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First Lady of the United States

First Lady of the United States is the title held by the hostess of the White House the wife of the president of the United States, concurrent with the president's term in office. Although the first lady’s role has never been codified or defined, she figures prominently in the political and social life of the nation. Since the early 20th century, the first lady has been assisted by official staff, now known as the Office of the First Lady and headquartered in the East Wing of the White House. Melania Trump is the current first lady of the United States, as wife of 45th president of the United States, Donald J. Trump. While the title was not in general use until much Martha Washington, the wife of George Washington, the first U. S. president, is considered to be the inaugural first lady of the United States. During her lifetime, she was referred to as "Lady Washington". Since the 1790s, the role of First Lady has changed considerably, it has come to include involvement in political campaigns, management of the White House, championship of social causes, representation of the president at official and ceremonial occasions.

As first ladies now publish their memoirs, which are viewed as potential sources of additional information about their husbands' administrations, because the public is interested in these independent women in their own right, first ladies remain a focus of attention long after their husbands' terms of office have ended. Additionally, over the years individual first ladies have held influence in a range of sectors, from fashion to public opinion on policy. Should a president be unmarried, or a widower, the President asks a relative or friend to act as White House hostess. There are four living former first ladies: wife of Jimmy Carter; the use of the title First Lady to describe the spouse or hostess of an executive began in the United States. In the early days of the republic, there was not a accepted title for the wife of the president. Many early first ladies expressed their own preference for how they were addressed, including the use of such titles as "Lady", "Mrs. President" and "Mrs. Presidentress".

One of the earliest uses of the term "First Lady" was applied to her in an 1838 newspaper article that appeared in the St. Johnsbury Caledonian, the author, "Mrs. Sigourney", discussing how Martha Washington had not changed after her husband George became president, she wrote. Indulging in no indolence, she left the pillow at dawn, after breakfast, retired to her chamber for an hour for the study of the scriptures and devotion."Dolley Madison was referred to as "First Lady" in 1849 at her funeral in a eulogy delivered by President Zachary Taylor. Sometime after 1849, the title began being used in Washington, D. C. social circles. One of the earliest known written examples comes from November 3, 1863, diary entry of William Howard Russell, in which he referred to gossip about "the First Lady in the Land", referring to Mary Todd Lincoln; the title first gained nationwide recognition in 1877, when newspaper journalist Mary C. Ames referred to Lucy Webb Hayes as "the First Lady of the Land" while reporting on the inauguration of Rutherford B.

Hayes. The frequent reporting on Lucy Hayes' activities helped spread use of the title outside Washington. A popular 1911 comedic play about Dolley Madison by playwright Charles Nirdlinger, titled The First Lady in the Land, popularized the title further. By the 1930s, it was in wide use. Use of the title spread from the United States to other nations; when Edith Wilson took control of her husband's schedule in 1919 after he had a debilitating stroke, one Republican senator labeled her "the Presidentress who had fulfilled the dream of the suffragettes by changing her title from First Lady to Acting First Man."The wife of the vice president of the United States is sometimes referred to as the second lady of the United States, but this title is much less common. Another acronym used is First Lady of the United States. According to the Nexis database, the term was first used in 1983 by Donnie Radcliffe, writing in The Washington Post. Several women who were not presidents' wives have served as first lady, as when the president was a bachelor or widower, or when the wife of the president was unable to fulfill the duties of the first lady herself.

In these cases, the position has been filled by a female relative or friend of the president, such as Jefferson's daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph, Jackson's daughter-in-law Sarah Yorke Jackson and his wife's niece Emily Donelson, Taylor's daughter Mary Elizabeth Bliss, Benjamin Harrison's daughter Mary Harrison McKee, Buchanan's niece Harriet Lane, Cleveland's sister Rose Cleveland. The position of the first lady carries only ceremonial duties. Nonetheless, first ladies have held a visible position in American society; the role of the first lady has evolved over the centuries. She is, the hostess of the White House, she organizes and attends official ceremonies and functions of state either along with, or in place of, the president. Lisa Burns identifies four successive main themes of the first ladyship: as public woman.

Panic selling

Panic selling is a wide-scale selling of an investment which causes a sharp decline in prices. An investor wants to get out of an investment with little regard of the price obtained; the selling activity is problematic because the investor is selling in reaction to emotion and fear, rather than evaluating the fundamentals. Most major stock exchanges use trading curbs to throttle panic selling, providing a cooling period for people to digest information related to the selling and restore some degree of normalcy to the market; the panic is caused by the points below, or in general, will decline, causing additional losses.” In event of panic selling, the market is flooded with securities, properties or commodities that are being sold at lower prices, in which further stumbles prices and induces more selling. Common causes of panic selling are: High speculation in market Economic instability Political issues After World War I, the United States experienced significant economic growth, fueled by new technologies and improved production processes.

Industrial production output increased 25% between the years 1927 and 1929. In late October 1929, the decline began in the market and led to panic selling as more investors were unwilling to risk additional losses; the market declined and was followed by the Great Depression. The mortgage crisis led to public concern over the ability of financial institutions to cover their exposures in the subprime loan market and credit default swaps; as more financial institutions such as Lehman Brothers and AIG reported their failures, the market instability deepened and more investors withdrew their investments. In October, the stock market crash occurred. Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 1,874 points or 18.1% during Black Week which began on October 6. In that same month, S&P 500 and the Nasdaq Composite reached their lowest level since 2003. Dubai had a significant financial crisis; the state-owned holding company, Dubai World, had liabilities of $60 billion. Its real estate subsidy was at risk to default on repayment of bonds, yet the Dubai government was unsuccessful to make a rescue package for the company.

The debt problem of Dubai World triggered mass speculation in the property market. In the first quarter of 2009, house prices in Dubai fell 41%. Many people invest in gold as a hedge against inflation in periods of economic uncertainty. During the second quarter of 2011, the gold price hiked 22.69% and reached its highest price at $1907. On September 23, 2011, the gold price plunged $101.90, or 5.9%, in regular trading, the first $100 daily price drop since January 22, 1980. While the gold price had reached its top, the global economy was declining; the investors had growing concern in the global economic decline and raised fear for potential price fall. The panic selling caused the price plunge. Stock market crash Economic bubble Mass hysteria Selling climax

Elmer Kolberg

Elmer Frank Kolberg was an American football halfback, center and end in the National Football League. He played for the Pittsburgh Steelers. Kolberg was born in California, his family moved to Portland, Oregon in 1923. In high school, he was three-time all-league selection in both basketball, he played both college basketball at Oregon State. He was an aggressive player who set a conference record for most individual personal fouls in a single basketball season, he was named basketball All-Coast at guard for the Beavers. In football, he was named to the west team for the East–West Shrine Game in 1938. Kolberg served in the Navy during World War II. After the war he worked as a real estate appraiser. Kolberg was married in the summer of 1941, he is a member of the Portland Interscholastic League Hall of Fame