The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards.
He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
Great Fire of London
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday,2 September to Wednesday,5 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall and it threatened but did not reach the aristocratic district of Westminster, Charles IIs Palace of Whitehall, and most of the suburban slums. It consumed 13,200 houses,87 parish churches, St Pauls Cathedral and it is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the Citys 80,000 inhabitants. The death toll is unknown but traditionally thought to have been small, a melted piece of pottery on display at the Museum of London found by archaeologists in Pudding Lane, where the fire started, shows that the temperature reached 1250 °C. The Great Fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner on Pudding Lane shortly after midnight on Sunday,2 September, by the time that large-scale demolitions were ordered on Sunday night, the wind had already fanned the bakery fire into a firestorm that defeated such measures.
The fire pushed north on Monday into the heart of the City, order in the streets broke down as rumours arose of suspicious foreigners setting fires. The fears of the focused on the French and Dutch, Englands enemies in the ongoing Second Anglo-Dutch War. The social and economic problems created by the disaster were overwhelming, evacuation from London and resettlement elsewhere were strongly encouraged by Charles II, who feared a London rebellion amongst the dispossessed refugees. Despite numerous radical proposals, London was reconstructed on essentially the same street plan used before the fire, by the 1660s, London was by far the largest city in Britain, estimated at half a million inhabitants. By inartificial, Evelyn meant unplanned and makeshift, the result of organic growth, London had been a Roman settlement for four centuries and had become progressively more crowded inside its defensive city wall. It had pushed outwards beyond the wall into squalid extramural slums such as Shoreditch and Southwark, the City was surrounded by a ring of inner suburbs where most Londoners lived.
The City was then, as now, the heart of the capital. The aristocracy shunned the City and lived either in the countryside beyond the suburbs, or in the exclusive Westminster district. The relationship was tense between the City and the Crown. The City magistrates were of the generation that had fought in the Civil War and they were determined to thwart any similar tendencies in his son, and when the Great Fire threatened the City, they refused the offers that Charles made of soldiers and other resources. Even in such an emergency, the idea of having the unpopular Royal troops ordered into the City was political dynamite, by the time that Charles took over command from the ineffectual Lord Mayor, the fire was already out of control. The City was essentially medieval in its plan, an overcrowded warren of narrow, winding. It had experienced major fires before 1666, the most recent in 1632
Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, woodland, etc. A firefighter suppresses and extinguishes fires to protect lives and to prevent the destruction of property, firefighters may provide other services to their communities. Additional hazards include falls and structural collapse that can exacerbate the problems entailed in a toxic environment, to combat some of these risks, firefighters carry self-contained breathing equipment. The first step in an operation is reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire, to identify the specific risks. Fires can be extinguished by water, fuel or oxidant removal, the earliest known firefighters were in the city of Rome. In 60 A. D. emperor Nero established a Corps of Vigils to protect Rome after a disastrous fire and it consisted of 7,000 people equipped with buckets and axes, and they fought fires and served as police. In the 4th century B. C. an Alexandrian Greek named Ctesibius made a force pump called a siphona.
As water rose in the chamber, it compressed the air inside, in the 16th century, syringes were used as firefighting tools, the larger ones being mounted on wheels. Another traditional method that survived was the brigade, involving two lines of people formed between the water source and the fire. Typically, men in one of the lines would pass along the full buckets of water toward the fire while in the other women and children would pass back the empty buckets to be refilled. In the 17th century, fire engines were made, notably in Amsterdam, ancient Rome did not have municipal firefighters. Instead, private individuals relied on their slaves or supporters to take action and they would not only form bucket brigades or attempt to smother smaller fires, but would demolish or raze nearby buildings to slow the spread of the fire. However, there is no mention of fires being extinguished, rather they were contained and burned themselves out, ancient Rome did not have an organized firefighting force until the Vigiles were formed in the reign of Augustus.
