First Air Force

The First Air Force is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Air Combat Command. It is headquartered at Florida, its primary mission is the air defense of the Contiguous United States, United States Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. It was one of the four original pre-World War II numbered air forces formed during the existence of the United States Army Air Corps, it was activated as the Northeast Air District on 18 December 1940, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, New York with a mission of air defense of the Northeastern United States and Great Lakes regions. Its primary mission was the organization and training of new combat units prior to their deployment overseas, it was active in 1941–42. First Air Force is commanded by Lieutenant General Marc H. Sasseville, its Command Chief Master Sergeant is Chief Master Sgt. Richard D. King, it has the responsibility for ensuring the air sovereignty and air defense of the Contiguous United States, United States Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. As the CONUS NORAD Region for North American Aerospace Defense Command, CONR provides air defense in the form of airspace surveillance and airspace control.

1AF is the designated air component for the United States Northern Command. USNORTHCOM's area of responsibility includes the continental United States and Mexico, its air and maritime approaches. With the transfer of responsibility for continental air defense from the active duty component of the Air Force to the Air National Guard, 1 AF became the first numbered air force to be made up of citizen airmen. Furthermore, 1AF now has operational control of the Civil Air Patrol. One of the four original numbered air forces, First Air Force was activated as the Northeast Air District of the GHQ Air Force on 18 December 1940, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, New York, it was redesignated First Air Force on 9 April 1941 with a mission for the defense of the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the United States. During the initial months after the Pearl Harbor Attack, First Air Force organized what would become the core of the Army Air Forces Antisubmarine Command, obtaining most of its forces from I Bomber Command to combat the German U-Boat threat along the Atlantic Coast.

AAFSC would expand that mission to the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean until the antisubmarine mission was taken over by the Navy in mid-1943. Beginning in May 1942, the mission of First Air Force became operational training of units and crews, the replacement training of individuals for bombardment and reconnaissance operations, it received graduates of Army Air Forces Training Command flight schools. The First Air Force became predominantly a fighter RTU organization. Most P-47 Thunderbolt fighter groups were trained by I Fighter Command, along with P-39/P-63 Airacobra groups. By 1944, most of the Operational Training of groups ended, with the command concentrating on the training of individual replacements using Army Air Force Base Units as training organizations at the airfields controlled by First Air Force. Air Defense Wings were organized for the major metropolitan areas along the northeast coast, using training units attached to the Wings. By 1944 the likelihood of an air attack along the eastern seaboard was remote, these air defense wings were reduced to paper units.

By 1944, the vast majority of the USAAF was engaged in combat operations in various parts of the world, such as the Eighth Air Force in Europe and the Twentieth Air Force in the Pacific. The training units located within the United States under First, Second and Fourth Air Force were all were placed under the unified command of the Continental Air Forces on 13 December 1944, with the Numbered Air Forces becoming subordinate commands of CAF. In March 1946, USAAF Chief General Carl Spaatz had undertaken a major re-organization of the postwar USAAF that had included the establishment of Major Commands, who would report directly to HQ United States Army Air Forces. Continental Air Forces was inactivated, First Air Force was assigned to the postwar Air Defense Command in March 1946 and subsequently to Continental Air Command in December 1948 being concerned with air defense. First Air Force Headquarters was located at Fort Slocum, New York, from 1946 to 1949; the command was assigned the region of the New England states, along with New York and New Jersey.

With the inactivation of the ADC Eleventh Air Force on 1 July 1948 due to budget restrictions, command's region of responsibility was increased to include the upper Midwest states of Michigan and Ohio, along with the Mid-Atlantic region south to the North Carolina/Virginia Border. In 1949 Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units were placed under First Air Force command, with its active-duty units being reassigned to Eastern Air Defense Force or to the 30th, 32d or 26th Air Divisions; the command was inactivated on 23 June 1958 for budgetary reasons, its assigned units being placed under ConAC. First Air Force was reactivated at Stewart Air Force Base, Newburgh, N. Y. on 20 January 1966 due to the inactivation of the ADC Air Defense Sectors. First Air Force assumed respon

John E. Gingrich

Admiral John Edward Gingrich was an officer in the United States Navy who served as the first chief of security for the United States Atomic Energy Commission from 1947 to 1949, as Chief of Naval Material from 1953 to 1954. He retired from the Navy as a four-star admiral. Born in Dodge City, Kansas, to Edward Grant Gingrich and the former Bertha Allen, he attended the University of Kansas before receiving an appointment to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, in 1915, he graduated from the Naval Academy on June 7, 1919, was commissioned an ensign in the United States Navy. His first assignment was aboard the battleship Pennsylvania, flagship of the Atlantic Fleet. From January 1920 to July 1921 he served as assistant communication officer on the staff of Admiral Henry B. Wilson, Jr. Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet. In August 1921 he was transferred from Pennsylvania to the newly commissioned battleship Maryland, where he remained until June 1925, when he returned to the Naval Academy for a two-year tour as an instructor in the Department of Navigation.

