that does. USB 2.0 uses two wires for power, two for differential serial data signals. Mini and micro connectors have their GND connections moved from pin #4 to pin #5, while their pin #4 serves as an ID pin for the On-The-Go host/client identification. USB 3.0 provides two additional differential pairs, provi
Quanta Computer Incorporated is a Taiwan-based manufacturer of notebook computers and other electronic hardware. Its customers include Apple Inc. Dell, Hewlett-Packard Inc. Alienware, Amazon.com, Fujitsu, Lenovo, LG, Maxdata, MPC, BlackBerry Ltd, Sharp Corporation, Siemens AG, Sun Microsystems, Verizon Wireless, Vizio. It was founded by Barry Lam in 1988. Lam continues to head the company. Quanta has extended its businesses into enterprise network systems, home entertainment, mobile communication, automotive electronics, digital home markets; the company designs and markets GPS systems, including handheld GPS, in-car GPS, Bluetooth GPS and GPS with other positioning technologies. Quanta Computer was announced as the original design manufacturer for the XO-1 by the One Laptop per Child project on December 13, 2005, took an order for one million laptops as of February 16, 2007. In October 2008, it was announced that Acer would phase out Quanta from the production chain, instead outsource manufacturing of 15 million Aspire One netbooks to Compal Electronics.
In 2011, Quanta designed servers in conjunction with Facebook as part of the Open Compute Project. It was estimated that Quanta had a 31% worldwide market share of notebook computers in the first quarter of 2008. Apple Watch Apple Macbook Air Apple Macbook Pro Subsidiaries of Quanta Computer include: Quanta Cloud Technology Inc - provider of data center hardware. FaceVsion Technology Inc - telecommunications and electronic products. CloudCast Technology Inc - information software and data processing - liquidated in February 2017. TWDT Precision Co. Ltd. - 55% ownership, sold in June 2016. Shanghai, China This was the first mainland China plant built by Quanta Computer, in December 2000, to focus on OEM and ODM production and employs nearly 30,000 people. Huangjian Tang, Quanta's Chairman for China, manages seven major plants, F1 to F7, two large warehouses, H1 and H2, the Q-BUS Research and Development facility. Chongqing, China Built in April 2010. Quanta Computer invested and built a plant in Chongqing, the third plant built by Quanta Computer in China.
2010 "Fortune" - the world's top 500 enterprises. Ranked 327 2009 topped the "World Magazine" Benchmarking Enterprise Reputation: Chairman Barry Lam won the "most respected entrepreneurs entrepreneurs" glory 2009 topped the U. S. "Business Week" - "Global Tech 100" Ranked 7 2008 topped the U. S. "Fortune" - "2008 World's most respected enterprises" Ranked 12 In 2008, LG Electronics sued Quanta Computer company for patent infringement, when Quanta used Intel components with non Intel components. The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that LG, who had a patent sharing deal with Intel did not have the right to sue, because Quanta, being a consumer, did not need to abide by patent agreements with Intel and LG. Official website Quanta market share
Wi-Fi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that complete after many years of testing the 802.11 committee interoperability certification testing. Devices that can use Wi-Fi technologies include, among others and laptops, video game consoles and tablets, smart TVs, digital audio players, digital cameras and drones. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the Internet via a wireless access point; such an access point has a range of about 20 meters indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping access points. Different versions of Wi-Fi exist, with radio bands and speeds. Wi-Fi most uses the 2.4 gigahertz UHF and 5 gigahertz SHF ISM radio bands. Each channel can be time-shared by multiple networks.
These wavelengths work best for line-of-sight. Many common materials absorb or reflect them, which further restricts range, but can tend to help minimise interference between different networks in crowded environments. At close range, some versions of Wi-Fi, running on suitable hardware, can achieve speeds of over 1 Gbit/s. Anyone within range with a wireless network interface controller can attempt to access a network. Wi-Fi Protected Access is a family of technologies created to protect information moving across Wi-Fi networks and includes solutions for personal and enterprise networks. Security features of WPA have included stronger protections and new security practices as the security landscape has changed over time. In 1971, ALOHAnet connected the Hawaiian Islands with a UHF wireless packet network. ALOHAnet and the ALOHA protocol were early forerunners to Ethernet, the IEEE 802.11 protocols, respectively. A 1985 ruling by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission released the ISM band for unlicensed use.
These frequency bands are the same ones used by equipment such as microwave ovens and are subject to interference. In 1991, NCR Corporation with AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier systems, under the name WaveLAN. The Australian radio-astronomer Dr John O'Sullivan with his colleagues Terence Percival, Graham Daniels, Diet Ostry, John Deane developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation research project, "a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle". Dr O'Sullivan and his colleagues are credited with inventing Wi-Fi. In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents for a method used in Wi-Fi to "unsmear" the signal; the first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds, this proved to be popular. In 1999, the Wi-Fi Alliance formed as a trade association to hold the Wi-Fi trademark under which most products are sold.
Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations. In April 2009, 14 technology companies agreed to pay CSIRO $1 billion for infringements on CSIRO patents; this led to Australia labeling Wi-Fi as an Australian invention, though this has been the subject of some controversy. CSIRO won a further $220 million settlement for Wi-Fi patent-infringements in 2012 with global firms in the United States required to pay the CSIRO licensing rights estimated to be worth an additional $1 billion in royalties. In 2016, the wireless local area network Test Bed was chosen as Australia's contribution to the exhibition A History of the World in 100 Objects held in the National Museum of Australia; the name Wi-Fi, commercially used at least as early as August 1999, was coined by the brand-consulting firm Interbrand. The Wi-Fi Alliance had hired Interbrand to create a name, "a little catchier than'IEEE 802.11b Direct Sequence'." Phil Belanger, a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alliance who presided over the selection of the name "Wi-Fi", has stated that Interbrand invented Wi-Fi as a pun on the word hi-fi, a term for high-quality audio technology.
Interbrand created the Wi-Fi logo. The yin-yang Wi-Fi logo indicates the certification of a product for interoperability; the Wi-Fi Alliance used the advertising slogan "The Standard for Wireless Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was created. While inspired by the term hi-fi, the name was never "Wireless Fidelity"; the Wi-Fi Alliance was called the "Wireless Fidelity Alliance Inc" in some publications. Non-Wi-Fi technologies intended for fixed points, such as Motorola Canopy, are described as fixed wireless. Alternative wireless technologies include mobile phone standards, such as 2G, 3G, 4G, LTE; the name is sometimes written as WiFi, Wifi, or wifi, but these are not approved by the Wi-Fi Alliance. IEEE is a separate, but related organization and their website has stated "WiFi is a short name for Wireless Fidelity". To connect to a Wi-Fi LAN, a computer has to be equipped with a wireless network interface controller; the combination of computer and interface controllers is called a station.
A service set is the set of all the devices associated with a particular Wi-Fi network. The service set can be local, extended or mesh; each service set has an associated identifier, the 32-byte Service Set Identifier, which identifies the partic
Secure Digital abbreviated as SD, is a non-volatile memory card format developed by the SD Card Association for use in portable devices. The standard was introduced in August 1999 by joint efforts between SanDisk and Toshiba as an improvement over MultiMediaCards, has become the industry standard; the three companies formed SD-3C, LLC, a company that licenses and enforces intellectual property rights associated with SD memory cards and SD host and ancillary products. The companies formed the SD Association, a non-profit organization, in January 2000 to promote and create SD Card standards. SDA today has about 1,000 member companies; the SDA uses several trademarked logos owned and licensed by SD-3C to enforce compliance with its specifications and assure users of compatibility. In 1999, SanDisk and Toshiba agreed to develop and market the Secure Digital Memory Card; the card was derived from the MultiMediaCard and provided digital rights management based on the Secure Digital Music Initiative standard and for the time, a high memory density.
It was designed to compete with the Memory Stick, a DRM product that Sony had released the year before. Developers predicted; the trademarked SD logo was developed for the Super Density Disc, the unsuccessful Toshiba entry in the DVD format war. For this reason the D within the logo resembles an optical disc. At the 2000 Consumer Electronics Show trade show, the three companies announced the creation of the SD Association to promote SD cards; the SD Association, headquartered in San Ramon, United States, started with about 30 companies and today consists of about 1,000 product manufacturers that make interoperable memory cards and devices. Early samples of the SD Card became available in the first quarter of 2000, with production quantities of 32 and 64 MB cards available three months later; the miniSD form was introduced at March 2003 CeBIT by SanDisk Corporation which announced and demonstrated it. The SDA adopted the miniSD card in 2003 as a small form factor extension to the SD card standard.
While the new cards were designed for mobile phones, they are packaged with a miniSD adapter that provides compatibility with a standard SD memory card slot. In September 2006, SanDisk announced the 4 GB miniSDHC. Like the SD and SDHC, the miniSDHC card has the same form factor as the older miniSD card but the HC card requires HC support built into the host device. Devices that support miniSDHC work with miniSD and miniSDHC, but devices without specific support for miniSDHC work only with the older miniSD card. Since 2008, miniSD cards were no longer produced; the microSD removable miniaturized Secure Digital flash memory cards were named T-Flash or TF, abbreviations of TransFlash. TransFlash and microSD cards are functionally identical allowing either to operate in devices made for the other. SanDisk had conceived microSD when its chief technology officer and the chief technology officer of Motorola concluded that current memory cards were too large for mobile phones; the card was called T-Flash, but just before product launch, T-Mobile sent a cease-and-desist letter to SanDisk claiming that T-Mobile owned the trademark on T-, the name was changed to TransFlash.
At CTIA Wireless 2005, the SDA announced the small microSD form factor along with SDHC secure digital high capacity formatting in excess of 2 GB with a minimum sustained read and write speed of 17.6 Mbit/s. SanDisk induced the SDA to administer the microSD standard; the SDA approved the final microSD specification on July 13, 2005. MicroSD cards were available in capacities of 32, 64, 128 MB; the Motorola E398 was the first mobile phone to contain a TransFlash card. A few years their competitors began using microSD cards; the SDHC format, announced in January 2006, brought improvements such as 32 GB storage capacity and mandatory support for FAT32 filesystems. In April, the SDA released a detailed specification for the non-security related parts of the SD memory card standard and for the Secure Digital Input Output cards and the standard SD host controller. In January 2009, the SDA announced the SDXC family, which supports cards up to 2 TB and speeds up to 300 MB/s, it features mandatory support for the exFAT filesystem.
SDXC was announced at Consumer Electronics Show 2009. At the same show, SanDisk and Sony announced a comparable Memory Stick XC variant with the same 2 TB maximum as SDXC, Panasonic announced plans to produce 64 GB SDXC cards. On March 6, Pretec introduced the first SDXC card, a 32 GB card with a read/write speed of 400 Mbit/s, but only early in 2010 did compatible host devices come onto the market, including Sony's Handycam HDR-CX55V camcorder, Canon's EOS 550D Digital SLR camera, a USB card reader from Panasonic, an integrated SDXC card reader from JMicron. The earliest laptops to integrate SDXC card readers relied on a USB 2.0 bus, which does not have the bandwidth to support SDXC at full speed. In early 2010, commercial SDXC cards appeared from Toshiba and SanDisk. In early 2011, Centon Electronics, Inc. and Lexar began shipping SDXC cards rated at Speed Class 10. Pretec offered cards from 8 GB to 128 GB rated at Speed Class 16. In September 2011, SanDisk released a 64 GB microSDXC card. Kingmax released a comparable product in 2011.
In April 2012, Panasonic introduced MicroP2 card format for professional video applications. The cards are full-size SDHC or SDXC UHS-II cards, rated at UHS Speed Class U1. An adapter allows MicroP
Google Play is a digital distribution service operated and developed by Google LLC. It serves as the official app store for the Android operating system, allowing users to browse and download applications developed with the Android software development kit and published through Google. Google Play serves as a digital media store, offering music, books and television programs, it offered Google hardware devices for purchase until the introduction of a separate online hardware retailer, Google Store, on March 11, 2015, it offered news publications and magazines before the revamp of Google News in May 15, 2018. Applications are available through Google Play either free of charge or at a cost, they can be downloaded directly on an Android device through the Play Store mobile app or by deploying the application to a device from the Google Play website. Applications exploiting hardware capabilities of a device can be targeted to users of devices with specific hardware components, such as a motion sensor or a front-facing camera.
The Google Play store had over 82 billion app downloads in 2016 and has reached over 3.5 million apps published in 2017. It has been the subject of multiple issues concerning security, in which malicious software has been approved and uploaded to the store and downloaded by users, with varying degrees of severity. Google Play was launched on March 6, 2012, bringing together the Android Market, Google Music, the Google eBookstore under one brand, marking a shift in Google's digital distribution strategy; the services included in the Google Play are Google Play Books, Google Play Games, Google Play Movies & TV, Google Play Music. Following their re-branding, Google has expanded the geographical support for each of the services; as of 2017, Google Play features over 3.5 million Android applications. Users in over 145 countries can purchase apps, although Google notes on its support pages that "Paid content may not be available in some provinces or territories if the governing country is listed above."
Developers in over 150 locations can distribute apps on Google Play, though not every location supports merchant registration. To distribute apps, developers have to pay a one-time $25 registration fee for a Google Play Developer Console account. App developers can control which countries an app is distributed to, as well as the pricing for the app and in-app purchases in each country. Developers receive 70% of the application price, while the remaining 30% goes to the distribution partner and operating fees. Developers can set up sales, with the original price struck out and a banner underneath informing users when the sale ends. Google Play allows developers to release early versions of apps to a select group of users, as alpha or beta tests. Developers can release apps through staged rollouts, in which "your update reaches only a percentage of your users, which you can increase over time." Users can pre-order select apps to have the items delivered as soon. Some network carriers offer billing for Google Play purchases, allowing users to opt for charges in the monthly phone bill rather than on credit cards.
Users can request refunds within 48 hours after a purchase if "something you bought isn't working, isn't what you expected, was bought by accident, or you changed your mind about the purchase". Apps meeting specific usability requirements can qualify as a Wear OS app. Google Play Games is an online gaming service for Android that features real-time multiplayer gaming capabilities, cloud saves and public leaderboards, achievements; the service was introduced at the Google I/O 2013 Developer Conference, the standalone mobile app was launched on July 24, 2013. Google Play Music is online music locker, it features over 40 million songs, gives users free cloud storage of up to 50,000 songs. As of May 2017, Google Play Music is available in 64 countries. Google Play Books is an ebook digital distribution service. Google Play offers over five million ebooks available for purchase, users can upload up to 1,000 of their own ebooks in the form of PDF or EPUB file formats; as of January 2017, Google Play Books is available in 75 countries.
Google Play Books can be found on the archive.org website available for readers and for download. Google Play Movies & TV is a video on demand service offering movies and television shows available for purchase or rental, depending on availability; as of January 2017, movies are available in over 110 countries, while TV shows are available only in Australia, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, the United States and the United Kingdom. Google Play Newsstand is a news aggregator and digital newsstand service offering subscriptions to digital magazines and topical news feeds; as of January 2017, the basic Newsstand service, with topical news feeds, is available worldwide. Paid Newsstand content is available in over 35 countries. In May 15, 2018, the mobile app merged with Google Weather to form Google News; the Newsstand section continued to appear on the Google Play website until November 5, 2018. Google Play, before March 2015, had a Devices section for users to purchase Google Nexus devices, Chromecasts, other Google-branded hardware, accessories.
A separate online hardware retailer called the Google Store was introduced on March 11, 2015, replacing the Devices section of Google Play. Google Play originated from three distinct products: Android Market, Google Music and Google eBookstore; the Android Market was announced by Google on August 28, 2008, was mad