A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations. The complexity of modern, industrialized life has created an increase in the skills needed in firefighting technology; the fire service known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the three main emergency services. From urban areas to aboard ships, firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world; the skills required for safe operations are practiced during training evaluations throughout a firefighter's career. Initial firefighting skills are taught through local, regional or state-approved fire academies or training courses. Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue and pre-hospital medicine may be acquired at this time. Firefighters work with other emergency response agencies such as the police and emergency medical service.
A firefighter's role may overlap with both. Fire investigators or fire marshals investigate the cause of a fire. If the fire was caused by arson or negligence, their work will overlap with law enforcement. Firefighters frequently provide some degree of emergency medical service, in addition to working with full-time paramedics; the basic tasks of firefighters include: fire suppression, fire prevention, basic first aid, investigations. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include: size-up, ventilation and rescue, containment, mop up and overhaul. A fire burns due to the presence of three elements: fuel and heat; this is referred to as the fire triangle. Sometimes it is known as the fire tetrahedron if a fourth element is added: a chemical chain reaction which can help sustain certain types of fire; the aim of firefighting is to deprive the fire of at least one of those elements. Most this is done by dousing the fire with water, though some fires require other methods such as foam.
Firefighters are equipped with a wide variety of equipment for this purpose that include: ladder trucks, pumper trucks, tanker trucks, fire hose, fire extinguishers. See Fire suppression for other techniques. While sometimes fires can be limited to small areas of a structure, wider collateral damage due to smoke and burning embers is common. Utility shutoff is an early priority for arriving fire crews. Specific procedures and equipment are needed at a property where hazardous materials are being used or stored. Structure fires may be attacked with "exterior" resources, or both. Interior crews, using the "two in, two out" rule, may extend fire hose lines inside the building, find the fire and cool it with water. Exterior crews may direct water into windows and other openings, or against any nearby fuels exposed to the initial fire. Hose streams directed into the interior through exterior wall apertures may conflict and jeopardize interior fire attack crews. Buildings that are made of flammable materials such as wood are different from building materials such as concrete.
A "fire-resistant" building is designed to limit fire to a small area or floor. Other floors can be safe by preventing smoke damage. All buildings on fire must be evacuated, regardless of fire rating; some fire fighting tactics may appear to be destructive, but serve specific needs. For example, during ventilation firefighters are forced to either open holes in the roof or floors of a structure, or open windows and walls to remove smoke and heated gases from the interior of the structure; such ventilation methods are used to improve interior visibility to locate victims more quickly. Ventilation helps to preserve the life of trapped or unconscious individuals as it releases the poisonous gases from inside the structure. Vertical ventilation is vital to firefighter safety in the event of a flashover or backdraft scenario. Releasing the flammable gases through the roof eliminates the possibility of a backdraft, the removal of heat can reduce the possibility of a flashover. Flashovers, due to their intense heat and explosive temperaments, are fatal to firefighter personnel.
Precautionary methods, such as smashing a window, reveal backdraft situations before the firefighter enters the structure and is met with the circumstance head-on. Firefighter safety is the number one priority. Whenever possible during a structural fire or flooding situation, property is moved into the middle of a room and covered with a salvage cover, a heavy cloth-like tarp. Various steps such as retrieving and protecting valuables found during suppression or overhaul, evacuating water, boarding windows and roofs can divert or prevent post-fire runoff. Wildfires require a unique set of tactics. In many countries such as Australia and the United States, these duties are carried out by local volunteer firefighters. Wildfires have some ecological role in allowing new plants to grow, therefore in some cases they will be left to burn. Priorities in fighting wildfires include preventing the loss of property. Firefighters rescue people from dangerous situations such as crashed vehicles, structural collapses, trench collapses and tunnel emergencies and ice emergencies, elevator emergencies, energized electrical line emergencies, industrial accidents.
In less common circumstances, Firefighters rescue victims from hazardous materials emergencies as well as steep cliffs and high rises - The latte
Saint Luke's Health System is a non-profit hospital network in the bi-state Kansas City metro area, located in northeast Kansas and northwest Missouri. It traces its history to its flagship hospital, Saint Luke's Hospital of Kansas City, established in 1882. With over 12,000 local employees, Saint Luke's Health System is the third largest private employer in the Kansas City metro. Melinda L. Estes, M. D. – president and chief executive officer Bob Bonney – senior vice president, non-acute services and business development Debe Gash – senior vice president and chief digital officer Dawn Murphy – senior vice president, human resources Jan Murray – senior vice president and chief legal counsel J. Chris Perryman, MD – senior vice president and chief medical officer Julie Quirin – senior vice president, hospital operations Chuck Robb – senior vice president, finance & administration and chief financial officer Richard D. Rolston, MD – senior vice president and chief executive officer, Saint Luke's Physician Group Diane Trimble, MSN, RN-BC – interim system chief nursing officer and chief nursing informatics officer Michael VanDerhoef – senior vice president of development and executive director, Saint Luke's Foundation Anderson County Hospital, Kansas Hedrick Medical Center, Missouri Saint Luke's Bishop Spencer Place, Kansas City, Missouri Saint Luke's Community Hospital – Leawood, Kansas Saint Luke's Community Hospital – Legends, Kansas City, Kansas Saint Luke's Community Hospital – Olathe, Kansas Saint Luke's Community Hospital – Overland Park, Overland Park, Kansas Saint Luke's Community Hospital – Roeland Park, Roeland Park, Kansas Saint Luke's Community Hospital – Shawnee, Kansas Saint Luke's Cushing Hospital, Kansas Saint Luke's East Hospital, Lee's Summit, Missouri Saint Luke's Hospice House, Kansas City, Missouri Saint Luke's Hospital of Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri Saint Luke's Hospital of Kansas City's Crittenton Children's Center, Kansas City, Missouri Saint Luke's North Hospital – Barry Road, Kansas City, Missouri Saint Luke's North Hospital – Smithville, Missouri Saint Luke's South Hospital, Overland Park, Kansas Wright Memorial Hospital, Missouri Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute Saint Luke's Marion Bloch Neuroscience Institute Saint Luke's Cancer Institute Midwest Ear Institute Saint Luke's College of Health Sciences Saint Luke's Foundation Saint Luke's Health System - Official Website
Sayyid Ali bin Hamud Al-Busaid was the eighth Sultan of Zanzibar from 1902 to 1911. Ali was proclaimed Sultan of Zanzibar on 20 July 1902, following the death of his father, the seventh Sultan, two days earlier. There was a regency, he served only a few years as sultan because of illness. On 9 December 1911 he abdicated in favour of his brother-in-law Khalifa bin Harub Al-Busaid. 1884–1902:'Ali II bin Hamud 1902–1918: His Highness Sultan'Ali II bin Hamud, Sultan of Zanzibar. King Edward VII Coronation Medal-1902 Special Class in brilliants of the Nishan-e-Osmanieh of the Ottoman Empire-1905 Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy-1905 Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle, 1st Class of Prussia-1905 Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa of Portugal-1905 King George V Coronation Medal-1911