The First Balkan War lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success; the war was a comprehensive and unmitigated disaster for the Ottomans, who lost 83% of their territories in Europe and 69% of their European population. As a result of the war, the League captured and partitioned all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Ensuing events led to the creation of an independent Albania which angered the Serbs. However, Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, which provoked the start of the Second Balkan War. Tensions among the Balkan states over their rival aspirations to the provinces of Ottoman-controlled Rumelia, namely Eastern Rumelia and Macedonia, subsided somewhat following intervention by the Great Powers in the mid-19th century, aimed at securing both more complete protection for the provinces' Christian majority and protection of the status quo.
By 1867, Serbia and Montenegro had both secured independence, confirmed by the Treaty of Berlin. The question of the viability of Ottoman rule was revived after the Young Turk Revolution of July 1908, which compelled the Sultan to restore the suspended Ottoman constitution. Serbia's aspirations to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina were thwarted by the Bosnian crisis and the Austrian annexation of the province in October 1908; the Serbs directed their expansionism to the south. Following the annexation, the Young Turks tried to induce the Muslim population of Bosnia to emigrate to the Ottoman Empire; those who took up the offer were re-settled by the Ottoman authorities in districts of northern Macedonia where there were few Muslims. The experiment proved to be a catastrophe for the Empire since the immigrants united with the existing population of Albanian Muslims, they participated in the series of Albanian uprisings before and during the spring Albanian Revolt of 1912. Some Albanian government troops switched sides.
In May 1912, the Albanian Hamidian revolutionaries, who wanted to reinstall Sultan Abdulhamit II to power, drove the Young Turkish forces out of Skopje and pressed south towards Manastir, forcing the Young Turks to grant effective autonomy over large regions in June 1912. Serbia, which had helped arm the Albanian Catholic and Hamidian rebels and sent secret agents to some of the prominent leaders, took the revolt as a pretext for war. Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria had all been in talks about possible offensives against the Ottoman Empire before the Albanian revolt of 1912 broke out. On 18 October 1912, Peter I of Serbia issued a declaration,'To the Serbian People', which appeared to support Albanians as well as Serbs: The Turkish governments showed no interest in their duties towards their citizens and turned a deaf ear to all complaints and suggestions. Things got so far out of hand, it became unbearable for the Albanians, too. By the grace of God, I have therefore ordered my brave army to join in the Holy War to free our brethren and to ensure a better future.
In Old Serbia, my army will meet not only upon Christian Serbs, but upon Muslim Serbs, who are dear to us, in addition to them, upon Christian and Muslim Albanians with whom our people have shared joy and sorrow for thirteen centuries now. To all of them we bring freedom and equality. In a search for allies, Serbia was ready to negotiate a treaty with Bulgaria; the agreement provided that, in the event of victory against the Ottomans, Bulgaria would receive all of Macedonia south of the Kriva Palanka–Ohrid line. Serbia's expansion was accepted by Bulgaria as being to the north of the Shar Mountains; the intervening area was agreed to be "disputed". During the course of the war, it became apparent that the Albanians did not consider Serbia as a liberator, as suggested by King Peter I, nor did the Serbian forces observe his declaration of amity toward Albanians. After the successful coup d'état for unification with Eastern Rumelia, Bulgaria began to dream that its national unification would be realized.
For that purpose, it developed a large army, identified as the "Prussia of the Balkans." But Bulgaria could not win a war alone against the Ottomans. In Greece, Hellenic Army officers had rebelled in the Goudi coup of August 1909 and secured the appointment of a progressive government under Eleftherios Venizelos, which they hoped would resolve the Crete question in Greece's favour, they wanted to reverse their defeat in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 by the Ottomans. An emergency military reorganization led by a French military mission had been started for that purpose, but its work was interrupted by the outbreak of war in the Balkans. In the discussions that led Greece to join the Balkan League, Bulgaria refused to commit to any agreement on the distribution of territorial gains, unlike its deal with Serbia over Macedonia. Bulgaria's diplomatic policy was to push Serbia into an agreement limiting its access to Macedonia, while at the same time refusing any such agreement with Greece. Bulgaria believed that its army would be able to occupy the larger part of Aegean Macedonia and the important port city of Salonica (Thessalo
This is a list of people from Guinea, a country in West Africa. Alfa Yaya of Labé Ba Cissoko Abdallah Bah Almamy Schuman Bah Mamadou Bah Bobo Baldé Habib Baldé Sekouba Bambino Ibrahima Bangoura Ismaël Bangoura Ousmane Bangoura Sambégou Bangoura Louis Lansana Beavogui Bembeya Jazz National Edouard Benjamin Aboubacar M'Baye Camara Alhussein Camara Alsény Camara Alsény Camara Alsény Camara Alsény Camara Arafan Camara Batouly Camara Eugène Camara Ibrahima Camara Kabèlè Abdoul Camara Kader Camara Kémoko Camara Mangué Camara Manimou Camara Mohammed Camara Mohamed Camara Ousmane N'Gom Camara Papa Camara Sekou Benna Camara Titi Camara Zeinab Camara Mohamed Cisse Alpha Condé Mamady Condé Lansana Conté Sékou Kouréissy Condé Sona Tata Condé Daddi Cool Ibrahima Sory Conte Victor Correia Alpha Yaya Diallo Amadou Bailo Diallo Cellou Dalein Diallo Ibrahima Diallo Saifoulaye Diallo Kaba Diawara Sékou Oumar Drame François Lonseny Fall Pascal Feindouno Simon Feindouno Ibrahima Kassory Fofana El Hadj Ismael Mohamed Gassim Gushein Daouda Jabi Samuel Johnson Fatoumata Kaba Mamadi Kaba Oumar Kalabane Mory Kanté Solomana Kante Kassa Abdoulaye Keita Alhassane Keita Mohamed Keita Mamady Keïta Naby Keïta Mory Kanté Lansana Kouyaté N'Faly Kouyate Camara Laye Joseph Loua Fodé Mansaré Tierno Monénembo Djibril Tamsir Niane Souleymane Oularé Williams Sassine Odiah Sidibé Lamine Sidimé Aboubacar Somparé Chérif Souleymane Fodé Soumah Issiaga Soumah Abdoulaye Soumah Morlaye Soumah Abdoul Salam Sow Suleyman Moussa Sy Abdoul Karim Sylla Abdoul Karim Sylla Abdoulaye Kapi Sylla Bengally Sylla Kanfory Sylla Kanfoury Sylla Mamadou Sylla Mohammed Sylla Diallo Telli Pablo Thiam Ahmed Sékou Touré Sidya Touré Boubacar Traore Diarra Traoré Alseny Yansane Amadou Bah Oury Ibrahim Yattara Souleymane Youla Kamil Zayatte Jalloh Serima Florentin Pogba Mathias Pogba Diallo ElHadj Ourmar List of Guinean writers Lists of people by nationality
Robert James Bowman was a professional baseball player. He was a right-handed pitcher over parts of four seasons with the St. Louis Cardinals, New York Giants and Chicago Cubs. For his career, he compiled a 26–17 record in 109 appearances, most as a relief pitcher, with a 3.82 earned run average and 146 strikeouts. Bowman is most noted as being the pitcher who beaned former Cardinal teammate Joe Medwick, an incident that nearly cost Medwick his life. Bowman died in Bluefield, West Virginia, on September 4, 1972, aged 61. List of Major League Baseball annual saves leaders Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet