Fonterra Co-operative Group Limited is a New Zealand multinational dairy co-operative owned by around 10,500 New Zealand farmers. The company is responsible for 30% of the world's dairy exports and with revenue exceeding NZ$17.2 billion, is New Zealand's largest company. Fonterra was established in October 2001 following the merger of the country's two largest dairy co-operatives, New Zealand Dairy Group and Kiwi Cooperative Dairies, with the New Zealand Dairy Board; the name Fonterra comes from Latin fons de terra, meaning "spring from the land". In New Zealand, as in most Western countries, dairy co-operatives have long been the main organisational structure in the industry; the first dairy co-operative was established in Otago in 1871. By 1920, there were 600 dairy processing factories. In the 1930s there were around 500 co-operatives but after World War II, improved transportation, processing technologies and energy systems led to a trend of consolidation, where the co-operatives merged and became larger and fewer in number.
By the end of the 1990s, there were only four co-operatives nationwide: the Waikato-based New Zealand Dairy Group, the Taranaki-based Kiwi Co-operative Dairies, Westland Milk Products, Tatua Co-operative Dairy Company. Fonterra was formed in 2001 from the merger of the two largest co-operatives, New Zealand Dairy Group and Kiwi Co-operative Dairies, together with the New Zealand Dairy Board, the marketing and export agent for all the co-operatives. Fonterra has monopsony control of the New Zealand domestic and export dairy industry; the merger was turned down by the New Zealand Commerce Commission, but approved by the New Zealand Government, with subsequent legislation deregulating the dairy industry, allowing for the export of dairy products to be undertaken by any company. The two smaller co-operatives and Westland, did not join Fonterra, preferring to remain independent; the company has an annual turnover of around NZ$17 billion. Its core business consists of exporting dairy products under the NZMP brand.
It operates a fast-moving consumer goods business for dairy products, Fonterra Brands. Fonterra has a number of subsidiaries and joint-venture companies operating in markets around the world. In 2005, the company purchased a large factory in Dennington, Australia, from Nestlé, after they moved out of the collection of milk from farmers and the manufacture of powdered milk in Australia. In 2005 the company made moves towards purchasing Australian companies Dairy Farmers and National Foods, it converted its 50 per cent stake in Victoria dairy producer Bonlac to full ownership. At this time $1 billion of Fonterra's revenue was from Australian sales, 14 per cent of the dairy products it sells around the world. In June 2008, the company acquired the yoghurt and dairy dessert business of Nestlé Australia, which it on-sold to Parmalat Australia in December 2015. In 2010, US embassy cables leaked by WikiLeaks suggested New Zealand had only sent troops to Iraq in 2003, following the initial invasion, so Fonterra would keep valuable Oil for Food contracts.
In November 2007, the board of directors announced a two-year consultation programme regarding their preferred capital re-structuring option: putting the business operations in a separate listed company, with the co-operative maintaining a controlling interest. The aim was to give more access to funds for global growth. Praised by some as a bold move which would allow better access to outside capital, the proposals encountered significant opposition from both farmer shareholders and the government. Despite including a range of safeguards, farmers were concerned at the risk of losing control; the board responded in 2008 by shelving the November 2007 proposal and continuing consultation and discussion with farmer shareholders. In September 2009, the board announced a three-step process to revamp Fonterra's capital structure; the new approach abandoned thoughts of a public listing of Fonterra shares and retained 100% farmer control and ownership of the co-operative. A key goal of the capital structure changes was to stop large amounts of money washing in and out of Fonterra's balance sheet each year as milk production fluctuates.
Under the previous structure, farmers matched their shareholding with their milk production by owning one co-operative share for each kilogram of milksolids produced annually. If their milk production dropped in any season, they could redeem shares back to the co-operative, required to buy the shares back off them. Fonterra faced the risk of losing large amounts of share capital through redemptions during times of declining milk production. For instance, after milk production fell during the 2007/08 drought, Fonterra had to pay out $742 million of share capital to farmers via redemptions; the capital structure changes sought to provide greater incentives for farmers to increase their investment in Fonterra shares, helping ensure Fonterra has sufficient share capital to fund profitable business opportunities and drive a higher payout to dairy farmers. The first two steps of capital structure change received good support from farmer shareholders at Fonterra's annual meeting in November 2009; the first step allowed farmers to hold shares above their level of annual milk production.
