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First Fleet

The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports, carrying between 1,000 and 1,500 convicts, seamen, civil officers and free people, a large quantity of stores. From England, the Fleet sailed southwest to Rio de Janeiro east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay, arriving over the period of 18 to 20 January 1788, taking 250 to 252 days from departure to final arrival. Convicts were transported to the Thirteen Colonies in North America, but after the American War of Independence ended in 1783, the newly formed United States refused to accept further convicts. On 6 December 1785, Orders in Council were issued in London for the establishment of a penal colony in New South Wales, on land claimed for Britain by explorer James Cook in his first voyage to the Pacific in 1770.

The First Fleet was commanded by Captain Arthur Phillip, given instructions authorising him to make regulations and land grants in the colony. The ships arrived at Botany Bay between 18 and 20 January 1788; the cost to Britain of outfitting and despatching the Fleet was £84,000. The First Fleet included two Royal Navy escort ships, the ten-gun sixth-rate vessel HMS Sirius under the command of Captain John Hunter, the armed tender HMS Supply commanded by Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball. Ropes, agricultural equipment and a miscellany of other stores were needed. Items transported included tools, agricultural implements, spirits, medical supplies, surgical instruments, leg irons and a prefabricated wooden frame for the colony's first Government House; the party had to rely on its own provisions to survive until it could make use of local materials, assuming suitable supplies existed, grow its own food and raise livestock. Scale models of all the ships are on display at the Museum of Sydney; the models were built by ship makers Lynne and Laurie Hadley, after researching the original plans and British archives.

The replicas of Supply, Scarborough, Prince of Wales, Lady Penrhyn, Alexander, Sirius and Golden Grove are made from Western Red or Syrian Cedar. Nine Sydney harbour ferries built in the mid-1980s are named after First Fleet vessels; the unused names are Lady Prince of Wales. The people of the fleet included seamen and their families, government officials, a large number of convicts, including women and children. All had been tried and convicted in Great Britain and all of them in England. However, many are known to have come to England from other parts of Great Britain and from Ireland. Further identifications are made on the basis of the surname, for example as an Irish name; the convicts had committed a variety of crimes, including theft, fraud and robbery, for which they had variously been sentenced to penal transportation for 7 years, 14 years, or the term of their natural life. The six convict transports. Most of the families of the marines travelled aboard Prince of Wales. A number of people on the First Fleet kept diaries and journals of their experiences, including the surgeons, officers and ordinary seamen.

There are at least eleven known manuscript Journals of the First Fleet in existence as well as some letters. The exact number of people directly associated with the First Fleet will never be established, as accounts of the event vary slightly. A total of 1,420 people have been identified as embarking on the First Fleet in 1787, 1,373 are believed to have landed at Sydney Cove in January 1788. In her biographical dictionary of the First Fleet, Mollie Gillen gives the following statistics: While the names of all crew members of Sirius and Supply are known, the six transports and three storeships may have carried as many as 110 more seamen than have been identified – no complete musters have survived for these ships; the total number of persons embarking on the First Fleet would, therefore, be 1,530 with about 1,483 reaching Sydney Cove. Other sources indicate that the passengers consisted of 10 civil officers, 212 marines, including officers, 28 wives and 17 children of the marines, 81 free people, 504 male convicts and 192 female convicts.

According to the first census of 1788 as reported by Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, the white population of the colony was 1,030 and the colony consisted of 7 horses, 29 sheep, 74 swine, 6 rabbits, 7 cattle. The following statistics were provided by Governor Phillip: David Collins' book An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales gives the following details: The Alexander, of 453 tons, had on board 192 male convicts; the Scarborough, of 418 tons, had on board 205 male convicts. The Charlotte, of 346 tons, had on 20 female convicts.

Richard Connell

Richard Edward Connell Jr. was an American author and journalist. He is best remembered for his short story "The Most Dangerous Game". Connell was one of the most popular American short story writers of his time, his stories were published in The Saturday Evening Post and Collier's magazines, he had equal success as a journalist and screenwriter, was nominated for an Academy Award during 1942 for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for the movie Meet John Doe. Connell was born on October 17, 1893, in Poughkeepsie, New York, the son of Richard E. Connell and Mary Miller Connell, he began his writing career for The Poughkeepsie Journal, attended Georgetown College for a year before going to Harvard University. While at Harvard, Connell edited The Crimson, he subsequently worked on the city staff of The New York American and as a copy writer for J. Walter Thompson. Connell served in France with the US Army during World War I. While in the army, he was the editor of his camp's newspaper. After the war, he turned to writing short stories, wrote over 300.

The Milky Way Love on Toast Okusama ni shirasu bekarazu The Cowboy and the Lady Doctor Rhythm Hired Wife Nice Girl? Rio Rita Presenting Lily Mars Two Girls and a Sailor Thrill of a Romance Her Highness and the Bellboy Luxury Liner The Most Dangerous Game The Mad Lover Murder at Sea Playboy What Ho! The Sin of Monsieur Pettipon and other humorous tales – Also known as Mister Braddy's bottle and other humorous tales Variety – Includes The most dangerous game. Ironies – Includes The law beaters. Apes and angels -- Includes The man; the Most Dangerous Game Works by Richard Connell at Project Gutenberg Works by Richard Connell at Faded Page Works by or about Richard Connell at Internet Archive Works by Richard Connell at LibriVox Richard Connell on IMDb Richard Connell at The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Additional biography and text of The Most Dangerous Game Works by Richard Connell Louise Fox Connell Papers, 1904-1986 at Harvard University Library

Stormbringer (video game)

Stormbringer is a computer game written by David Jones and released in 1987 by Mastertronic on the Mastertronic Added Dimension label. It was released on the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, Amstrad CPC and MSX. A version for the Atari ST was published in 1988, it is the final game in the Magic Knight series. The in-game music is by David Whittaker. Magic Knight returns home, having obtained a second-hand time machine from the Tyme Guardians at the end of Knight Tyme. However, there has been an accident whilst travelling back and there are now two Magic Knights - the other being "Off-White Knight", the dreaded Stormbringer. Magic Knight cannot kill Off-White Knight without destroying himself in the process, his only option is to merge with him. Gameplay takes the form of a graphic adventure, with commands being inputted via the "Windimation" menu-driven interface, in the style of the previous two games and Knight Tyme. Magic Knight again has a limited amount of strength, consumed by performing actions and moving from screen to screen as well as being sapped by various enemies such as the Stormbringer's storm cloud and spinning axes and balls that bounce around some rooms and should be avoided.

The need for the player to monitor Magic Knight's strength and avoid enemies means that Stormbringers gameplay is closer to the arcade adventure feel of Spellbound rather than the much more pure graphic adventure feel of Knight Tyme. As with the previous two Magic Knight games, there are characters with whom Magic Knight can interact and have help him. Magic Knight's spellcasting abilities are important for solving the game's puzzles including the "merge" spell to be used when he finds Off-White Knight. Information about the Atari ST version Stormbringer at SpectrumComputing.co.uk Stormbringer at Lemon 64 Stormbringer at MobyGames