Prior to the Great Fire of London in 1666, some parishes in the UK had begun to organize rudimentary firefighting, after the Great Fire, Nicholas Barbon introduced the first fire insurance. In order to reduce costs, Barbon formed his own fire brigade. By the start of the 1800s, insured buildings were identified with a badge or mark, in 1833, these companies in London merged to form The London Fire Company Establishment. In World War II, the Auxiliary Fire Service and the National Fire Service were established to supplement local fire services, at that time, there was no countrywide standard for firefighting terms, ranks, or equipment. These were standardized after World War II, in January 1608, a fire destroyed many of the colonists provisions and lodgings in Jamestown, Virginia
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Aircraft rescue and firefighting
Airports may have regulatory oversight by an arm of their individual national governments or voluntarily under standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Due to the mass casualty potential of an emergency, the speed with which emergency response equipment. Their arrival and initial mission to secure the aircraft against all hazards, particularly fire, increases the survivability of the passengers and crew on board. Further, should either be encountered in the cabin or extend there from an external fire. Under this name John Miscovich filed A U. S, patent 3,583,637 A in April 1969, and it was published in June 1971. This entire apparatus is situated underground, and in case of fire it rises up, when the emergency is over, it retracts. Secondary to the mitigation and safe evacuation of ambulatory passengers is the need to perform rescue operations. Passengers unable to extricate themselves must be removed from the aircraft and this process is extremely labor-intensive, requiring both firefighters and support personnel.
Due to the nature of a mass casualty incident, rescue workers employ triage to classify the victims, in 2016, an Emirati fire fighter died from burns when trying to fight the fire in the Emirates Flight 521 crash. The man was the only fatality, the Federal Aviation Administration mandates ARFF operations at all U. S. airports that serve scheduled passenger air carriers. These are the civilian fire protection services that are specifically regulated by any governmental entity. Airports required to have ARFF services are inspected at least annually by the FAA for compliance with FAR, military ARFF operations must meet the mission requirements for their individual branch of the service. An index is assigned to each FAA Part 139 certificate holder based on a combination of the air carrier aircraft length, if the longest air carrier aircraft at the airport has five or more average daily departures, the matching index is used. If the longest aircraft has less than five daily departures. That index determines the number of ARFF vehicles and required amount of extinguishing agents.
Airport crash tender Water salute Airplane rescue and firefighting information
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
San Ramon Valley Fire Protection District
In all, the district is responsible for 155 square miles with a popular of approximately 169,900. The San Ramon Valley Fire Protection District was first started in 1912 and this first department became known as the Danville Farm Defense Fire District. In 1921, after a law was passed allowing the organization of special fire districts. In 1963, Contra Costa County reorganized its East County Fire Protection District into the San Ramon Fire Protection District and this led to the Local Agency Formation Commission consolidating the two districts into one on July 1,1980. The district is part of Urban Search and Rescue California Task Force 4 which is one of eight FEMA Urban Search, the task force, which is based in Oakland, is sponsored by the Oakland Fire Department. The district has 10 stations spread across the 155 square miles of responsible area
Fire and Rescue NSW
FRNSW attended over 194,000 incidents and undertook 57,000 community activities in 2011/12. FRNSW works closely with the NSW Rural Fire Service in regional areas, the agency is led by the Commissioner of Fire and Rescue NSW, currently Greg Mullins AFSM, who reports to the Minister for Emergency Services, currently the Honourable David Elliott MP. The minister is responsible to the Parliament of New South Wales. The New South Wales Fire Brigades was established in September 1909, replacing the Sydney-based Metropolitan Fire Brigade, prior to its formation, Fire Brigade Boards ran rudimentary fire services in various New South Wales country towns. On 1 January 2011 the agency was renamed to Fire and Rescue NSW to better reflect the agencys expanding responsibilities. The Fire and Rescue NSW emblem includes the NSW state emblem with the State motto Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites, a flag based on the British Blue Ensign with FRNSW emblem is used. Greg Mullins was appointed Commissioner of the NSW Fire Brigades on 4 July 2003 and he is the first person in the history of the brigade to be appointed as both Chief Fire Officer / CEO, and to have come from the Brigades’ ranks.