There were enhanced incentives for farmers to hold shares if their production falls. The rules about the pricing of end of season share transactions were tid
The Scania PRT-range referred to as new truck range or Scania's truck range, is the current range of trucks produced by the Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania. It was first introduced as the successor to the 4-series in spring 2004 with the high forward control cab Scania R-series, followed by the low forward control cab Scania P-series and bonneted cab Scania T-series in the year. In 2005, the T-series was dropped from the lineup, in 2007 the medium forward control cab Scania G-series was introduced; the entire range is modular, giving a wide range of different configurations for different types of trucks. The trucks are available with engines ranging from a 9-litre I5 to a 16-litre V8, with the V8 only being available in the R-series. A second generation launched in August 2016, first was the Scania S-series being the first flat-floor model. In December 2017, a low-end version of the second generation, the Scania L-series launched; the range was first launced with the R-series on 31 March 2004, replacing the R94, R114, R124 and R164 of the 4-series.
It had 65 percent of the same components as its predecessors, but with a new cab design, new interior and other technical improvements. Full-scale production started in Södertälje in Angers in June. At launch it was available with Euro III engines, but with a 420 hp Euro IV engine available from September. On 20 August, the P- and T-series were launched too, completing the new truck range and replacing the rest of the 4-series models; the new models made their public debut at the IAA commercial vehicle show in Hanover in late September. Production of the 4-series was continued at the Scania Latin America plant in São Bernardo do Campo, but was from October 2004 relaunched as the Série Evolução, featuring the new engines of the PRT-range and the same new model designation, but with the old 4-series cabs. In October 2005, Scania decided to discontinue the bonneted T-series, having lost its market share over the years. Over the last decade the sales had been gone down 90 percent in Latin America.
In 2004, fewer than 1,000 bonneted Scania trucks were sold worldwide, meaning there was no longer a market for it. In late 2006, Scania launched a new low-entry version of the P-series cab, known as the CP19E, specially intended for garbage trucks, where the driver needs to get in and out quickly; this cab was targeted as a competitor to the Mercedes-Benz Econic. On 5 September 2007, Scania launched the all-new G-series, with a cab height between the P-series and the R-series, it should not be confused with the old G cab of the 2- and 3-series, lower than the P cab, nor with the G chassis of the 4-series. On 9 October 2007, the new range was launched in Latin America, featuring all three P-, G- and R-series from the start. In April 2008, Scania unveiled their first ethanol-powered trucks, having manufactured ethanol-powered buses for nearly two decades. On 17 September 2009, an upgraded R-series was launched with many new features including a sharper exterior styling with larger grille openings, new interior details including the possibility of a factory-installed coffeemaker, new version of the Scania Opticruise gear system with automatic clutch and a driver support system.
The G-series received the upgrade shortly afterwards, the P-series during 2011. In April 2010, Scania launched a new version of its V8 engine, allowing a maximum output of 730 hp and 3500 N·m in trucks, preparing for the future Euro VI emission requirements; the new R 730 became the most powerful large-scale production truck in the world, only to be surpassed by the Volvo FH16 750 in September 2011. Since Scania signed a deal with Porsche Engineering in August 2010, a new truck cab has been in development. From early 2014, several masked prototypes have been spotted on roads in Sweden and Norway; the next generation of trucks from Scania was launched at the Grand Palais in Paris on 23 August 2016. The launch included new R-series sleeper cab and the all-new S-series sleeper cab which offers a flat interior floor. Other cab heights, including R-series day cab, of the new generation will have a launch; the first display of the new generation to a public audience occurred at the Elmia Lastbil fair in Jönköping on 24 August.
The low-end version called the L series was added to the lineup in December 2017. Introduced in September 2017, the Scania XT-range is the first independently tailor-made construction model, it features a rugged styling and an all-new heavy duty bumper which extends 150 millimetres from the front of the cab with an improved approach angle and reinforced ribbed rear view mirrors instead of standard ones. It is distinguished by one-piece bumper, headlight protection, robust mirror casings and a high air intake. Both features provide additional operational durability and combine to give a distinct and rugged visual identity; the bumper incorporates an accessible towing device located behind the foldable registration plate holder. It is certified for 40 tonnes, enabling the vehicle to pull other vehicles and equipment as well as to be towed when needed. Other features include slip proof steps, XT branded seats and high-edge rubber mats, to further set the XT range apart a number of exterior and interior options.
XT models are available with a variety of options to improve efficiency. EBS with discs or drums, new two-leaf parabolic front springs and enlarged wheel housings to accommodate larger than normal wheel/tyre combinations, can be specified together with two different vertical exhaust stack options, its progressive applica
Imperial Chemical Industries
Imperial Chemical Industries was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain. It was formed by the merger of leading British chemical companies in 1926, its headquarters were at Millbank in London, it was a constituent of the FT 30 and the FTSE 100 indices. ICI made paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials and flavourings. In 2008, it was acquired by AkzoNobel, which sold parts of ICI to Henkel, integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation; the company was founded in December 1926 from the merger of four companies: Brunner Mond, Nobel Explosives, the United Alkali Company, British Dyestuffs Corporation. It established its head office at Millbank in London in 1928. Competing with DuPont and IG Farben, the new company produced chemicals, fertilisers, dyestuffs, non-ferrous metals, paints. In its first year turnover was £27 million. In the 1920s and 30s, the company played a key role in the development of new chemical products, including the dyestuff phthalocyanine, the acrylic plastic Perspex, Dulux paints and polyethylene terephthalate fibre known as Terylene.
In 1940, ICI started British Nylon Spinners as a joint venture with Courtaulds. ICI owned the Sunbeam motorcycle business, which had come with Nobel Industries, continued to build motorcycles until 1937. During the Second World War, ICI was involved with the United Kingdom's nuclear weapons programme codenamed Tube Alloys. In the 1940s and 50s, the company established its pharmaceutical business and developed a number of key products, including Paludrine, Inderal, PEEK. ICI formed ICI Pharmaceuticals in 1957. ICI developed a fabric in the 1950s known as Crimplene, a thick polyester yarn used to make a fabric of the same name; the resulting cloth is heavy and wrinkle-resistant, retains its shape well. The California-based fashion designer Edith Flagg was the first to import this fabric from Britain to the USA. During the first two years, ICI gave Flagg a large advertising budget to popularise the fabric across America. In 1960, Paul Chambers became the first chairman appointed from outside the company.
Chambers employed the consultancy firm McKinsey to help with reorganising the company. His eight-year tenure saw export sales double, but his reputation was damaged by a failed takeover bid for Courtaulds in 1961–62. In 1962, ICI developed the controversial herbicide, paraquat. ICI was confronted with the nationalisation of its operations in Burma on 1 August 1962 as a consequence of the military coup. In 1964, ICI acquired British Nylon Spinners, the company it had jointly set up in 1940 with Courtaulds. ICI surrendered its 37.5 per cent holding in Courtaulds and paid Courtaulds £2 million a year for five years, "to take account of the future development expenditure of Courtaulds in the nylon field." In return, Courtaulds transferred to ICI their 50 per cent holding in BNS. BNS was absorbed into ICI Fibres; the acquisition included BNS production plants in Pontypool and Doncaster, together with research and development in Pontypool. Early pesticide development included Gramoxone, the insecticides pirimiphos-methyl in 1967 and pirimicarb in 1970, brodifacoum was developed in 1974.
Peter Allen was appointed chairman between 1968 and 1971. He presided over the purchase of Viyella. Profits shrank under his tenure. Jack Callard was appointed chairman from 1971 to 1975, he doubled company profits between 1972 and 1974, made ICI Britain's largest exporter. In 1971, the company acquired Atlas Chemical Industries Inc. a major American competitor. In 1977, Imperial Metal Industries was divested as an independent quoted company. From 1982 to 1987, the company was led by the charismatic John Harvey-Jones. Under his leadership, the company acquired the Beatrice Chemical Division in 1985 and Glidden Coatings & Resins, a leading paints business, in 1986. In 1991, ICI sold the agricultural and merchandising operations of BritAg and Scottish Agricultural Industries to Norsk Hydro, fought off a hostile takeover bid from Hanson, who had acquired 2.8 percent of the company. It divested its soda ash products arm to Brunner Mond, ending an association with the trade that had existed since the company's inception, one, inherited from the original Brunner, Mond & Co. Ltd.
