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First Epistle of Peter

The First Epistle of Peter referred to as First Peter and written 1 Peter, is a book of the New Testament. The author presents himself as Peter the Apostle, following Catholic tradition, the epistle has been held to have been written during his time as Bishop of Rome or Bishop of Antioch, though neither title is used in the epistle; the text of the letter states. The letter is addressed to various churches in Asia Minor suffering religious persecution; the authorship of 1 Peter has traditionally been attributed to the Apostle Peter because it bears his name and identifies him as its author. Although the text identifies Peter as its author, the language, dating and structure of this letter have led many scholars to conclude that it is pseudonymous. Many scholars argue that Peter was not the author of the letter because its writer appears to have had a formal education in rhetoric and philosophy, an advanced knowledge of the Greek language, none of which would be usual for a Galilean fisherman.

Graham Stanton rejects Petrine authorship because 1 Peter was most written during the reign of Domitian in AD 81, when he believes widespread Christian persecution began, long after the death of Peter. However, current scholarship has abandoned the persecution argument because the described persecution within the work does not necessitate a time period outside of the period of Peter. Other scholars doubt Petrine authorship because they are convinced that 1 Peter is dependent on the Pauline epistles and thus was written after Paul the Apostle’s ministry because it shares many of the same motifs espoused in Ephesians and the Pastoral Epistles. Others argue that it makes little sense to ascribe the work to Peter when it could have been ascribed to Paul. Alternatively, one theory supporting legitimate Petrine authorship of 1 Peter is the "secretarial hypothesis", which suggests that 1 Peter was dictated by Peter and was written in Greek by his secretary, Silvanus. John Elliot disagrees, suggesting that the notion of Silvanus as secretary or author or drafter of 1 Peter introduces more problems than it solves because the Greek rendition of 5:12 suggests that Silvanus was not the secretary, but the courier/bearer of 1 Peter, some see Mark as a contributive amanuensis in the composition and writing of the work.

On the one hand, some scholars such as Bart D. Ehrman are convinced that the language, literary style, structure of this text makes it implausible to conclude that 1 Peter was written by Peter. On the other hand, some scholars argue that there is enough evidence to conclude that Peter did, in fact, write 1 Peter. For instance, there are similarities between 1 Peter and Peter's speeches in the Biblical book of Acts, allusions to several historical sayings of Jesus indicative of eyewitness testimony, early attestation of Peter's authorship found in 2 Peter and the letters of Clement, all supporting genuine Petrine origin; the authorship of 1 Peter remains contested. 1 Peter is addressed to the “elect resident aliens” scattered throughout Pontus, Cappadocia and Bithynia. The five areas listed in 1:1 as the geographical location of the first readers were Roman provinces in Asia Minor; the order in which the provinces are listed may reflect the route to be taken by the messenger who delivered the circular letter.

The recipients of this letter are referred to in 1:1 as “exiles of the Dispersion.” In 1:17, they are urged to “live in reverent fear during the time of your exile". The social makeup of the addressees of 1 Peter is debatable because some scholars interpret “strangers” as Christians longing for their home in heaven, some interpret it as literal “strangers”, or as an Old Testament adaptation applied to Christian believers. While the new Christians have encountered oppression and hostility from locals, Peter advises them to maintain loyalty to both their religion and the Roman Empire; the author counsels to steadfastness and perseverance under persecution. David Bartlett lists the following outline to structure the literary divisions of 1 Peter. Greeting Praise to God God's Holy People Life in Exile Steadfast in Faith Final Greeting The Petrine author writes of his addressees undergoing “various trials”, being “tested by fire”, maligned “as evildoers” and suffering “for doing good”. Based on such internal evidence, biblical scholar John Elliott summarizes the addressees’ situation as one marked by undeserved suffering.

Verse, "Spirits in prison", is a continuing theme in Christianity, one considered by most theologians to be enigmatic and difficult to interpret. A number of verses in the epistle contain possible clues about the reasons Christians experienced opposition. Exhortations to live blameless lives may suggest that the Christian addressees were accused of immoral behavior, exhortations to civil obedience imply that they were accused of disloyalty to governing powers. However, scholars differ on the nature of persecution inflicted on the addressees of 1 Peter; some read the epis