Commissioner Mullins joined the NSWFB in 1978 after serving for six years as a firefighter with the NSW Rural Fire Service. In 2000 he was appointed as Director State Operations, the Commissioners official vehicle bears New South Wales number plate 10, which has been on continuous issue to the head of the fire department in NSW from the Roads and Maritime Services since 1910. A permanent firefighter is a full-time firefighter, Permanent firefighters work in a fire station as part of a platoon. Each fire station has four platoons on rotating shifts each containing at least 3 firefighters of various ranks, the number depends on the size and nature of the fire station. Each platoon is supervised by a Station Officer, each fire station is part of a zone containing between nine and 27 fire stations and headed by a zone commander. These zones are grouped in regions headed by a Regional Commander. A retained station is a station where retained firefighters work. The retained station is not a staffed station, meaning the firefighters are on-call from home or work rather than on duty at the station.
However, retained stations respond to emergencies 24 hours a day, the Fire Brigade Employees Union lodged a dispute in the NSW Industrial Relations Commission, with union claims that the station closures will put lives at risk. Some stations employ a mixture of Permanent and Retained Firefighters and this arrangement is common in larger country towns such as Bathurst and Orange where the nearest backup would otherwise be some distance away. The station would typically have one appliance manned by permanent staff as first response, the station may have Permanent day and night shifts or be day shift only, with retained staff manning all appliances at night when they are less hampered by work or other commitments
Houston Fire Department
City of Houston Fire Department is the agency that provides fire protection and emergency medical services for the city of Houston, United States, the fourth largest city in the United States. HFD is responsible for preserving life and property for a population of more than 2 million in an area totaling 617 square miles, the department is the largest fire department in the state of Texas. The administrative offices of HFD are located on the 7th floor of Continental Center II in the Cullen Center in Downtown Houston and they were previously located at the City of Houston Fire Department Logistical Center & Maintenance Depot. The Houston Fire Department got its start in 1838 with one known as Protection Company No.1. By 1859, the department had grown to three stations. After 57 years of service, Houston converted the department over to all paid members, on May 31,2013, the Southwest Inn fire broke out in an Indian restaurant in Southwest Houston before spreading to an adjoining hotel. The fire claimed the biggest casualty loss for the Houston Fire Department since its inception, four firefighters were killed and 13 others were injured while fighting the five-alarm fire at the Southwest Inn.
Iron Bill Dowling, who lost his legs and damaged his brain in the fire, died in Colorado on March 7,2017, after a short hospitalization for pneumonia and cellulitis, attributed to his injuries. After the spreading of a fire in Spring Branch, Texas. Nearly 200 firefighters were dispatched to the site several hours. As of May 2016, the cause of the fire remains unknown. Below is a listing of all stations and their apparatus
In some areas, they are trained in Emergency Medical Services and operate ambulances in addition to being a firefighter. The fire service, or fire and rescue service, known in countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the three main emergency services. Firefighting and firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world, from wildlands to urban areas, according to Merriam-Websters Dictionary, the English word firefighter has been used since 1903. In urban areas across the world the population is protected by paid full time firefighters. The goals of firefighting are, As such, the skills required for operations are regularly practiced during training evaluations throughout a firefighters career. In the United States, the preeminent fire training and standards organization is the National Fire Protection Association, often initial firefighting skills are taught during a local, regional, or state approved fire academy. Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue, Firefighters work closely with other emergency response agencies, most particularly local and state police departments.
The increasing role of firefighters in providing medical services brings firefighters into common overlap with law enforcement. One example of this is a state law requiring all gunshot wounds to be reported to law enforcement agencies. Fire fighting has some skills, self-preservation, preservation of property, basic first aid. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include size-up, ventilation, wildland firefighting includes size up, containment and mop up. Search and Rescue, which has already mentioned, is performed early in any fire scenario and many times is in unison with extinguishing. Fire suppression systems have a record for controlling and extinguishing unwanted fires. Many fire officials recommend that every building, including residences, have sprinkler systems. Correctly working sprinklers in a residence greatly reduce the risk of death from a fire, with the small rooms typical of a residence, one or two sprinklers can cover most rooms. Other methods of prevention are by directing efforts to reduce known hazardous conditions or by preventing dangerous acts before tragedy strikes.
Tools are generally carried at all times and are important for not only forcible entry, a self-contained breathing apparatus delivers air to the firefighter through a full face mask and is worn to protect against smoke inhalation, toxic fumes, and super heated gases. The PASS device sounds an alarm that can assist another firefighter, Firefighters often carry personal self-rescue ropes