From May 1927 to July 1930 he served as gunnery officer aboard the armored cruiser Rochester, which operated in the Caribbean Sea during interventions in Nicaragua and Haiti. He spent the next two years with the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps Unit at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, he commanded the fleet tug Algorma from June 1932 until April 1934 served aboard the heavy cruiser Indianapolis until June 1935. He next reported to Washington, D. C. for duty in the Navy Department's Hydrographic Office. During this tour, he helped complete a new set of precomputed tables to assist aviators and navigators in calculating their positions. Published in 1936, the new Aerial and Marine Navigation Tables were a vast improvement over the previous Ageton tables in terms of ease of calculation and accuracy, were used for years afterward, he served as head of the Hydrographic Office's research division until 1937. From June 1937 to June 1939, he served afloat as aide and flag secretary on the staff of Commander Battleship Division 3, Battle Force, aboard the division flagship Idaho.

He remained with the fleet for a third year as navigator of the battleship New Mexico. Returning to Washington, he served as secretary of the General Board of the Navy before being assigned as naval aide to the inaugural Under Secretary of the Navy, James V. Forrestal. Gingrich served as Forrestal's aide from August 1940 to July 1944; the responsibilities of the Under Secretary and his staff had not yet been defined when Gingrich reported to the newly sworn-in Forrestal. Asked what he would like his naval aide to do, Forrestal replied, "Take off your coat and get to work." "Don't you want to check on my qualifications?" "No." Gingrich's first problem was to find the Under Secretary an office in the Main Navy Building. Unlike the typical naval aide to a civilian secretary, whose duties are limited to managing the secretary's social schedule and office logistics, Gingrich became a full-fledged policy assistant for military affairs. After Gingrich left his service, Forrestal wrote to President Harry S. Truman that "He was invaluable to me, being far above the ordinary officer in his understanding of the Navy's relations with the public and with civilians."

Gingrich's service as Forrestal's aide made him an enemy of Admiral Ernest J. King, Commander in Chief of the United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations, who resented Gingrich's outsized policy role and perceived Gingrich as being more loyal to Forrestal, a civilian political appointee, than to King, his uniformed superior. Gingrich crossed King more blatantly. King and his senior admirals had excluded Knox from major war decisions by only showing him routine communications from the fleet and neglecting to present the important messages, which they handled themselves. Alerted to this practice, Gingrich advised Forrestal to go to the Navy Department communication room and examine all incoming telegrams for himself. Armed with this information, Forrestal was able to exert more influence over Navy Department operations than his predecessor, at King's expense. King came to suspect that Gingrich was the éminence grise behind many of the actions taken in Forrestal's name. Whenever the admiral passed the aide in the hallway, King would greet Gingrich with a sarcastic "Good morning, Commander," and a deep, mocking bow.

Forrestal released Gingrich to fight in the Pacific theater after Gingrich protested that he was being "kept out of the war." Assigned to fit out the new heavy cruiser Pittsburgh, he served as Pittsburgh's first commanding officer from that cruiser's commissioning on October 10, 1944, until September 3, 1945. For outstanding service in that role, he was awarded the Silver Star, the Legion of Merit, a Gold Star in lieu of a second Legion of Merit. On March 19, 1945, the aircraft carrier Franklin was crippled by a kamikaze attack close to the Japanese mainland. Aflame and dead in the water, Franklin was still under attack by kamikaze planes and threatening to explode when Gingrich maneuvered Pittsburgh close enough to take the burning carrier under tow, protecting Franklin with antiaircraft fire until the carrier was able to work enough speed to proceed to Pearl Harbor under its own power. For helping to rescue Franklin at great risk to his own ship, Gingrich was awarded the Silver Star "for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity".