GNUPanel is a hosting control panel for Debian. It is written in PHP and it is tailored to run on 32 and 64-bit Debian GNU/Linux web hosting servers; the administrator can create public and private hosting plans, accept PayPal and Dineromail payments, send messages to users, create redirections, use an integrated support ticket system, control bandwidth, disk space and define policies for account suspension. It provides the usual functions to create mail and FTP accounts, directory security, etc. Additional functionality is included for domain parking and subdomain control over PHP directives including safe_mode and register_globals. GNUPanel stores its configuration in a PostgreSQL 9.1 database and provides three web interfaces with SSL access. User and administrator accounts may be created. Despite the prefix GNU in its name, GNUPanel is not part of the GNU Project. Main features: Subdomain administration Parked domains Mail accounts and redirections FTP accounts Directory security control Mailing lists PostgreSQL and MySQL web administration Bandwidth and disk space management Website statistics Support tickets English and Spanish languages PayPal payments support Autoinstallation for Joomla, phpBB, WordPress and osCommerce Backup toolSoftware and daemons: Apache 2 PowerDNS Proftpd Postfix Courier-pop, Courier-pop-ssl Courier-imap, Courier-imap-ssl Courier-authdaemon Squirrelmail Mailman PHP 5 PostgreSQL 8.1 MySQL 5 phpPgAdmin phpMyAdmin Webalizer / AWStats statistics cPanel DirectAdmin Domain Technologie Control ISPConfig Kloxo Plesk Webmin Official website

West African Research Center

The West African Research Center is the overseas research center for the United States-based West African Research Association. It is located in Senegal. WARC is a center for academic exchange between American and West African scholars that encourages research on the region of West Africa; the idea for the overseas center came about in May 1992 and was implemented in the fall of 1993. Since its inception, WARC has grown both in terms of staff and influence as it continues to connect researchers in the USA with researchers in the region of West Africa interested in common issues. WARC is headed by Dr. Ousmane Sene, it is located in the Fann Residence neighborhood of Dakar. The center is a member of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers. WARC promotes scholarly research on West Africa and the Diaspora and works to foster cooperation between American and West African researchers and artists, seeks active participation of both West African and American scholars, WARC aims to: -Encourage collaborative research through a program of research fellowships and the organization of colloquia and workshops on topics of both general and scholarly interest.

-Make available to West African and visiting researchers a research library, computer facilities, a computer network. -Provides a forum for local and foreign researchers s. -Promote interdisciplinary approaches and considerations of gender in the study of West Africa and the African Diaspora. -Gathers and disseminate the results of research on West Africa. The West African Research Center has a conference and round-table room; the Center makes available for the West African Research Association members and other researchers, computer rooms with printers and access to Internet, a Restaurant, a Library and a research room. The library was named after the late Dr. Mouhamed Moustapha Kane, was opened on February the 7th, 1998 by the Faculty of Arts's Dean, Mr. Oumar Kane in the presence of the late Moustapha Kane's family, it is composed of a reception/orientation office. In support of WARC's research dimension, one of the reading areas has been reserved for researchers to allow them access to certain publications such as dissertations, magazine reviews, etc.

The second reading area is open to the public. Presently, the library has at its disposal over 3,000 volumes divided specially in the files Africa and Diaspora, it has many collections of scientific magazines and memoirs. Its sources of funding include Donations from American or African researchers, students or institutions (American Cultural Center, Michigan State University Library, Late Moustapha Kane's family, African Studies from Columbia University/ University of Dakar WARC site

King (horse)

King known as King P-234, was an outstanding early Quarter Horse stallion who influenced the breed throughout the early years of the American Quarter Horse Association. King was born June 1932, the offspring of Zantanon and Jabalina. Named Buttons by his breeder, he was renamed King when he was registered with the AQHA as number 234, he was a bay stallion, bred by Manuel Benavides Volpe of Laredo and owned at the time of registration by Jess L. Hankins of Rocksprings, Texas; the AQHA gave his sire as Zantanon by Little Joe by Traveler and his dam as Jabalina by Strait Horse by Yellow Jacket by Little Rondo. His second dam was a mare by Traveler. Volpe sold Buttons/King to Charles Alexander of Laredo as a weanling for $150. Byrne James of Encinal, Texas bought King from Alexander for $325, it was James' wife. James broke King and used him for roping and other ranch work, but when James joined the New York Giants organization to play baseball, King was sold to Winn DuBose of Uvalde, Texas for $550.