In 1992, the company sold its nylon business to DuPont. In 1993, the company de-merged its pharmaceutical bio-science businesses: pharmaceuticals, specialities and biological products were all transferred into a new and independent company called Zeneca. Zeneca subsequently merged with Astra AB to form AstraZeneca. Charles Miller Smith was appointed CEO in 1994, one of the few times that someone from outside ICI had been appointed to lead the company, Smith having been a director at Unilever. Shortly afterwards, the company acquired a number of former Unilever businesses in an attempt to move away from its historical reliance on commodity chemicals. In 1995, ICI acquired the American paint company Grow Group. In 1997, ICI acquired National Starch & Chemical, Quest International and Crosfield, the speciality chemicals businesses of Unilever for $8 billion; this step was part of a strategy to move away
Department of Conservation (New Zealand)
The Department of Conservation is the public service department of New Zealand charged with the conservation of New Zealand's natural and historical heritage. An advisory body, the New Zealand Conservation Authority is provided to advise DOC and its ministers. In addition there are 13 conservation boards for different areas around the country that provide for interaction between DOC and the public; the department was formed on 1 April 1987, as one of several reforms of the public service, when the Conservation Act 1987 was passed to integrate some functions of the Department of Lands and Survey, the Forest Service and the Wildlife Service. This act set out the majority of the department's responsibilities and roles; as a consequence of Conservation Act all Crown land in New Zealand designated for conservation and protection became managed by the Department of Conservation. This is about 30% of New Zealand's land area or about 8 million hectares of native forests, alpine areas, dunelands, estuaries and islands, national forests, maritime parks, marine reserves, nearly 4000 reserves, river margins, some coastline, many offshore islands.
All of the land under its control is protected for either conservation, scenic, historic or cultural reasons, for recreation. Providing for recreation is a major part of its core work, this covers the management of family picnic sites, as well as maintaining rugged backcountry tracks and over 1000 accompanying backcountry huts that are used by hunters and recreational trampers. DOC administers the Nature Heritage Fund, is responsible for rural fire control. In addition to its work managing land and providing for recreation in New Zealand, DOC works to preserve its natural heritage; this includes preservation of historic sites on public conservation land, saving native threatened species, managing threats like pests and weeds, environmental restoration, caring for marine life, assisting landowners to preserve natural heritage. The methods of achieving these goals have resulted in controversy, where some people claim that the Department of Conservation is overly biased towards environmentalists at the expense of New Zealand's economy.
This is a concern amongst some farmers and other industries that are major users of neighbouring land, many of whom have been affected by decisions of the department. However, these criticised DOC efforts have been lauded for achieving some success, for both conservationists and farmers, having led to a significant drop in possum populations during the last decades; the DOC was floated as the agency to supervise the construction of the proposed New Zealand Cycleway, though this is now being managed by the Ministry of Tourism, in coordination with the DOC where appropriate. After a number of years of falling budgets, in 2013 the department announced it would be slashing 140 jobs and narrowing its 11-region structure into six; the Department of Conservation moved into a new headquarters, Conservation House, on Manners Street, Wellington in 2006. It is the first green building in New Zealand to be given a 5-star rating, having won numerous environmental awards, including a top 10 placing by Grist Magazine.
The site was a cinema complex operated by the Hoyts Group from the mid-1980s until the early 2000s, when it closed down in the face of stiff competition. New Zealand has 13 national parks, a wide number of other conservation lands with varying levels of environmental protection, called the "conservation estate" in total. About one third of this estate the land considered most valuable, has been protected from mining since 1997 via being listed in Schedule 4 of the Crown Minerals Act 1991. While much of the conservation land not protected as national parks or Schedule 4 land is much more damaged or human-modified than the core conservation areas, these areas serve as boundary and species buffer zones. In 1995, 14 people died when a viewing platform maintained by the Department of Conservation collapsed. Following the tragedy, all of the department's 106 viewing platforms throughout New Zealand were checked. Fifteen platforms were closed for repairs. A Commission of Inquiry that followed the tragedy revealed that the department had acted illegally and negligently in constructing the viewing platform.
The commission stated that the department was underfunded for the tasks with which it was delegated, resulting in a culture of sub-standard safety procedures having been used for the building and maintenance of some of its facilities. Many people in New Zealand criticised the government for the department's situation, Denis Marshall, the presiding Minister of Conservation at the time resigned over the incident. Since the inquiry, radical changes have been made to the department's procedures to prioritise safety, including the implementation of a comprehensive asset management system to catalogue and trigger regular inspections of all significant structures and facilities managed by the department. In March 2006, a volcanic eruption at the Green Lake of Raoul Island, administered by the Department of Conservation, was believed to have killed DOC worker Mark Kearney. At the exact time of the eruption, Mr Kearney is thought to have been taking temperature measurements of the lake as part of a programme for monitoring volcanic activity.