As captain of Pittsburgh, Gingrich became famous for sailing his ship safely to port after 15 percent of the cruiser's length was torn off by a typhoon, an act of seamansh

Manhood Peninsula

The Manhood Peninsula is the southwestern part of Sussex in England. It has Chichester to the north; the peninsula is bordered to its west by Chichester Harbour and to its east by Pagham Harbour, its southern headland being Selsey Bill. The Manhood Peninsula was known as the Hundred of Manhood, it was founded during the Anglo-Saxon period and had its own courts and local government until the system of hundreds was abolished by act of Parliament in the 19th century. The name Manhood has had various spellings over the years including Manwed on the Armada map of 1587, Manhode on a map of 1663 and Manhope on Morden's map of 1695; the name is derived from the Old English mǣnewudu meaning "woodland held in common". This woodland remained in common until 1793; the Manhood Peninsula was known as the Hundred of Manhood, in the Rape of Chichester. The Rape was a county sub-division peculiar to Sussex. In AD681 St Wilfrid arrived in the land of the South Saxons and spent five years there evangelising them.

The South Saxons had been conquered by Wessex and it was their king, Cædwalla, who confirmed a grant to Wilfrid of 87 hides of land in AD683, to build a monastery. This land was to become the Hundred of Manhood; the charter of 683 has been shown to be spurious. After the Norman conquest the area became a barony, by which tenure the Bishop of Chichester sat as a peer in parliament; the Hundred was an ancient unit of local administration. At the time of the Domesday Survey, Sussex contained 59 hundreds; the area of each hundred in Sussex would have been 25 square miles, quite small in comparison to other counties where the hundred could be as much as 200 square miles in area. During Norman times the hundred would pay geld based on the number of hides. To assess how much everyone had to pay, a clerk and a knight were sent by the king to each county, they sat with the sheriff of the county and a select group of local knights. There would be two knights from each hundred. After it was determined what geld had to be paid the knights of the hundred and the bailiff of the hundred were responsible for getting the money to the sheriff, the sheriff to the Exchequer.

From the 10th century onwards, the Manhood had its own hundred court and it dealt with matters that a local authority of today would deal with, such as dispute resolution and highways. At the time of the Domesday Survey the Hundred was known as the Hundred of Westeringes and Somerley with an Earl Roger of Montgomery holding the Hundred of'Westeringes', containing Birdham, Somerley in East Wittering and East Wittering. Roger Montgomery was one of the kingdoms most powerful lords, at the time, with extensive landholdings around the country including nearly all of what is now West Sussex; the Bishop of Chichester held the Hundred of Somerley with 10 hides in Selsey, 12 in Sidlesham, 14 in West Wittering. By the 12th century the two Hundreds became united in the one Hundred of Manhood and was a liberty of the Bishop of Chichester, consisting of the land given to St Wilfrid by Cædwalla. In the year 1525, a claim was made for part of the Manhood by William, Earl of Arundel, based on his ownership of the manor of Almodington.

To settle the dispute a meeting was held at the Hundred court-house between Robert Sherborne, Bishop of Chichester and John Stilman, the Earl's counsel. The court found in the Bishops favour and Henry VIII's charter confirmed the boundary of the land, which coincided with those in St. Wilfrid's original charter; the hundred court of the Bishop of Chichester was held a court-leet on several occasions each year and administered Manwood Coon and the foreshore rights which were the possessions of the Bishop. Representatives of the tithings of West Wittering, Birdham, East Wittering, Bracklesham, Sidlesham and Selsey; this continued till about 1835 and would have been held at the hundred-moot at Hundredsteddle Farm, Somerley near Birdham. According to The Placenames of Sussex, Somerley is the Old English for a clearing used in summer and an earlier version of steddle was staddle, the name Hundredsteddle would be a reference to the floor on which the Hundred court would have sat. In 1561 Elizabeth I passed an act that removed some of the Manhood parishes from the See of Chichester.

These parishes were sold to lay proprietors and included Selsey, that a Sir William Morley purchased from the crown for £4,100 in 1635. Birdham Earnley East Wittering Selsey Sidlesham West Itchenor West WitteringEast Itchenor, annexed to Birdham in 1441. Bracklesham washed away by the sea was united to East Wittering in 1518. For purposes of taxation the hundred was divided into four vill—Sidlesham, Selsey and Birdham; the Hundred as a judicial and administrative unit was diminished by various acts of parliament in the 19th century. The Manhood Peninsula still exists geographically and is administered by Chichester District Council with the villages and town on the peninsula having their own local councils. Many organisations, both commercial and non-commercial, that are based on the Manhood Peninsula have the name Manhood in their title; some organisations exist to deal with common issues and problems encountered by all on the Manhood, such as the Manhood Peninsula Partnership, a "resident-inspired partnership of local communities and national government agencies, other bodies involved in the Manhood".

Hundred of Manhood and Selsey Tramway List of h