However DuBose sold King to Jess Hankins of Rocksprings, Texas on July 5, 1937, for the sum of $800. King was the sire of many famous Quarter Horses including Brown King H, Martha King, Royal King, King's Pistol, Gay Widow, Black Gold King, Power Command, Poco Bueno, Continental King, LH Quarter Moon. Two of his sons were inducted into the AQHA Hall of those being Poco Bueno and Royal King, his daughter Taboo was the dam of another member of the AQHA Hall of Fame. King died on March 1958 of heart failure. King was inducted into the AQHA Hall of Fame in 1989. King at Quarter Horse Directory King at Foundation Horses King at Quarter Horse Legends

Automated species identification

Automated species identification is a method of making the expertise of taxonomists available to ecologists and others via digital technology and artificial intelligence. Today, most automated identification systems rely on images depicting the species for the identification. Based on identified images of a species, a classifier is trained. Once exposed to a sufficient amount of training data, this classifier can identify the trained species on unseen images. Accurate species identification is the basis for all aspects of taxonomic research and is an essential component of workflows in biological research; the automated identification of biological objects such as insects and/or groups has been a dream among systematists for centuries. The goal of some of the first multivariate biometric methods was to address the perennial problem of group discrimination and inter-group characterization. Despite much preliminary work in the 1950s and'60s, progress in designing and implementing practical systems for automated object biological identification has proven frustratingly slow.

As as 2004 Dan Janzen updated the dream for a new audience: The spaceship lands. He steps out, he points it around. It says ‘friendly–unfriendly—edible–poisonous—safe– dangerous—living–inanimate’. On the next sweep it says ‘Quercus oleoides—Homo sapiens—Spondias mombin—Solanum nigrum—Crotalus durissus—Morpho peleides—serpentine’; this has been in my head since reading science fiction in ninth grade half a century ago. Janzen's preferred solution to this classic problem involved building machines to identify species from their DNA, his predicted budget and proposed research team is “US$1 million and five bright people.” However, recent developments in computer architectures, as well as innovations in software design, have placed the tools needed to realize Janzen's vision in the hands of the systematics and computer science community not in several years hence, but now. A seminal survey published in 2004, studies why automated species identification had not become employed at this time and whether it would be a realistic option for the future.

The authors found that "a small but growing number of studies sought to develop automated species identification systems based on morphological characters". An overview of 20 studies analyzing species’ structures, such as cells, pollen and genitalia, shows identification success rates between 40% and 100% on training sets with 1 to 72 species. However, they identified four fundamental problems with these systems: training sets—were too small and their extension for rare species may be difficult, errors in identification—are not sufficiently studied to handle them and to find systematics, scaling—studies consider only small numbers of species, novel species — systems are restricted to the species they have been trained for and will classify any novel observation as one of the known species. A survey published in 2017 systematically compares and discusses progress and findings towards automated plant species identification within the last decade. 120 primary studies have been published in high-quality venues within this time by authors with computer science background.

These studies propose a wealth of computer vision approaches, i.e. features reducing the high-dimensionality of the pixel-based image data while preserving the characteristic information as well as classification methods. The vast majority of these studies analyzes leaves for identification, while only 13 studies propose methods for flower-based identification; the reasons being that leaves can easier be collected and imaged and are available for most of the year. Proposed features capture generic object characteristic, i.e. shape and color as well as leaf-specific characteristics, i.e. venation and margin. The majority of studies still used datasets for evaluation. However, there is progress in this regard, one study uses a dataset with >2k and another with >20k species. These developments could not have come at a better time; as the taxonomic community knows, the world is running out of specialists who can identify the biodiversity whose preservation has become a global concern. In commenting on this problem in palaeontology as long ago as 1993, Roger Kaesler recognized: “… we are running out of systematic palaeontologists who have anything approaching synoptic knowledge of a major group of organisms … Palaeontologists of the next century are unlikely to have the luxury of dealing at length with taxonomic problems … Palaeontology will have to sustain its level of excitement without the aid of systematists, who have contributed so much to its success.”This expertise deficiency cuts as into those commercial industries that rely on accurate identifications as it does into a wide range of pure and applied research programmes.

It is commonly, though informally, acknowledged that the technical, taxonomic literature of all organismal groups is littered with examples of inconsistent and incorrect identifications. This is due to a variety of factors, including taxonomists being insufficiently trained and skilled in making identifications, insufficiently detailed original group descriptions and/or illustrations, inadequate access to current monographs and well-curated collections and, of course, taxonomists having different opinions regarding


Bond is a Japanese manga anthology written and illustrated by Toko Kawai. It is licensed in North America by 801 Media which released the manga in April 2007, in France by Taifu Comics. Julie Rosato, writing for Mania Entertainment, noted that Kawai's style seems to be "characterized by long noses, large mouths and thin eyes", that the characters look too similar to each other. Rosato enjoyed the "mature" first story, found the last two stories "precious and angsty". Christopher Butcher praised the first story as being "really well put together", felt the others in the volume were "strong". A Publishers Weekly reviewer described the characters in the manga as being "sexy, believable characters with complex problems". Holly Ellingwood, writing for Active Anime, felt the fantasy short. Bond at Anime News Network's encyclopedia