First-class cricket is an official classification of the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class match is of three or more days' scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players each and is adjudged to be worthy of the status by virtue of the standard of the competing teams. Matches must allow for the teams to play two innings each although, in practice, a team might play only one innings or none at all. First-class cricket, along with historical single-wicket and the modern limited-overs forms of List A and Twenty20, is one of the highest-standard forms of cricket; the origin of the term "first-class cricket" is unknown but it was used loosely before it acquired an official status, effective in 1895, following a meeting of leading English clubs in May 1894. Subsequently, at a meeting of the Imperial Cricket Conference in May 1947, it was formally defined on a global basis. A significant omission of the ICC ruling was any attempt to define first-class cricket retrospectively.
This has left historians, statisticians, with the problem of how to categorise earlier matches those played before 1895 in Great Britain. The solution put forward by the Association of Cricket Statisticians and Historians is to classify all pre-1895 matches of a high standard as important matches. Test cricket, the highest standard of cricket, is statistically a form of first-class cricket, though the term "first-class" is used to refer to domestic competition. A player's first-class statistics include. Before 1894 "first-class cricket" was a common term used loosely to suggest that a match had a high standard. There was at the time no concept of what became Test cricket and so an international match would be called a first-class one, as would any match involving two senior county clubs. At the beginning of the 1890s, there were only four formally constituted county clubs: Sussex is the oldest, formed in 1839, it had been followed by Kent and Surrey. In the early 1860s, several more clubs were founded and questions began to be raised in the sporting press about which should be categorised as first-class, but there was considerable disagreement in the answers.
In 1880, the Cricket Reporting Agency was founded. It acquired influence through the decade by association with Wisden Cricketers' Almanack and the press came to rely on its information and opinions; the term acquired official status, though limited to matches in Great Britain, following a meeting at Lord's in May 1894 between the Marylebone Cricket Club committee and the secretaries of the clubs involved in the official County Championship, which had begun in 1890. As a result, those clubs became first-class from 1895 along with MCC, Cambridge University, Oxford University, senior cricket touring teams and other teams designated as such by MCC. Therefore, the inaugural first-class match was the opening game of the 1895 season between MCC and Nottinghamshire at Lord's on 1 and 2 May, MCC winning by 37 runs; the term "first-class cricket" was formally defined by the Imperial Cricket Conference on 19 May 1947. It was made clear that the definition "will not have retrospective effect"; the definition is as follows: A match of three or more days' duration between two sides of eleven players adjudged first-class, shall be regarded as a first-class fixture.
Matches in which either team have more than eleven players or which are scheduled for less than three days shall not be regarded as first-class. The Governing body in each country shall decide the status of teams. For example, MCC was authorised to determine the status of matches played in Great Britain. For all intents and purposes, the 1947 ICC definition confirmed the 1894 MCC definition and gave it international recognition and usage. Hence, official judgment of status is the responsibility of the governing body in each country, a full member of the International Cricket Council; the governing body grants first-class status to international teams and to domestic teams that are representative of the country's highest playing standard. ICC rulings make it possible for international teams from associate members of the ICC to achieve first-class status but it is dependent on the status of their opponents in a given match. According to the ICC definition, a match may be adjudged first-class if: it is of three or more days scheduled duration each side playing the match has eleven players each side may have two innings the match is played on natural, not artificial, turf the match is played at a venue which meets certain standard criteria regarding venues the match conforms to the Laws of Cricket, except for only minor amendments the sport's governing body in the appropriate nation, or the ICC itself, recognises the match as first-class.
A Test match is a first-class match played between two ICC full member countries subject to their current status at the ICC and the application of ICC conditions when the match is played. In 2010, the ICC published its Classification of Official Cricket which includes the criteria with which a match must comply to achieve a desired categorisation. In the section on first-class cricket, there is a list of the types of match, it is important to note, given the differences in opinion about what constitutes a first-class match, that the ICC stipulates that its match type list "is
Karim Sama, more known by his stage name Sams’K Le Jah, is a reggae musician, radio host and political activist from Burkina Faso. He was born in the neighbouring Ivory Coast, before coming to Burkina Faso in 1985. During his teens he was a member of the Pioneers of the Revolution, a youth movement created by Captain Thomas Sankara, a radical left-wing revolutionary who came to power in 1983 military coup. A member of the Rastafari movement as well as a Sankarist, he upholds both Sankara and Haile Selassie, he hosts a music programme on Radio Omega FM, where he airs his outspoken views. In 2007, after playing at a concert calling for freedom of the press in Burkina Faso and justice for the murdered journalist Norbert Zongo, his car was torched outside of the radio station and he received several death threats. Sams’K Le Jah co-founded Le Balai Citoyen, a grassroots political movement, together with the hip hop musician Serge Bambara in 2013; the movement is opposed to political corruption and the government of President Blaise Compaoré, who ousted and killed Thomas Sankara in a 1987 coup.
He became a prominent opposition leader during the 2014 Burkinabé uprising, which on 31 October 2014 forced Compaoré to resign and flee the country. Writing on Twitter, the reggae musician called for his countrymen to be cautious towards military, which took control following Compaoré's resignation. Music of Burkina Faso
Desiderio Scaglia known as the Cardinal of Cremona, was an Italian cardinal and bishop. He was a relative of cardinals Girolamo Bernerio, Scipione Cobelluzzi and Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri and was a member of the Dominican Order. Desiderio Scaglia was born in 1567 at Cremona in the province of Cremona in Lombardy, part of the Duchy of Milan, he was a professor in the Dominican houses of other cities in Lombardy. He was a well-known preacher during his time. During the pontificate of Pope Clement VIII, he was named inquisitor in the dioceses of Pavia and Milan. In 1616 he was named commissary of the Roman Inquisition. Pope Paul V created him cardinal at the consistory of 11 January 1621. Cardinal Scaglia was ordained bishop by Giambattista Cardinal Leni on 16 May 1621, he was appointed bishop of Melfi and Rapolla in 1621 and transferred to the diocese of Como the following year. He gave up the diocese of Como in 1632 -- 1633, he participated in the conclave of 1621 which elected Pope Gregory XV and that of 1623 which elected Pope Urban VIII.
He died in Rome on 21 August 1639 at the age of 72. Catholic Church hierarchy College of Cardinals List of living cardinals Politics of Vatican City Roman Curia This article is a translation of the article on the French Wikipedia; the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Florida International University. Accessed 21 June 2013