A firestop or fire-stopping is a form of passive fire protection, used to seal around openings and between joints in a fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assembly. Firestops are designed to maintain the fireproofing of a wall or floor assembly allowing it to impede the spread of fire and smoke. Firestops prevent unprotected horizontal and vertical penetrations in a fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assembly from creating a route by which fire and smoke can spread that would otherwise have been fire resisting construction, e.g. where a pipe passes through a firewall. Fire stopping is to seal around gaps between fire resisting constructions, e.g. the linear gap between a wall and the floor above, in order for construction to form a complete barrier to fire and smoke spread. Firestops are used in: Electrical and structural penetrations Unpenetrated openings Re-entries of existing firestops Control or sway joints in fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assemblies Junctions between fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assemblies Head-of-wall joints, where non-load-bearing wall assemblies meet floor assemblies Components include intumescents, cementitious mortars, firestop pillows, mineral fibers, rubber compounds.

Firestops should be maintained in accordance with approval use and compliance. Construction documentation sometimes includes an inventory of all firestops in a building, with drawings indicating their location and certification listings. Using this, a building owner can meet the fire code relating to fire barriers. Improper repairs may otherwise result, which would violate the fire code and could allow a fire to travel between areas intended by code to be separated during a fire, it is necessary to install new electrical cables or mechanical systems through a hole in a fire-rated barrier, firestopped during construction. In this case, the firestops are "re-entered". To maintain a building's original fire-protection plan, firestop re-entries must comply with the certification listing upon which the original configuration was based. Spray fireproofing of structural steel is best accomplished. Otherwise, a conflict with firestops in firewalls could result. Firestops must adhere to the bare, unobstructed surfaces of the fire barrier, penetrated, or adjacent to an interface of two fire barriers at which fire stopping is required.

Spray fireproofing cannot be applied before firestopping on these surfaces, since the fireproofing would obstruct adherence of the firestop materials to the fire-barrier surfaces. Spraying the upper room perimeter with fireproofing may cover wall or ceiling joints and through penetrations which require firestopping; these joints are not provided with proper firestopping, violating the integrity of the passive fire barrier. Proper maintenance is enhanced by the installation of tags on each side of the firestop with information needed to refer to documents indicating approved procedures for the original installation and re-entries; this requires knowledge of the certification listing used for each opening of a building joint or a penetrant through-penetration seal. Firestop materials are not rated per se, they receive a fire rating by combining materials in an arrangement specific to the item penetrating the fire-rated wall or floor and the construction arrangement of the fire-rated wall or floor.

A two-hour-rated pipe-penetration firestop may consist of a layer of caulking over packed rockwool. The arrangement, not the caulking, provides the two-hour rating; the individual firestop materials and the overall firestop assembly are listed. Certification listings include those available from: Underwriters Laboratories Underwriters Laboratories of Canada Deutsches Intitut für Bautechnik FIRAS scheme- Warrington Fire Efectis FM Global When the installed configuration does not comply with the appropriate certification listing, the fire-resistance rating may be lower than expected; when it is difficult to assess the impact, it must be assumed to be zero and the building's fire-protection plan is compromised. Each opening in a fire-resistance-rated wall or floor in a building must have a certification listing. There are thousands of listings from various testing laboratories; the Canadian and United States Underwriters Laboratories publish books listing firestop manufacturers who have contracted with them for testing and certification.

Firestops should be inspected and maintained to mitigate the effects of time and re-entries. In North America, composite crews are required. Germany's Gütegemeinschaft Brandschutz im Ausbau offers a passive fire-protection course resulting in a Brandschutzfachkraft certificate; the material types used and the skill sets needed in insulation and firestop installations are similar. Exceptions to the rule that firestopping is insulators' work include firestop devices which become part of a plumbing system and which must be installed by plumbers during the forming of concrete. Older buildings lack firestops. A thorough inspection can identify all vertical and horizontal fire barriers and their fire ratings, all breaches in these barriers. Firestops created by contractors or building maintenance personnel which are not listed are not credited with an adequate fire resistance rating for building-code compliance purposes, they are short-term, cost-cutting measures at the expense of fire safety and code c

Jackie Shane

Jackie Shane was an American soul and rhythm and blues singer, most prominent in the local music scene of Toronto, Canada, in the 1960s. Considered to be a pioneer transgender performer, she was a contributor to the Toronto Sound and is best known for the single Any Other Way, a regional Top 10 hit in Toronto in 1962 and a modest national chart hit across Canada in 1967. From Nashville, she was born on May 15, 1940, she began performing locally in the 1950s wearing long hair, make-up, jewellery. Vowing to escape the "Jim Crow South", in the late 1950s, she joined a travelling carnival and arrived in Cornwall, Ontario, in 1959, where she said she felt free for the first time. In 1960, Shane moved to Montreal, where saxophonist "King" Herbert Whitaker invited her along to watch the popular band Frank Motley and his Motley Crew at the Esquire Show Bar. Shane sat down near the front; when Motley said, "Get that kid up here and let's see what he can do," pianist Curley Bridges invited Shane still presenting as a man, onstage for the next set, where she performed songs by Ray Charles and Bobby "Blue" Bland.

