First Epistle of John

The First Epistle of John referred to as First John and written 1 John or I John, is the first of the Johannine epistles of the New Testament, the fourth of the catholic epistles. It is attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of John and the other two Johannine epistles; this epistle was written in Ephesus in AD 95–110. It defined how Christians are to discern true teachers: by their ethics, their proclamation of Jesus in the flesh, by their love; the main themes of the epistle are fellowship with God. The author describes various tests by which readers may ascertain whether or not their communion with God is genuine, teaches that the proof of spiritual regeneration is a life of active righteousness, it distinguishes between the world and the children of God. The epistle is not written in the same form as the other biblical epistles, lacking an epistolary opening or conclusion; the epistle is written in a simple style, without syntactical flourishes, makes frequent use of asyndeton, where related thoughts are placed next to one another without conjunctions.

In contrast to the linear style used in the Pauline epistles, John's thought moves in loops or circles forming a advancing sequence of thought. This is similar to the parallel structure of Hebrew poetry, in which the second verse of a couplet carries the same meaning as the first, though in the epistle the frequent recapitulations of expressed ideas serve to add to what has been said. In summary, the epistle may be said to exhibit a paraenetic style, "marked by personal appeal, contrasts of right and wrong and false, an occasional rhetorical question"; some scholars have proposed the idea that the epistle is John's commentary on a selection of traditional parallel couplets. While this theory, first propounded by Ernst von Dobschütz and Rudolf Bultmann, is not universally accepted, Amos Wilder writes that, "It is at least clear that there are considerable and sometimes continuous elements in the epistle whose style distinguishes them from that of the author both with respect to poetic structure and syntactic usage."

The epistle is traditionally held to have been composed by John the Evangelist, at Ephesus, when the writer was in advanced age. The epistle's content and conceptual style are similar to the Gospel of John, 2 John, 3 John. Thus, at the end of the 19th century scholar Ernest DeWitt Burton wrote that there could be "no reasonable doubt" that 1 John and the gospel were written by the same author. Beginning in the 20th century, critical scholars like Heinrich Julius Holtzmann and C. H. Dodd identified the Gospel of John and 1 John as works of different authors. Certain linguistic features of the two texts support this view. For instance, 1 John uses a demonstrative pronoun at the beginning of a sentence a particle or conjunction, followed by an explanation or definition of the demonstrative at the end of the sentence—a stylistic technique, not used in the gospel; the author of the epistle "uses the conditional sentence in a variety of rhetorical figures which are unknown to the gospel". Today, following the work of J. Louis Martyn and Raymond Brown, the majority of scholars believe that both John and 1 John was written by different members of the same community: the "Johannine Community."

By contrast, a recent proposal claims that 1 John may be a forgery presenting itself as the work of the author of the Gospel. "The Fourth Gospel addresses itself to the challenges posed by Judaism and others outside Johannine circles who have rejected the community's vision of Jesus as preexistent Son, sent by the Father. The epistles "describe the fracturing of the Johannine community itself"; the author wrote the epistle so that the joy of his audience would "be full". We can therefore distinguish in the epistle both a specific purpose, it appears as though the author was concerned about heretical teachers, influencing churches under his care. Such teachers were considered Antichrists who had once been church leaders but whose teaching became heterodox, it appears that these teachers taught a form of docetism in which Jesus came to earth as a spirit without a real body of flesh that his death on the cross was not as a true atonement for sins. It appears that John might have been rebuking a proto-Gnostic named Cerinthus, who denied the true humanity of Christ.

The purpose of the author is to declare the Word of Life to those to whom he writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship with the Father and his Son Jesus Christ. He shows that the means of union with God are, on the part of Christ, his atoning work providing salvation through faith and his advocacy. Whereas the Gospel of John was written to unbelievers, this epistle was written to those who were believers, it seems that its audience was gentile rather than Jewish, since it contains few Old Testament quotations or distinctly Jewish forms of expression. The epistle was carried by itineran

Daniel Johnston discography

The discography of Daniel Johnston, from Austin, consists of seventeen studio albums, three live albums, two compilation albums, seven tribute albums. Songs of Pain Don't Be Scared The What of Whom More Songs of Pain Yip/Jump Music Hi, How Are You Retired Boxer Respect Continued Story with Texas Instruments Merry Christmas 1990 Artistic Vice Fun Rejected Unknown Fear Yourself with Mark Linkous Lost and Found Is and Always Was Space Ducks Live at South by Southwest Frankenstein Love (Recorded live in 1992 Why Me? recorded live at the Volksbühne in Berlin, June 6, 1999 Normal recorded live at the Rochester Opera House in Rochester, NH, May 12 2012 Casper the Friendly Ghost The River of No Return Big Big World recorded 1986 Laurie Happy Time Dream Scream Impossible Love Sinning Is Easy Mountain Top Fish Fear Yourself LP Only with Mark Linkous Lost and Found LP Only Daniel Johnston at Home LIVE recorded live in Waller Texas 1999 with Jad Fair: It's Spooky with Yo La Tengo: Speeding Motorcycle single Danny and the Nightmares with Ron English and Jack Medicine: Hyperjinx Tricycle with Chris Bultman and Jad Fair as The Lucky Sperms: Somewhat Humorous Danny and the Nightmares: Natzi single with Hyperjinx Tricycle: Long Lost Love single with Okkervil River: Happy Hearts off the album Don't Fall in Love with Everyone You See spoken word performance on the track «Love is a fascist invention» on the Alpine Those Myriads album «yr royal jetlag gospel» with Hyperjinx Tricycle: Alien Mind Control 3" CD Danny and the Nightmares: The End Is Near Again with Rule of Thirds: "Rin Tin Soldier" Danny and the Nightmares: Freak Brain with Jack Medicine: The Electric Ghosts Danny and the Nightmares: The Death of Satan Danny and the Nightmares: "Red Hot Sex" appears on the Misc.

Music Sampler with Kraig Mc Govern and on a live track recorded in Dublin July 2008 with The Swell Season On January 31, 2009, Austin City Limits to perform the song "Life in Vain" with Beam: Beam Me Up! The Lost Recordings cassette The Lost Recordings II cassette A Texas Trip - contributed two songs Please Don't Feed The Ego Dead Dog's Eyeball by Kathy McCarty My So-Called Life - contributed "Come See Me Tonight" Schoolhouse Rock! Rocks - contributed "Unpack Your Adjectives" The Early Recordings of Daniel Johnston Volume 1 - Reissue of Songs of Pain and More Songs of Pain The Sun Shines Down On Me by Gerry Nobody The Late Great Daniel Johnston: Discovered Covered - Tribute album along with disc of original versions plus one new song White Magic: From The Cassette Archives 1979–1989 I Killed the Monster: 21 Artists Performing the Songs of Daniel Johnston - Tribute album featuring contributions from Sufjan Stevens, Mike Watt, Jad Fair and Kimya Dawson Apskaft Tribute To Daniel Johnston 50minutes Welcome To My World My Yoke Is Heavy: The Songs of Daniel Johnston by Adrian Crowley and James Yorkston The Devil and Daniel Johnston The Angel and Daniel Johnston - Live at the Union Chapel Daniel Johnston at Home LIVE recorded live in Waller Texas 1999


A garter is an article of clothing comprising a narrow band of fabric fastened about the leg to keep up stockings. In the eighteenth to twentieth centuries, they were tied just below the knee, where the leg is most slender, to keep the stocking from slipping; the advent of elastic has made them less necessary from this functional standpoint, although they are still worn for fashion. Garters have been worn by men and women, depending on fashion trends. In Elizabethan fashions, men wore garters with their hose, colourful garters were an object of display. In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, "cross braced" garters, as worn by the character Malvolio, are an object of some derision. In male fashion for much of the 20th century a type of garter for holding up socks was used as a part of male dress. There is a Western wedding tradition for a bride to wear a garter to her wedding, to be removed towards the end of the reception by the groom; this garter is not used to support stockings. This practice is interpreted as symbolic of deflowering, though some sources attribute its origin to a superstition that taking an article of the bride's clothing will bring good luck.

In the Middle Ages, the groomsmen would rush at the new bride to take her garters as a prize. Today, the practice of removing the bride's garter is traditionally reserved for the groom, who will use either his hands or teeth, toss the garter to the unmarried male guests; this is performed after the tossing of the bouquet, in which the bride tosses her bouquet over her shoulder to be caught by the unwed female guests. According to superstition, the lady who catches the bouquet and the man who catches the garter will be the next man and woman among those in attendance to be married; the ceremony continues with the man who catches the garter obliged to place it on the leg of the lady who caught the bouquet. Traditionally, the pair are obliged to share the next dance. Prom garters were common in the 1960s and 1970s and conferred on the date as a souvenir. If the date received the garter, it was hung from his rear-view mirror. At least since the mid-2000s, it has become common in US culture for young women attending a high school prom to wear a garter designed to match the style and color of the young woman's dress.

The prom garter may be worn throughout the evening and is sometimes given to the young woman's date as a souvenir. A young woman may choose to keep the garter rather than give it away, as a token of her prom night. In some cases, young people may participate in a "garter and tie" dance, during or after which either the young woman herself or the young woman's date removes the garter and exchanges it for the date's tie; when the garter is given early in the evening, the young woman's date may wear it on their arm for the remainder of the evening. In areas where prom garters are common, it has become a tradition for young women to pose for a picture with other female friends before the prom in which they pull up the skirts of their dresses to display their prom garters, which are worn a few inches above the right knee; the giving or taking of the prom garter may or may not have the same sexual implications that are associated with wedding garters. Suspenders or suspender belts known as "garter belts" in American English, are an undergarment consisting of an elasticated material strip at least 2 to 3 inches in width.

Two or three elastic suspender slings are attached on each side, where the material is shaped to the contours of the body. The suspenders are clipped to stockings with metal clips into which a rubber disc is inserted through the stocking material effectively'locking' the stocking in place; these are attached to a length of elastic allowing for adjustment. These clips known as suspender slings, are best attached to stockings with a simple welt that do not have lace, or'hold-ups' with a silicone rubber lining. Suspender belts are worn at the waist or just below to prevent the belt sliding down as it is pulled downward by the stockings; some undergarments such as corselettes or girdles may come with suspender slings attached. By the late 20th century and into the 21st, pantyhose or tights were more worn than stockings, and some stockings, referred to as hold-ups, have a band of latex rubber molded to the stocking top to keep them up without suspenders. But suspenders continue to be used by people who prefer stockings to tights, doctors may advise patients with a history of thrush or cystitis to avoid tights.

People with a latex allergy must avoid hold-ups. While most used for regular stockings, suspender belts can be used for medical support hosiery worn due to varicose veins or poor circulation. Stockings are considered to be sensual or erotic, both in person and in photographs, some people enjoy dressing up for special occasions in attractive suspender belts or basques. Ice hockey players use suspenders for holding up hockey socks; as these socks are woollen tubes, they need to be kept from rolling onto ankles. The socks can be held up by either hockey tape or hockey suspenders, which function like stocking suspenders. Garters in the 18th century could be elaborately decorated and were sometimes embroidered with names, mottoes or humorous phrases. Prior to the invention of elastic, they were fastened by buckl