Five other DOC workers, who were living on the island, were forced to evacuate back to New Zealand shortly after the eruption. Searches for Mr Kearney, which have been inhibited by the island's remote location and the risks of further volcanic activity, have s
New Zealand Fire Service
The New Zealand Fire Service was New Zealand's main firefighting body from 1 April 1976 until 1 July 2017 - at which point it was dissolved and incorporated into the new Fire and Emergency New Zealand. The NZFS was somewhat unusual, internationally, in that it had jurisdiction over the entire country with no division by region or city, it was the result of the New Zealand Fire Service Act which nationalised the various District-level brigades which had developed across the country. The New Zealand Fire Service was predominantly configured as an Urban Rescue Service; the Fire Service Act placed responsibility on the NZFS for firefighting in gazetted Urban Fire Districts, totalling about 3% of New Zealand's land area but covering 85% of the country's population. The remainder of the land was covered by Rural Fire Authorities that acted under the Forest and Rural Fires Act. Fire Service brigades responded outside their Districts to deal with structure and rescue incidents, undertook the initial suppression attack on wildland fires.
Note: The New Zealand Department of Conservation was a RFA with responsibility for firefighting within recognised State areas, including National Parks, totalling about 30% of the country. The New Zealand Defence Force remains responsible for all Defence Areas as defined through the Defence Act. With these two agencies included, the NZFS and territorial local authority RFAs formed the bulk of the firefighting capability in New Zealand. There continues some contribution from Industry Fire Brigades; the entire organisation reported to the Minister of Internal Affairs, by way of the New Zealand Fire Service Commission. The Commission was composed of five members, the Minister was required by law to appoint at least one person, either a fire engineer or had experience as a senior operational fire fighter; the New Zealand Fire Service Commission was the National Rural Fire Authority. Beneath the Commission were the positions of Chief Executive and National Commander. At the time of dissolution both positions were filled by Paul McGill.
Where the Chief Executive did not have operational fire fighting experience, a separate National Commander was appointed to be the most senior operational fire fighter in the country. The National Commander may have taken control at a serious incident, though this happened rarely; the Chief Executive had a number of direct reports, though these were concerned with matters such as human resources and finance rather than operational matters. The country was broken into five fire regions: Region 1, Region 2, Region 3, Region 4, Region 5; each region was in the charge of a Fire Region Commander. All FRCs report directly to the National Commander, were promoted from the ranks of operational staff. A FRC could take control of a major incident, was responsible for any incident at which they are present if they were not the Officer-in-Charge. Reporting to the Fire Region Commander were the Area Commanders and Assistant Area Commanders who manage the 24 areas contained within the regions; the areas were: Region 1: Muri-Whenua, Whangarei-Kaipara, Auckland City, Counties-Manukau Region 2: Waikato, East Waikato, Bay of Plenty Coast, Central Lakes, Tairawhiti Region 3: Hawke's Bay, Wanganui, Hutt-Wairarapa, Wellington Region 4: Tasman-Marlborough, West Coast, Christchurch City, South Canterbury Region 5: Central-North Otago, East Otago, SouthlandAssistant Area Commanders were responsible for managing the career districts, while the Area Commanders had overall responsibility for the area as well as for the volunteer Chief Fire Officers of each volunteer fire districts within their areas.
These were the officers who are entrusted – via the Fire Service Act – with the powers that are exercised at the scene of an incident to'deal with' the emergency. These powers were far-reaching – they provide authority to commandeer, demolish or destroy whatever is required in the course of their duties, given no more suitable options; each Chief Fire Officer had a Deputy Chief Fire Officer and a number of Senior Station Officers and Station Officers reporting to them. The minimum number of firefighters required to man most appliances was four – an officer-in-charge, a driver/pump operator, two firefighters – although many appliances were equipped to carry an extra one or two firefighters, operational support staff, or observers. Station Officer – In charge of the crew and the officer with the delegated authority of the CFO at any response. Senior Firefighter – an SFF is an experienced Firefighter, in a position to provide leadership in the absence of a Station Officer. Suitably qualified SFFs may have stood in for an SO on a temporary basis.
Qualified Firefighter Firefighter – the baseline rank within the Fire Service. An SSO may have run in place of an SO at their own discretion. In career districts the SSOs were strategically located to provide a more experienced command officer, placed such that they are responded to most incidents of significance; the New Zealand Fire Service employed 1,713 professional career firefighters, 444 support staff and 80 communication centre staff. Each career fire station had a number of watches. Full-time career stations have four watches, brown and green, rotating on a "four-on four-off" schedule: two 10-hour day shifts, followed by two 14-hour night shifts, foll
New Zealand Defence Force
The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three services: the New Zealand Army, the Royal New Zealand Air Force and the Royal New Zealand Navy. As of 2018 the Commander-in-Chief of the NZDF, Dame Patsy Reddy, Governor-General of New Zealand, exercises power on the advice of the Minister of Defence, Ron Mark, under the Defence Act 1990. A previous Chief of Defence Force, Lieutenant General Tim Keating, had served in the capacity of Vice Chief of Defence Force, was appointed to the top position on 31 January 2014. Mark was appointed Minister of Defence as a member of the Labour-NZ First government following the 2017 New Zealand general election, replacing the former Minister of Defence, Mark Mitchell. Air Marshal Kevin Short took over as Chief of Defence Force on 1 July 2018; the NZDF has announced that Air Vice-Marshal Tony Davies will serve as the next Vice Chief of Defence Force. New Zealand's armed forces have three defence-policy objectives: to defend New Zealand against low-level threats to contribute to regional security to play a part in global security effortsNew Zealand regards its own national defence needs as modest, due to its geographical isolation and benign relationships with neighbours.
As of September 2017 the NZDF had 302 personnel deployed overseas on operations and on UN missions in the South Pacific, Africa and the Middle East areas. After the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, New Zealand's security was dependent on British Imperial troops deployed from Australia and other parts of the empire. By 1841 the settlers those in the New Zealand Company settlement of Wellington, were calling for local militia to be formed. In 1843 a local militia had been formed in Wellington without official sanction; this prompted the Chief Police Magistrate Major Matthew Richmond to order its immediate disbandment. Richmond dispatched 53 soldiers from the 96th Regiment from Auckland to Wellington; these calls. The calls lead to a bill being introduced to the Legislative Assembly in 1844; those present noted their disapproval of the bill. On 22 March 1845 the Flagstaff War broke out. In 1844 a Select Committee of the House of Commons had recommended that a militia, composed of both settlers and native Maori, a permanent native force be set up.
On 25 March 1845, the Militia Ordinance was passed into law. Twenty-six officers were appointed in Auckland, thereby forming the start of New Zealand's own defence force. Major Richmond was appointed commander of the Wellington Battalion of the militia; the newspaper article of the time notes. The Nelson Battalion of Militia was formed 12 August 1845. In June 1845, 75 members of the Auckland Militia under Lieutenant Figg became the first unit to support British Imperial troops in the Flagstaff War, serving as pioneers. Seven militia were wounded in action between 30 June and 1 July 1845. One, a man named Rily died of his wounds; the Auckland Militia was disbanded in August or early September 1845 because of budgetary constraints. Disbandment of the Nelson and Wellington Militias followed much to the dismay of their supporters; those at Nelson under Captain Greenwood decided, regardless of not, to continue training. Trouble in the Hutt Valley, near Wellington, in early March 1846 prompted the new Lieutenant Governor George Grey to proclaim martial law and call out the Hutt Militia.
Following on from this the local paper noted that the No 1 Company of the Wellington Militia had been called out, while the troops stationed in the town had been in the Hutt. The paper further noted; as problems continued in the area at least 160 Militia remained. These were supplemented by volunteers, Maori warriors from the Te Aro pah. On 28 October 1846, with the passing of the Armed Constabulary Ordinance in 1846, a fresh call was made by Mr Donnelly of the Legislature to do away with the Militia because of its expense; however the cost to Britain of maintaining a military force in New Zealand was considerable, prompting a dispatch on 24 November 1846 from The Right Hon Earl Grey to advise Lieutenant Governor George Grey that... the formation of a well-organised Militia and of a force of Natives in the service of Her Majesty, would appear to be the measures most to be adopted. Further pressure in the early 1850s from Britain for removing their forces prompted pleas for them to remain as the Militia were deemed insufficient for the purpose.1854 brought a new threat to the attention of the colony, because up to that time the military focus had been upon internal conflicts between settlers and the native population.
War had broken out between Turkey. This war began to involve the major European powers and exposed New Zealand and Australia to a possible external threat from Russian naval forces. Parliament discussed providing guns at ports around the country for use in the event of a war with a foreign power. By 1858 attention had swung back to local issues with a land dispute in New Plymouth prompting Governor Thomas Gore Brown to call out its militia under Captain Charles Brown. A prelude to what was to become the First Taranaki War and a period of conflict in the North Island until 1872. Parliament revised and expanded the Militia Ordinance, replacing it with the Militia Act 1858; some of the main changes were clauses enabling volunteers to be included under such terms and conditions as the Governor may specify. The act outlined the purposes under which Mi