She was soon the band's lead vocalist, relocated to Toronto with them in late 1961. She returned several times to the United States, on tour with the Motley Crew, to New York to record, to visit her family and old friends and perform on a TV show in Nashville, or to live and work in Los Angeles where she played drums in recording sessions. A fan mythology linked her to Little Richard, including claims that she had been Richard's backing vocalist before moving to Canada or that she was Richard's cousin, although no verification of either claim has been found and no evidence exists that Shane made either claim herself. Music critic Carl Wilson has concluded that, while in reality Shane had deep and identifiable roots in the traditions of the Southern US Chitlin Circuit, the mythology emerged because that scene's traditions were not known to Torontonians in the 1960s, thus Little Richard was the only antecedent for Shane's performing style that most of her local fan base could identify. Throughout her active musical career and for many years thereafter, Shane was written about by nearly all sources as a man who performed in ambiguous clothing that suggested femininity, with some sources directly labeling her as a drag queen.

The few sources that sought out her own words on the matter of her own gender identification were more ambiguous, however. Her identity as a trans woman was not confirmed on the record by a media outlet until music journalist Elio Iannacci interviewed her for The Globe and Mail in 2017, she released her first single, a cover of Barrett Strong's "Money", in 1962. "I've Really Got the Blues" was the single's B-side. Shortly thereafter, the same label released an alternate version of the single on which "Money" was relegated to the B-side, while a different recording of "I've Really Got the Blues", with a few revised lyrics and the alternate title "Have You Ever Had the Blues?", became the A-side. She followed up with "Any Other Way" the same year, in the fall of 1962. A cover of a song recorded and released by William Bell in summer 1962, Shane's version was noted for adding a different spin to the lyric "Tell her that I'm happy/tell her that I'm gay"; the follow-up single to "Any Other Way" was "In My Tenement" b/w "Comin' Down."

It received some airplay in upstate New York, but did not chart elsewhere in the US or Canada, Shane did not record again for several years. In 1962, Shane was performing at Toronto's Saphire Tavern, specializing in covers of songs by Ray Charles and Bobby Bland. In 1965, she made a television appearance in Nashville on WLAC-TV's Night Train, performing Rufus Thomas' "Walking the Dog". Around the same time, she was offered an appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, but refused as the booking was made conditional on her presenting as male. In 1967, "Any Other Way" was reissued and became a modest hit across Canada, peaking at #68 on the national RPM chart in March. Shane subsequently returned to recording that year, issuing the single "Stand Up Straight and Tall" b/w "You Are My Sunshine", the live album Jackie Shane Live. A final single, "Cruel Cruel World" b/w "New Way of Lovin'", was released in 1969. In addition to her own recordings, Shane appeared on Motley's album Honkin' at Midnight, performing live versions of some of the singles she had released under her own name.

Shane faded in prominence after 1970–71, with her own former bandmates losing touch with her. She began caring for her mother, Jessie Shane, who lived in Los Angeles, before relocating to Nashville around 1996 after the death of her mother. For a time she was rumoured to have committed suicide or to have been stabbed to death in the 1990s, but in fact she had retired from music, moved home to Nashville from Los Angeles, she kept in touch with Frank Motley, who put a Toronto record collector in touch with her in the mid 1990s. This news was relayed to a small number of her old musician friends, a couple of whom contacted her. One, Steve Kennedy, discussed with Shane the possibility o

Dorotheus of Bulgaria

Patriarch Dorotheus I redirects here. There was a Dorotheus I, Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch in 1219–1245. Dorotheus was a Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church in the beginning of the 14th century, his name is known only from the medieval Book of Boril where he is listed as the seventh Patriarch presiding over the Bulgarian Church from Tarnovo, the capital of the Bulgarian Empire. Dorotheus led the Bulgarian Church during the reign of Emperor Theodore Svetoslav, who had his predecessor Patriarch Joachim III executed for treason in 1300. Андреев, Йордан. Кой кой е в средновековна България. Изток Запад. ISBN 978-619-152-012-1